Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 27

Search results for: WiFi

27 Comparison of Power Consumption of WiFi Inbuilt Internet of Things Device with Bluetooth Low Energy

Authors: Darshana Thomas, Edward Wilkie, James Irvine


The Internet of things (IoT) is currently a highly researched topic, especially within the context of the smart home. These are small sensors that are capable of gathering data and transmitting it to a server. The majority of smart home products use protocols such as ZigBee or Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE). As these small sensors are increasing in number, the need to implement these with much more capable and ubiquitous transmission technology is necessary. The high power consumption is the reason that holds these small sensors back from using other protocols such as the most ubiquitous form of communication, WiFi. Comparing the power consumption of existing transmission technologies to one with WiFi inbuilt, would provide a better understanding for choosing between these technologies. We have developed a small IoT device with WiFi capability and proven that it is much more efficient than the first protocol, 433 MHz. We extend our work in this paper and compare WiFi power consumption with the other most widely used protocol BLE. The experimental results in this paper would conclude whether the developed prototype is capable in terms of power consumption to replace the existing protocol BLE with WiFi.

Keywords: bluetooth, internet of things (IoT), power consumption, WiFi

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26 Effects of Acute Exposure to WIFI Signals (2,45 GHz) on Heart Variability and Blood Pressure in Albinos Rabbit

Authors: Linda Saili, Amel Hanini, Chiraz Smirani, Iness Azzouz, Amina Azzouz, Hafedh Abdemelek, Zihad Bouslama


Electrocardiogram and arterial pressure measurements were studied under acute exposures to WIFI (2.45 GHz) during one hour in adult male rabbits. Antennas of WIFI were placed at 25 cm at the right side near the heart. Acute exposure of rabbits to WIFI increased heart frequency (+ 22%) and arterial blood pressure (+14%). Moreover, analysis of ECG revealed that WIFI induced a combined increase of PR and QT intervals. By contrast, the same exposure failed to alter the maximum amplitude and P waves. After intravenously injection of dopamine (0.50 ml/kg) and epinephrine (0.50ml/kg) under acute exposure to RF we found that WIFI alter catecholamines(dopamine, epinephrine) action on heart variability and blood pressure compared to control. These results suggest for the first time, as far as we know, that exposure to WIFI affect heart rhythm, blood pressure, and catecholamines efficacy on cardiovascular system; indicating that radio frequency can act directly and/or indirectly on the cardiovascular system.

Keywords: heart rate (HR), arterial pressure (PA), electrocardiogram (ECG), the efficacy of catecholamines, dopamine, epinephrine

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25 WiFi Data Offloading: Bundling Method in a Canvas Business Model

Authors: Majid Mokhtarnia, Alireza Amini


Mobile operators deal with increasing in the data traffic as a critical issue. As a result, a vital responsibility of the operators is to deal with such a trend in order to create added values. This paper addresses a bundling method in a Canvas business model in a WiFi Data Offloading (WDO) strategy by which some elements of the model may be affected. In the proposed method, it is supposed to sell a number of data packages for subscribers in which there are some packages with a free given volume of data-offloaded WiFi complimentary. The paper on hands analyses this method in the views of attractiveness and profitability. The results demonstrate that the quality of implementation of the WDO strongly affects the final result and helps the decision maker to make the best one.

Keywords: bundling, canvas business model, telecommunication, WiFi data offloading

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24 An Intelligent Traffic Management System Based on the WiFi and Bluetooth Sensing

Authors: Hamed Hossein Afshari, Shahrzad Jalali, Amir Hossein Ghods, Bijan Raahemi


This paper introduces an automated clustering solution that applies to WiFi/Bluetooth sensing data and is later used for traffic management applications. The paper initially summarizes a number of clustering approaches and thereafter shows their performance for noise removal. In this context, clustering is used to recognize WiFi and Bluetooth MAC addresses that belong to passengers traveling by a public urban transit bus. The main objective is to build an intelligent system that automatically filters out MAC addresses that belong to persons located outside the bus for different routes in the city of Ottawa. The proposed intelligent system alleviates the need for defining restrictive thresholds that however reduces the accuracy as well as the range of applicability of the solution for different routes. This paper moreover discusses the performance benefits of the presented clustering approaches in terms of the accuracy, time and space complexity, and the ease of use. Note that results of clustering can further be used for the purpose of the origin-destination estimation of individual passengers, predicting the traffic load, and intelligent management of urban bus schedules.

Keywords: WiFi-Bluetooth sensing, cluster analysis, artificial intelligence, traffic management

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23 12x12 MIMO Terminal Antennas Covering the Whole LTE and WiFi Spectrum

Authors: Mohamed Sanad, Noha Hassan


A broadband resonant terminal antenna has been developed. It can be used in different MIMO arrangements such as 2x2, 4x4, 8x8, or even 12x12 MIMO configurations. The antenna covers the whole LTE and WiFi bands besides the existing 2G/3G bands (700-5800 MHz), without using any matching/tuning circuits. Matching circuits significantly reduce the efficiency of any antenna and reduce the battery life. They also reduce the bandwidth because they are frequency dependent. The antenna can be implemented in smartphone handsets, tablets, laptops, notebooks or any other terminal. It is also suitable for different IoT and vehicle applications. The antenna is manufactured from a flexible material and can be bent or folded and shaped in any form to fit any available space in any terminal. It is self-contained and does not need to use the ground plane, the chassis or any other component of the terminal. Hence, it can be mounted on any terminal at different positions and configurations. Its performance does not get affected by the terminal, regardless of its type, shape or size. Moreover, its performance does not get affected by the human body of the terminal’s users. Because of all these unique features of the antenna, multiples of them can be simultaneously used for MIMO diversity coverage in any terminal device with a high isolation and a low correlation factor between them.

