Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 36

Search results for: B. M. Alotaibi

36 Security of Internet of Things: Challenges, Requirements and Future Directions

Authors: Amjad F. Alharbi, Bashayer A. Alotaibi, Fahd S. Alotaibi

Abstract:

The emergence of Internet of Things (IoT) technology provides capabilities for a huge number of smart devices, services and people to be communicate with each other for exchanging data and information over existing network. While as IoT is progressing, it provides many opportunities for new ways of communications as well it introduces many security and privacy threats and challenges which need to be considered for the future of IoT development. In this survey paper, an IoT security issues as threats and current challenges are summarized. The security architecture for IoT are presented from four main layers. Based on these layers, the IoT security requirements are presented to insure security in the whole system. Furthermore, some researches initiatives related to IoT security are discussed as well as the future direction for IoT security are highlighted.

Keywords: Internet of Things (IoT), IoT security challenges, IoT security requirements, IoT security architecture

Procedia PDF Downloads 212
35 A Variable Stiffness Approach to Vibration Control

Authors: S. A. Alotaibi, M. A. Al-Ajmi

Abstract:

This work introduces a new concept for controlling the mechanical vibrations via variable stiffness coil spring. The concept relies on fitting a screw though the spring to change the number of active spring coils. A prototype has been built and tested with promising results toward an innovation in the field of vibration control.

Keywords: variable stiffness, coil spring, vibration control, computer science

Procedia PDF Downloads 311
34 PhotoRoom App

Authors: Nouf Nasser, Nada Alotaibi, Jazzal Kandiel

Abstract:

This research study is about the use of artificial intelligence in PhotoRoom. When an individual selects a photo, PhotoRoom automagically removes or separates the background from other parts of the photo through the use of artificial intelligence. This will allow an individual to select their desired background and edit it as they wish. The methodology used was an observation, where various reviews and parts of the app were observed. The review section's findings showed that many people actually like the app, and some even rated it five stars. The conclusion was that PhotoRoom is one of the best photo editing apps due to its speed and accuracy in removing backgrounds.

Keywords: removing background, app, artificial intelligence, machine learning

Procedia PDF Downloads 100
33 Requirements Gathering for Improved Software Usability and the Potential for Usage-Centred Design

Authors: Kholod J. Alotaibi, Andrew M. Gravell

Abstract:

Usability is an important software quality that is often neglected at the design stage. Although methods exist to incorporate elements of usability engineering, there is a need for more balanced usability focused methods that can enhance the experience of software usability for users. In this regard, the potential for Usage-Centered Design is explored with respect to requirements gathering and is shown to lead to high software usability besides other benefits. It achieves this through its focus on usage, defining essential use cases, by conducting task modeling, encouraging user collaboration, refining requirements, and so on. The requirements gathering process in UgCD is described in detail.

Keywords: requirements gathering, usability, usage-centred design, computer science

Procedia PDF Downloads 257
32 The Effectiveness of Using Plickers as a Formative Assessment Tool in EFL Classrooms

Authors: Alhanouf Alharbi, Wafa Alotaibi

Abstract:

This study aims to analyse students’ and teachers’ perceptions of using Plickers as a formative assessment tool in EFL classrooms. The study implements a mixed methods approach. First, a questionnaire was administered to 64 students from two schools in Almadinah, a Saudi city. Then, in structured interviews, two English teachers provided their opinions on the advantages and disadvantages of integrating Plickers into their classrooms. The findings reveal that both teachers and students believe that using Plickers positively impacts students’ learning. Moreover, the findings encourage teachers to integrate technology-based formative assessments in EFL classrooms. However, there are some drawbacks to using Plickers, such as technological issues. Finally, English teachers are recommended to engage all their students in a daily formative assessment by implementing Plickers in their classes.

Keywords: plickers, formative assessment, technology, students, EFL classroom

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31 Internal Factors that Prevent Using Assessment for Learning Strategies: A Case Study of Saudi Arabia

Authors: Khalid A. Alotaibi

Abstract:

To assess the students, there are different strategies adopted by teachers and all are important while taking their scope into consideration. Teachers may face some obstacles that prevent them using the assessment for learning. These obstacles can be internal or external. The present study has been collected from two regions (Riyadh and Hotat Bani Tamim) of Saudi Arabia, with sample size of 174 teachers. The results of the study have shown that the significant factors that can prevent teachers using assessment for learning are; the way of introducing the new form of assessment, lack of teachers' training, clarity of the regulations and size of students in the class. Additionally, other elements have also shown in this paper.

Keywords: teachers, assessment, assessment for learning, internal factors and external factors

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30 Heating of Cold Ions by Emic Waves Using MMS Observations

Authors: Abid Ali Abid, Quanming Lu, Xing L. Gao, B. M. Alotaibi, S. Ali, M. N. S. Qureshi, Y. Al-Hadeethi, Shui Wang

Abstract:

The EMIC waves whose frequency ranges from 0.001 Hz to 5 Hz in the Earth’s magnetosphere and have received considerable attention for energy transport across the magnetosphere. Since these waves act as a mechanism for the loss of energetic electrons from the Van Allen radiation belts to the atmosphere, therefore, it is necessary to understand how and where they can be produced, as well as the direction of waves along the magnetic field lines. In this letter, the excitation of the EMIC waves is studied by taking into account the hot proton temperature anisotropy having energy ranging from 7 KeV to 26 KeV with a minimum resonant energy of 6.9KeV. However, the opposite effect can be observed for the hot protons for energy less than the minimum resonant energy. It is revealed that as long as the intensity of the EMIC waves increases, the number density and temperature anisotropy of the protons also increase within the energy range from 1eV to 100 eV.