Keywords: IOT, LTE, MIMO, terminal antenna, WiFi

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22 Video Sharing System Based On Wi-fi Camera

Authors: Qidi Lin, Jinbin Huang, Weile Liang


This paper introduces a video sharing platform based on WiFi, which consists of camera, mobile phone and PC server. This platform can receive wireless signal from the camera and show the live video on the mobile phone captured by camera. In addition that, it is able to send commands to camera and control the camera’s holder to rotate. The platform can be applied to interactive teaching and dangerous area’s monitoring and so on. Testing results show that the platform can share the live video of mobile phone. Furthermore, if the system’s PC sever and the camera and many mobile phones are connected together, it can transfer photos concurrently.

Keywords: Wifi Camera, socket mobile, platform video monitoring, remote control

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21 Hybrid Multipath Congestion Control

Authors: Akshit Singhal, Xuan Wang, Zhijun Wang, Hao Che, Hong Jiang


Multiple Path Transmission Control Protocols (MPTCPs) allow flows to explore path diversity to improve the throughput, reliability and network resource utilization. However, the existing solutions may discourage users to adopt the solutions in the face of multipath scenario where different paths are charged based on different pricing structures, e.g., WiFi vs cellular connections, widely available for mobile phones. In this paper, we propose a Hybrid MPTCP (H-MPTCP) with a built-in mechanism to incentivize users to use multiple paths with different pricing structures. In the meantime, H-MPTCP preserves the nice properties enjoyed by the state-of-the-art MPTCP solutions. Extensive real Linux implementation results verify that H-MPTCP can indeed achieve the design objectives.

Keywords: network, TCP, WiFi, cellular, congestion control

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20 Analysis of Network Connectivity for Ship-To-Ship Maritime Communication Using IEEE 802.11 on Maritime Environment of Tanjung Perak, Indonesia

Authors: Ahmad Fauzi Makarim, Okkie Puspitorini, Hani'ah Mahmudah, Nur Adi Siswandari, Ari Wijayanti


As a maritime country, Indonesia needs a solution in maritime connectivity which can assist the maritime communication system which including communication from harbor to the ship or ship to ship. The needs of many application services for maritime communication, whether for safety reasons until voyage service to help the process of voyage activity needs connection with a high bandwith. To support the government efforts in handling that kind of problem, a research is conducted in maritime communication issue by applying the new developed technology in Indonesia, namely IEEE 802.11. In this research, 3 outdoor WiFi devices are used in which have a frequency of 5.8 GHz. Maritime of Tanjung Perak harbor in Surabaya until Karang Jamuang Island are used as the location of the research with defining permission of ship node spreading by Navigation District Class 1. That maritime area formed by state 1 and state 2 areas which are the narrow area with average wave height of 0.7 meter based on the data from BMKG S urabaya. After that, wave height used as one of the parameters which are used in analyzing characteristic of signal propagation at sea surface, so it can be determined on the coverage area of transmitter system. In this research has been used three samples of outdoor wifi, there is the coverage of device A can be determined about 2256 meter, device B 4000 meter, and device C 1174 meter. Then to analyze of network connectivity for the ship to ship is used AODV routing algorithm system based on the value of the power transmit was smallest of all nodes within the transmitter coverage.

Keywords: maritime of Indonesia, maritime communications, outdoor wifi, coverage, AODV

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19 H.263 Based Video Transceiver for Wireless Camera System

Authors: Won-Ho Kim


In this paper, a design of H.263 based wireless video transceiver is presented for wireless camera system. It uses standard WIFI transceiver and the covering area is up to 100m. Furthermore the standard H.263 video encoding technique is used for video compression since wireless video transmitter is unable to transmit high capacity raw data in real time and the implemented system is capable of streaming at speed of less than 1Mbps using NTSC 720x480 video.

Keywords: wireless video transceiver, video surveillance camera, H.263 video encoding digital signal processing

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18 LIS Students’ Experience of Online Learning During Covid-19

Authors: Larasati Zuhro, Ida F Priyanto


Background: In March 2020, Indonesia started to be affected by Covid-19, and the number of victims increased slowly but surely until finally, the highest number of victims reached the highest—about 50,000 persons—for the daily cases in the middle of 2021. Like other institutions, schools and universities were suddenly closed in March 2020, and students had to change their ways of studying from face-to-face to online. This sudden changed affected students and faculty, including LIS students and faculty because they never experienced online classes in Indonesia due to the previous regulation that academic and school activities were all conducted onsite. For almost two years, school and academic activities were held online. This indeed has affected the way students learned and faculty delivered their courses. This raises the question of whether students are now ready for their new learning activities due to the covid-19 disruption. Objectives: this study was conducted to find out the impact of covid-19 pandemic on the LIS learning process and the effectiveness of online classes for students of LIS in Indonesia. Methodology: This was qualitative research conducted among LIS students at UIN Sunan Kalijaga, Yogyakarta, Indonesia. The population are students who were studying for masters’program during covid-19 pandemic. Results: The study showed that students were ready with the online classes because they are familiar with the technology. However, the Internet and technology infrastructure do not always support the process of learning. Students mention slow WIFI is one factor that causes them not being able to study optimally. They usually compensate themselves by visiting a public library, a café, or any other places to get WIFI network. Noises come from the people surrounding them while they are studying online.Some students could not concentrate well when attending the online classes as they studied at home, and their families sometimes talk to other family members, or they asked the students while they are attending the online classes. The noise also came when they studied in a café. Another issue is that the classes were held in shorter time than that in the face-to-face. Students said they still enjoyed the onsite classes instead of online, although they do not mind to have hybrid model of learning. Conclusion: Pandemic of Covid-19 has changed the way students of LIS in Indonesia learn. They have experienced a process of migrating the way they learn from onsite to online. They also adapted their learning with the condition of internet access speed, infrastructure, and the environment. They expect to have hybrid classes in the future.

Keywords: learning, LIS students, pandemic, covid-19

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17 Wireless Communication in Sunlight

Authors: Karmveer Sheoran


To make wireless communication a vast success is to use sunlight for wireless communication. We can use sunlight in upper atmosphere to encode messages to efficiently use sunlight. This use of sunlight for wireless communication will need encoders which will encode sunlight according to our message and then resultant will be spread in all atmospheres wherever sunlight goes, it will take our messages with it. With minimum requirement of cost in equipment used at the edge of atmosphere is where sunlight is being encoded. In this way a very high efficient wireless communication system can be designed. On receiver side we will need light detectors which will detect sunlight variations and will finally give the information contained i it. Sunlight can be encoded at a very high speed that nobody will be annoyed by flickering. It will be most sophisticated and efficient wireless communication ever designed. There are far more possibilities in this sunlight communication. Let us call it “Sunlight Communication".

Keywords: sunlight communication, emerging trends, wireless communication, wifi

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16 A Non-Invasive Blood Glucose Monitoring System Using near-Infrared Spectroscopy with Remote Data Logging

Authors: Bodhayan Nandi, Shubhajit Roy Chowdhury


This paper presents the development of a portable blood glucose monitoring device based on Near-Infrared Spectroscopy. The system supports Internet connectivity through WiFi and uploads the time series data of glucose concentration of patients to a server. In addition, the server is given sufficient intelligence to predict the future pathophysiological state of a patient given the current and past pathophysiological data. This will enable to prognosticate the approaching critical condition of the patient much before the critical condition actually occurs.The server hosts web applications to allow authorized users to monitor the data remotely.

Keywords: non invasive, blood glucose concentration, microcontroller, IoT, application server, database server

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15 Implementation of a Web-Based Wireless ECG Measuring and Recording System

Authors: Onder Yakut, Serdar Solak, Emine Dogru Bolat


Measuring the Electrocardiogram (ECG) signal is an essential process for the diagnosis of the heart diseases. The ECG signal has the information of the degree of how much the heart performs its functions. In medical diagnosis and treatment systems, Decision Support Systems processing the ECG signal are being developed for the use of clinicians while medical examination. In this study, a modular wireless ECG (WECG) measuring and recording system using a single board computer and e-Health sensor platform is developed. In this designed modular system, after the ECG signal is taken from the body surface by the electrodes first, it is filtered and converted to digital form. Then, it is recorded to the health database using Wi-Fi communication technology. The real time access of the ECG data is provided through the internet utilizing the developed web interface.

Keywords: ECG, e-health sensor shield, Raspberry Pi, wiFi technology

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14 Real-Time Sensor Fusion for Mobile Robot Localization in an Oil and Gas Refinery

Authors: Adewole A. Ayoade, Marshall R. Sweatt, John P. H. Steele, Qi Han, Khaled Al-Wahedi, Hamad Karki, William A. Yearsley


Understanding the behavioral characteristics of sensors is a crucial step in fusing data from several sensors of different types. This paper introduces a practical, real-time approach to integrate heterogeneous sensor data to achieve higher accuracy than would be possible from any one individual sensor in localizing a mobile robot. We use this approach in both indoor and outdoor environments and it is especially appropriate for those environments like oil and gas refineries due to their sparse and featureless nature. We have studied the individual contribution of each sensor data to the overall combined accuracy achieved from the fusion process. A Sequential Update Extended Kalman Filter(EKF) using validation gates was used to integrate GPS data, Compass data, WiFi data, Inertial Measurement Unit(IMU) data, Vehicle Velocity, and pose estimates from Fiducial marker system. Results show that the approach can enable a mobile robot to navigate autonomously in any environment using a priori information.

Keywords: inspection mobile robot, navigation, sensor fusion, sequential update extended Kalman filter

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13 Design and Implement a Remote Control Robot Controlled by Zigbee Wireless Network

Authors: Sinan Alsaadi, Mustafa Merdan


Communication and access systems can be made with many methods in today’s world. These systems are such standards as Wifi, Wimax, Bluetooth, GPS and GPRS. Devices which use these standards also use system resources excessively in direct proportion to their transmission speed. However, large-scale data communication is not always needed. In such cases, a technology which will use system resources as little as possible and support smart network topologies has been needed in order to enable the transmissions of such small packet data and provide the control for this kind of devices. IEEE issued 802.15.4 standard upon this necessity and enabled the production of Zigbee protocol which takes these standards as its basis and devices which support this protocol. In our project, this communication protocol was preferred. The aim of this study is to provide the immediate data transmission of our robot from the field within the scope of the project. In addition, making the communication with the robot through Zigbee Protocol has also been aimed. While sitting on the computer, obtaining the desired data from the region where the robot is located has been taken as the basis. Arduino Uno R3 microcontroller which provides the control mechanism, 1298 shield as the motor driver.

Keywords: ZigBee, wireless network, remote monitoring, smart home, agricultural industry

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12 Dynamic Route Optimization in Vehicle Adhoc Networks: A Heuristics Routing Protocol

Authors: Rafi Ullah, Shah Muhammad Emaduddin, Taha Jilani


Vehicle Adhoc Networks (VANET) belongs to a special class of Mobile Adhoc Network (MANET) with high mobility. Network is created by road side vehicles equipped with communication devices like GPS and Wifi etc. Since the environment is highly dynamic due to difference in speed and high mobility of vehicles and weak stability of the network connection, it is a challenging task to design an efficient routing protocol for such an unstable environment. Our proposed algorithm uses heuristic for the calculation of optimal path for routing the packet efficiently in collaboration with several other parameters like geographical location, speed, priority, the distance among the vehicles, communication range, and networks congestion. We have incorporated probabilistic, heuristic and machine learning based approach inconsistency with the relay function of the memory buffer to keep the packet moving towards the destination. These parameters when used in collaboration provide us a very strong and admissible heuristics. We have mathematically proved that the proposed technique is efficient for the routing of packets, especially in a medical emergency situation. These networks can be used for medical emergency, security, entertainment and routing purposes.

Keywords: heuristics routing, intelligent routing, VANET, route optimization

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11 SolarSPELL Case Study: Pedagogical Quality Indicators to Evaluate Digital Library Resources

Authors: Lorena Alemán de la Garza, Marcela Georgina Gómez-Zermeño


This paper presents the SolarSPELL case study that aims to generate information on the use of indicators that help evaluate the pedagogical quality of a digital library resources. SolarSPELL is a solar-powered digital library with WiFi connectivity. It offers a variety of open educational resources selected for their potential for the digital transformation of educational practices and the achievement of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, adopted by all United Nations Member States. The case study employed a quantitative methodology and the research instrument was applied to 55 teachers, directors and librarians. The results indicate that it is possible to strengthen the pedagogical quality of open educational resources, through actions focused on improving temporal and technological parameters. They also reveal that users believe that SolarSPELL improves the teaching-learning processes and motivates the teacher to improve his or her development. This study provides valuable information on a tool that supports teaching-learning processes and facilitates connectivity with renewable energies that improves the teacher training in active methodologies for ecosystem learning.

Keywords: educational innovation, digital library, pedagogical quality, solar energy, teacher training, sustainable development

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10 Real-Time Water Quality Monitoring and Control System for Fish Farms Based on IoT

Authors: Nadia Yaghoobi, Seyed Majid Esmaeilzadeh


Due to advancements in wireless communication, new sensor capabilities have been created. In addition to the automation industry, the Internet of Things (IoT) has been used in environmental issues and has provided the possibility of communication between different devices for data collection and exchange. Water quality depends on many factors which are essential for maintaining the minimum sustainability of water. Regarding the great dependence of fishes on the quality of the aquatic environment, water quality can directly affect their activity. Therefore, monitoring water quality is an important issue to consider, especially in the fish farming industry. The conventional method of water quality testing is to collect water samples manually and send them to a laboratory for testing and analysis. This time-consuming method is a waste of manpower and is not cost-effective. The water quality measurement system implemented in this project monitors water quality in real-time through various sensors (parameters: water temperature, water level, dissolved oxygen, humidity and ambient temperature, water turbidity, PH). The Wi-Fi module, ESP8266, transmits data collected by sensors wirelessly to ThingSpeak and the smartphone app. Also, with the help of these instantaneous data, water temperature and water level can be controlled by using a heater and a water pump, respectively. This system can have a detailed study of the pollution and condition of water resources and can provide an environment for safe fish farming.

Keywords: dissolved oxygen, IoT, monitoring, ThingSpeak, water level, water quality, WiFi module

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9 Iot-Based Interactive Patient Identification and Safety Management System

Authors: Jonghoon Chun, Insung Kim, Jonghyun Lim, Gun Ro


We believe that it is possible to provide a solution to reduce patient safety accidents by displaying correct medical records and prescription information through interactive patient identification. Our system is based on the use of smart bands worn by patients and these bands communicate with the hybrid gateways which understand both BLE and Wifi communication protocols. Through the convergence of low-power Bluetooth (BLE) and hybrid gateway technology, which is one of short-range wireless communication technologies, we implement ‘Intelligent Patient Identification and Location Tracking System’ to prevent medical malfunction frequently occurring in medical institutions. Based on big data and IOT technology using MongoDB, smart band (BLE, NFC function) and hybrid gateway, we develop a system to enable two-way communication between medical staff and hospitalized patients as well as to store locational information of the patients in minutes. Based on the precise information provided using big data systems, such as location tracking and movement of in-hospital patients wearing smart bands, our findings include the fact that a patient-specific location tracking algorithm can more efficiently operate HIS (Hospital Information System) and other related systems. Through the system, we can always correctly identify patients using identification tags. In addition, the system automatically determines whether the patient is a scheduled for medical service by the system in use at the medical institution, and displays the appropriateness of the medical treatment and the medical information (medical record and prescription information) on the screen and voice. This work was supported in part by the Korea Technology and Information Promotion Agency for SMEs (TIPA) grant funded by the Korean Small and Medium Business Administration (No. S2410390).

Keywords: BLE, hybrid gateway, patient identification, IoT, safety management, smart band

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8 A Comparative Analysis of Various Companding Techniques Used to Reduce PAPR in VLC Systems

Authors: Arushi Singh, Anjana Jain, Prakash Vyavahare


Recently, Li-Fi(light-fiedelity) has been launched based on VLC(visible light communication) technique, 100 times faster than WiFi. Now 5G mobile communication system is proposed to use VLC-OFDM as the transmission technique. The VLC system focused on visible rays, is considered for efficient spectrum use and easy intensity modulation through LEDs. The reason of high speed in VLC is LED, as they flicker incredibly fast(order of MHz). Another advantage of employing LED is-it acts as low pass filter results no out-of-band emission. The VLC system falls under the category of ‘green technology’ for utilizing LEDs. In present scenario, OFDM is used for high data-rates, interference immunity and high spectral efficiency. Inspite of the advantages OFDM suffers from large PAPR, ICI among carriers and frequency offset errors. Since, the data transmission technique used in VLC system is OFDM, the system suffers the drawbacks of OFDM as well as VLC, the non-linearity dues to non-linear characteristics of LED and PAPR of OFDM due to which the high power amplifier enters in non-linear region. The proposed paper focuses on reduction of PAPR in VLC-OFDM systems. Many techniques are applied to reduce PAPR such as-clipping-introduces distortion in the carrier; selective mapping technique-suffers wastage of bandwidth; partial transmit sequence-very complex due to exponentially increased number of sub-blocks. The paper discusses three companding techniques namely- µ-law, A-law and advance A-law companding technique. The analysis shows that the advance A-law companding techniques reduces the PAPR of the signal by adjusting the companding parameter within the range. VLC-OFDM systems are the future of the wireless communication but non-linearity in VLC-OFDM is a severe issue. The proposed paper discusses the techniques to reduce PAPR, one of the non-linearities of the system. The companding techniques mentioned in this paper provides better results without increasing the complexity of the system.

Keywords: non-linear companding techniques, peak to average power ratio (PAPR), visible light communication (VLC), VLC-OFDM

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7 Architectural Wind Data Maps Using an Array of Wireless Connected Anemometers

Authors: D. Serero, L. Couton, J. D. Parisse, R. Leroy


In urban planning, an increasing number of cities require wind analysis to verify comfort of public spaces and around buildings. These studies are made using computer fluid dynamic simulation (CFD). However, this technique is often based on wind information taken from meteorological stations located at several kilometers of the spot of analysis. The approximated input data on project surroundings produces unprecise results for this type of analysis. They can only be used to get general behavior of wind in a zone but not to evaluate precise wind speed. This paper presents another approach to this problem, based on collecting wind data and generating an urban wind cartography using connected ultrasound anemometers. They are wireless devices that send immediate data on wind to a remote server. Assembled in array, these devices generate geo-localized data on wind such as speed, temperature, pressure and allow us to compare wind behavior on a specific site or building. These Netatmo-type anemometers communicate by wifi with central equipment, which shares data acquired by a wide variety of devices such as wind speed, indoor and outdoor temperature, rainfall, and sunshine. Beside its precision, this method extracts geo-localized data on any type of site that can be feedback looped in the architectural design of a building or a public place. Furthermore, this method allows a precise calibration of a virtual wind tunnel using numerical aeraulic simulations (like STAR CCM + software) and then to develop the complete volumetric model of wind behavior over a roof area or an entire city block. The paper showcases connected ultrasonic anemometers, which were implanted for an 18 months survey on four study sites in the Grand Paris region. This case study focuses on Paris as an urban environment with multiple historical layers whose diversity of typology and buildings allows considering different ways of capturing wind energy. The objective of this approach is to categorize the different types of wind in urban areas. This, particularly the identification of the minimum and maximum wind spectrum, helps define the choice and performance of wind energy capturing devices that could be implanted there. The localization on the roof of a building, the type of wind, the altimetry of the device in relation to the levels of the roofs, the potential nuisances generated. The method allows identifying the characteristics of wind turbines in order to maximize their performance in an urban site with turbulent wind.

Keywords: computer fluid dynamic simulation in urban environment, wind energy harvesting devices, net-zero energy building, urban wind behavior simulation, advanced building skin design methodology

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6 Assessment of Cytogenetic Damage as a Function of Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Radiations Exposure Measured by Electric Field Strength: A Gender Based Study

Authors: Ramanpreet, Gursatej Gandhi


Background: Dependence on electromagnetic radiations involved in communication and information technologies has incredibly increased in the personal and professional world. Among the numerous radiations, sources are fixed site transmitters, mobile phone base stations, and power lines beside indoor devices like cordless phones, WiFi, Bluetooth, TV, radio, microwave ovens, etc. Rather there is the continuous emittance of radiofrequency radiations (RFR) even to those not using the devices from mobile phone base stations. The consistent and widespread usage of wireless devices has build-up electromagnetic fields everywhere. In fact, the radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) has insidiously become a part of the environment and like any contaminant may pose to be health-hazardous requiring assessment. Materials and Methods: In the present study, cytogenetic damage was assessed using the Buccal Micronucleus Cytome (BMCyt) assay as a function of radiation exposure after Institutional Ethics Committee clearance of the study and written voluntary informed consent from the participants. On a pre-designed questionnaire, general information lifestyle patterns (diet, physical activity, smoking, drinking, use of mobile phones, internet, Wi-Fi usage, etc.) genetic, reproductive (pedigrees) and medical histories were recorded. For this, 24 hour-personal exposimeter measurements (PEM) were recorded for unrelated 60 healthy adults (40 cases residing in the vicinity of mobile phone base stations since their installation and 20 controls residing in areas with no base stations). The personal exposimeter collects information from all the sources generating EMF (TETRA, GSM, UMTS, DECT, and WLAN) as total RF-EMF uplink and downlink. Findings: The cases (n=40; 23-90 years) and the controls (n=20; 19-65 years) matched for alcohol drinking, smoking habits, and mobile and cordless phone usage. The PEM in cases (149.28 ± 8.98 mV/m) revealed significantly higher (p=0.000) electric field strength compared to the recorded value (80.40 ± 0.30 mV/m) in controls. The GSM 900 uplink (p=0.000), GSM 1800 downlink (p=0.000),UMTS (both uplink; p=0.013 and downlink; p=0.001) and DECT (p=0.000) electric field strength were significantly elevated in the cases as compared to controls. The electric field strength in the cases was significantly from GSM1800 (52.26 ± 4.49mV/m) followed by GSM900 (45.69 ± 4.98mV/m), UMTS (25.03 ± 3.33mV/m), DECT (18.02 ± 2.14mV/m) and was least from WLAN (8.26 ± 2.35mV/m). The higher significantly (p=0.000) increased exposure to the cases was from GSM (97.96 ± 6.97mV/m) in comparison to UMTS, DECT, and WLAN. The frequencies of micronuclei (1.86X, p=0.007), nuclear buds (2.95X, p=0.002) and cell death parameter (condensed chromatin cells) were significantly (1.75X, p=0.007) elevated in cases compared to that in controls probably as a function of radiofrequency radiation exposure. Conclusion: In the absence of other exposure(s), any cytogenetic damage if unrepaired is a cause of concern as it can cause malignancy. Larger sample size with the clinical assessment will prove more insightful of such an effect.

Keywords: Buccal micronucleus cytome assay, cytogenetic damage, electric field strength, personal exposimeter

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5 Tele-Rehabilitation for Multiple Sclerosis: A Case Study

Authors: Sharon Harel, Rachel Kizony, Yoram Feldman, Gabi Zeilig, Mordechai Shani


Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a neurological disease that may cause restriction in participation in daily activities of young adults. Main symptoms include fatigue, weakness and cognitive decline. The appearance of symptoms, their severity and deterioration rate, change between patients. The challenge of health services is to provide long-term rehabilitation services to people with MS. The objective of this presentation is to describe a course of tele-rehabilitation service of a woman with MS. Methods; R is a 48 years-old woman, diagnosed with MS when she was 22. She started to suffer from weakness of her non-dominant left upper extremity about ten years after the diagnosis. She was referred to the tele-rehabilitation service by her rehabilitation team, 16 years after diagnosis. Her goals were to improve ability to use her affected upper extremity in daily activities. On admission her score in the Mini-Mental State Exam was 30/30. Her Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA) score of the left upper extremity was 48/60, indicating mild weakness and she had a limitation of her shoulder abduction (90 degrees). In addition, she reported little use of her arm in daily activities as shown in her responses to the Motor Activity Log (MAL) that were equal to 1.25/5 in amount and 1.37 in quality of use. R. received two 30 minutes on-line sessions per week in the tele-rehabilitation service, with the CogniMotion system. These were complemented by self-practice with the system. The CogniMotion system provides a hybrid (synchronous-asynchronous), the home-based tele-rehabilitation program to improve the motor, cognitive and functional status of people with neurological deficits. The system consists of a computer, large monitor, and the Microsoft’s Kinect 3D sensor. This equipment is located in the client’s home and connected to a clinician’s computer setup in a remote clinic via WiFi. The client sits in front of the monitor and uses his body movements to interact with games and tasks presented on the monitor. The system provides feedback in the form of ‘knowledge of results’ (e.g., the success of a game) and ‘knowledge of performance’ (e.g., alerts for compensatory movements) to enhance motor learning. The games and tasks were adapted for R. motor abilities and level of difficulty was gradually increased according to her abilities. The results of her second assessment (after 35 on-line sessions) showed improvement in her FMA score to 52 and shoulder abduction to 140 degrees. Moreover, her responses to the MAL indicated an increased amount (2.4) and quality (2.2) of use of her left upper extremity in daily activities. She reported high level of enjoyment from the treatments (5/5), specifically the combination of cognitive challenges while moving her body. In addition, she found the system easy to use as reflected by her responses to the System Usability Scale (85/100). To-date, R. continues to receive treatments in the tele-rehabilitation service. To conclude, this case report shows the potential of using tele-rehabilitation for people with MS to provide strategies to enhance the use of the upper extremity in daily activities as well as for maintaining motor function.

Keywords: motor function, multiple-sclerosis, tele-rehabilitation, daily activities

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4 Predictive Maintenance: Machine Condition Real-Time Monitoring and Failure Prediction

Authors: Yan Zhang


Predictive maintenance is a technique to predict when an in-service machine will fail so that maintenance can be planned in advance. Analytics-driven predictive maintenance is gaining increasing attention in many industries such as manufacturing, utilities, aerospace, etc., along with the emerging demand of Internet of Things (IoT) applications and the maturity of technologies that support Big Data storage and processing. This study aims to build an end-to-end analytics solution that includes both real-time machine condition monitoring and machine learning based predictive analytics capabilities. The goal is to showcase a general predictive maintenance solution architecture, which suggests how the data generated from field machines can be collected, transmitted, stored, and analyzed. We use a publicly available aircraft engine run-to-failure dataset to illustrate the streaming analytics component and the batch failure prediction component. We outline the contributions of this study from four aspects. First, we compare the predictive maintenance problems from the view of the traditional reliability centered maintenance field, and from the view of the IoT applications. When evolving to the IoT era, predictive maintenance has shifted its focus from ensuring reliable machine operations to improve production/maintenance efficiency via any maintenance related tasks. It covers a variety of topics, including but not limited to: failure prediction, fault forecasting, failure detection and diagnosis, and recommendation of maintenance actions after failure. Second, we review the state-of-art technologies that enable a machine/device to transmit data all the way through the Cloud for storage and advanced analytics. These technologies vary drastically mainly based on the power source and functionality of the devices. For example, a consumer machine such as an elevator uses completely different data transmission protocols comparing to the sensor units in an environmental sensor network. The former may transfer data into the Cloud via WiFi directly. The latter usually uses radio communication inherent the network, and the data is stored in a staging data node before it can be transmitted into the Cloud when necessary. Third, we illustrate show to formulate a machine learning problem to predict machine fault/failures. By showing a step-by-step process of data labeling, feature engineering, model construction and evaluation, we share following experiences: (1) what are the specific data quality issues that have crucial impact on predictive maintenance use cases; (2) how to train and evaluate a model when training data contains inter-dependent records. Four, we review the tools available to build such a data pipeline that digests the data and produce insights. We show the tools we use including data injection, streaming data processing, machine learning model training, and the tool that coordinates/schedules different jobs. In addition, we show the visualization tool that creates rich data visualizations for both real-time insights and prediction results. To conclude, there are two key takeaways from this study. (1) It summarizes the landscape and challenges of predictive maintenance applications. (2) It takes an example in aerospace with publicly available data to illustrate each component in the proposed data pipeline and showcases how the solution can be deployed as a live demo.

Keywords: Internet of Things, machine learning, predictive maintenance, streaming data

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3 Surveying Adolescent Males in India Regarding Mobile Phone Use and Sexual and Reproductive Health Education

Authors: Rohan M. Dalal, Elena Pirondini, Shanu Somvanshi


Introduction: The current state of reproductive health outcomes in lower-income countries is poor, with inadequate knowledge and culture among adolescent boys. Moreover, boys have traditionally not been a priority target. To explore the opportunity to educate adolescent boys in the developing world regarding accurate reproductive health information, the purpose of this study is to investigate how adolescent boys in the developing world engage and use technology, utilizing cell phones. This electronic survey and video interview study were conducted to determine the feasibility of a mobile phone platform for an educational video game specifically designed for boys that will improve health knowledge, influence behavior, and change health outcomes, namely teen pregnancies. Methods: With the assistance of Plan India, a subsidiary of Plan International, informed consent was obtained from parents of adolescent males who participated in an electronic survey and video interviews via Microsoft Teams. An electronic survey was created with 27 questions, including topics of mobile phone usage, gaming preferences, and sexual and reproductive health, with a sample size of 181 adolescents, ages 11-25, near New Delhi, India. The interview questions were written to explore more in-depth topics after the completion of the electronic survey. Eight boys, aged 15, were interviewed for 40 minutes about gaming and usage of mobile phones as well as sexual and reproductive health. Data/Results. 154 boys and 27 girls completed the survey. They rated their English fluency as relatively high. 97% of boys (149/154) had access to mobile phones. The majority of phones were smartphones (97%, 143/148). 48% (71/149) of boys borrowed cell phones. The most popular phone platform was Samsung (22%, 33/148). 36% (54/148) of adolescent males looked at their phones 1-10 times per day for 1-2 hours. 55% (81/149) of the boys had parental restrictions. 51% (76/148) had 32 GB of storage on their phone. 78% (117/150) of the boys had wifi access. 80% (120/150) of respondents reported ease in downloading apps. 97% (145/150) of male adolescents had social media, including WhatsApp, Facebook, and YouTube. 58% (87/150) played video games. Favorite video games included Free Fire, PubG, and other shooting games. In the video interviews, the boys revealed what made games fun and engaging, including customized avatars, progression to higher levels, realistic interactive platforms, shooting/guns, the ability to perform multiple actions, and a variety of worlds/settings/adventures. Ideas to improve engagement in sexual and reproductive health classes included open discussions in the community, enhanced access to information, and posting on social media. Conclusion: This study involving an electronic survey and video interviews provides an initial foray into understanding mobile phone usage among adolescent males and understanding sexual and reproductive health education in New Delhi, India. The data gathered from this study support using mobile phone platforms, and this will be used to create a serious video game to educate adolescent males about sexual and reproductive health in an attempt to lower the rate of unwanted pregnancies in the world.

Keywords: adolescent males, India, mobile phone, sexual and reproductive health

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2 An E-Maintenance IoT Sensor Node Designed for Fleets of Diverse Heavy-Duty Vehicles

Authors: George Charkoftakis, Panagiotis Liosatos, Nicolas-Alexander Tatlas, Dimitrios Goustouridis, Stelios M. Potirakis


E-maintenance is a relatively new concept, generally referring to maintenance management by monitoring assets over the Internet. One of the key links in the chain of an e-maintenance system is data acquisition and transmission. Specifically for the case of a fleet of heavy-duty vehicles, where the main challenge is the diversity of the vehicles and vehicle-embedded self-diagnostic/reporting technologies, the design of the data acquisition and transmission unit is a demanding task. This clear if one takes into account that a heavy-vehicles fleet assortment may range from vehicles with only a limited number of analog sensors monitored by dashboard light indicators and gauges to vehicles with plethora of sensors monitored by a vehicle computer producing digital reporting. The present work proposes an adaptable internet of things (IoT) sensor node that is capable of addressing this challenge. The proposed sensor node architecture is based on the increasingly popular single-board computer – expansion boards approach. In the proposed solution, the expansion boards undertake the tasks of position identification by means of a global navigation satellite system (GNSS), cellular connectivity by means of 3G/long-term evolution (LTE) modem, connectivity to on-board diagnostics (OBD), and connectivity to analog and digital sensors by means of a novel design of expansion board. Specifically, the later provides eight analog plus three digital sensor channels, as well as one on-board temperature / relative humidity sensor. The specific device offers a number of adaptability features based on appropriate zero-ohm resistor placement and appropriate value selection for limited number of passive components. For example, although in the standard configuration four voltage analog channels with constant voltage sources for the power supply of the corresponding sensors are available, up to two of these voltage channels can be converted to provide power to the connected sensors by means of corresponding constant current source circuits, whereas all parameters of analog sensor power supply and matching circuits are fully configurable offering the advantage of covering a wide variety of industrial sensors. Note that a key feature of the proposed sensor node, ensuring the reliable operation of the connected sensors, is the appropriate supply of external power to the connected sensors and their proper matching to the IoT sensor node. In standard mode, the IoT sensor node communicates to the data center through 3G/LTE, transmitting all digital/digitized sensor data, IoT device identity, and position. Moreover, the proposed IoT sensor node offers WiFi connectivity to mobile devices (smartphones, tablets) equipped with an appropriate application for the manual registration of vehicle- and driver-specific information, and these data are also forwarded to the data center. All control and communication tasks of the IoT sensor node are performed by dedicated firmware. It is programmed with a high-level language (Python) on top of a modern operating system (Linux). Acknowledgment: This research has been co-financed by the European Union and Greek national funds through the Operational Program Competitiveness, Entrepreneurship, and Innovation, under the call RESEARCH—CREATE—INNOVATE (project code: T1EDK- 01359, IntelligentLogger).

Keywords: IoT sensor nodes, e-maintenance, single-board computers, sensor expansion boards, on-board diagnostics

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1 Saving Lives from a Laptop: How to Produce a Live Virtual Media Briefing That Will Inform, Educate, and Protect Communities in Crisis

Authors: Cory B. Portner, Julie A. Grauert, Lisa M. Stromme, Shelby D. Anderson, Franji H. Mayes


Introduction: WASHINGTON state in the Pacific Northwest of the United States is internationally known for its technology industry, fisheries, agriculture, and vistas. On January 21, 2020, Washington state also became known as the first state with a confirmed COVID-19 case in the United States, thrusting the state into the international spotlight as the world came to grips with the global threat of this disease presented. Tourism is Washington state’s fourth-largest industry. Tourism to the state generates over 1.8 billion dollars (USD) in local and state tax revenue and employs over 180,000 people. Communicating with residents, stakeholders, and visitors on the status of disease activity, prevention measures, and response updates was vital to stopping the pandemic and increasing compliance and awareness. Significance: In order to communicate vital public health updates, guidance implementation, and safety measures to the public, the Washington State Department of Health established routine live virtual media briefings to reach audiences via social media, internet television, and broadcast television. Through close partnership with regional broadcast news stations and the state public affairs news network, the Washington State Department of Health hosted 95 media briefings from January 2020 through September 2022 and continues to regularly host live virtual media briefings to accommodate the needs of the public and media. Methods: Our methods quickly evolved from hosting briefings in the cement closet of a military base to being able to produce and stream the briefings live from any home-office location. The content was tailored to the hot topic of the day and to the reporter's questions and needs. Virtual media briefings hosted through inexpensive or free platforms online are extremely cost-effective: the only mandatory components are WiFi, a laptop, and a monitor. There is no longer a need for a fancy studio or expensive production software to achieve the goal of communicating credible, reliable information promptly. With minimal investment and a small learning curve, facilitators and panelists are able to host highly produced and engaging media availabilities from their living rooms. Results: The briefings quickly developed a reputation as the best source for local and national journalists to get the latest and most factually accurate information about the pandemic. In the height of the COVID-19 response, 135 unique media outlets logged on to participate in the briefing. The briefings typically featured 4-5 panelists, with as many as 9 experts in attendance to provide information and respond to media questions. Preparation was always a priority: Public Affairs staff for the Washington State Department of Health produced over 170 presenter remarks, including guidance on talking points for 63 expert guest panelists. Implication For Practice: Information is today’s most valuable currency. The ability to disseminate correct information urgently and on a wide scale is the most effective tool in crisis communication. Due to our role as the first state with a confirmed COVID-19 case, we were forced to develop the most accurate and effective way to get life-saving information to the public. The cost-effective, web-based methods we developed can be applied in any crisis to educate and protect communities under threat, ultimately saving lives from a laptop.

Keywords: crisis communications, public relations, media management, news media

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