Keywords: EMIC waves, temperature anisotropy of hot protons, energization of the cold proton, magnetospheric multiscale (MMS) satellite observations

Procedia PDF Downloads 55
29 Using Focus Group Method to Identify Citizen Requirements to Saudi Mobile Government Services

Authors: S. Alotaibi, D. Roussinov

Abstract:

Mobile government services implementation faces several challenges in developing countries. This paper studies some of those challenges in the context of Saudi Arabia. The study aims to investigate factors affecting m-government acceptance in Saudi Arabia, including ease of use, usefulness, service quality, trust, intention to use and users’ satisfaction. Our investigation will help in integrating the m-government services in citizens’ everyday life. We collected and analyzed our data from focus groups. These focus groups are from King Saud University and Imam Muhammed Bin Saud University, so the samples size are five and seven participants, respectively. We found that there are some factors to identifying citizen requirements to Saudi mobile government services. These services should be easy to use and not require too much effort. Also, these services must be fully trusted.

Keywords: e-government, m-government, focus group, Saudi mobile government services

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28 Perspectives of Saudi Students on Reasons for Seeking Private Tutors in English

Authors: Ghazi Alotaibi

Abstract:

The current study examined and described the views of secondary school students and their parents on their reasons for seeking private tutors in English. These views were obtained through two group interviews with the students and parents separately. Several causes were brought up during the two interviews. These causes included difficulty of the English language, weak teacher performance, the need to pass exams with high marks, lack of parents’ follow-up of student school performance, social pressure, variability in student comprehension levels at school, weak English foundation in previous school years, repeated student absence from school, large classes, as well as English teachers’ heavy teaching loads. The study started with a description of the EFL educational system in Saudi Arabia and concluded with recommendations for the improvement of the school learning environment.

Keywords: english, learning difficulty, private tutoring, Saudi, teaching practices, learning environment

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27 Human Motion Capture: New Innovations in the Field of Computer Vision

Authors: Najm Alotaibi

Abstract:

Human motion capture has become one of the major area of interest in the field of computer vision. Some of the major application areas that have been rapidly evolving include the advanced human interfaces, virtual reality and security/surveillance systems. This study provides a brief overview of the techniques and applications used for the markerless human motion capture, which deals with analyzing the human motion in the form of mathematical formulations. The major contribution of this research is that it classifies the computer vision based techniques of human motion capture based on the taxonomy, and then breaks its down into four systematically different categories of tracking, initialization, pose estimation and recognition. The detailed descriptions and the relationships descriptions are given for the techniques of tracking and pose estimation. The subcategories of each process are further described. Various hypotheses have been used by the researchers in this domain are surveyed and the evolution of these techniques have been explained. It has been concluded in the survey that most researchers have focused on using the mathematical body models for the markerless motion capture.

Keywords: human motion capture, computer vision, vision-based, tracking

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26 Teachers’ Perceptions of the Efficacy of Social Stories in the Development of Social Skills for Students with Autism in Saudi Arabia

Authors: Faihan Alotaibi

Abstract:

This study explores Saudi teachers’ perceptions of the efficacy of social stories in the development of social skills in students with autism in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia in two phases. Data were collected in sequential quantitative and qualitative phases. Participants in this study were 100 teachers in the quantitative phase and 15 teachers were interviewed. In this poster, the researcher will present the data result in the qualitative second phase in which an understanding of teachers’ experiences was deepened by conducting semi-structured interviews with a purposeful sample of fifteen teachers of diverse experience, covering six initial themes: the social story concept, sources of social stories, the effectiveness of social stories in improving social skills in students with autism, barriers to using social stories for students with autism, cultural consideration and context of social stories, and factors which contribute to the best use of social stories to developing of social skills for students with autism.

Keywords: autism, social storyteachers’ perceptions, intervention, social skills

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25 A Review on the Potential of Electric Vehicles in Reducing World CO2 Footprints

Authors: S. Alotaibi, S. Omer, Y. Su

Abstract:

The conventional Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) based vehicles are a threat to the environment as they account for a large proportion of the overall greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the world. Hence, it is required to replace these vehicles with more environment-friendly vehicles. Electric Vehicles (EVs) are promising technologies which offer both human comfort “noise, pollution” as well as reduced (or no) emissions of GHGs. In this paper, different types of EVs are reviewed and their advantages and disadvantages are identified. It is found that in terms of fuel economy, Plug-in Hybrid EVs (PHEVs) have the best fuel economy, followed by Hybrid EVs (HEVs) and ICE vehicles. Since Battery EVs (BEVs) do not use any fuel, their fuel economy is estimated as price per kilometer. Similarly, in terms of GHG emissions, BEVs are the most environmentally friendly since they do not result in any emissions while HEVs and PHEVs produce less emissions compared to the conventional ICE based vehicles. Fuel Cell EVs (FCEVs) are also zero-emission vehicles, but they have large costs associated with them. Finally, if the electricity is provided by using the renewable energy technologies through grid connection, then BEVs could be considered as zero emission vehicles.

Keywords: electric vehicles, zero emission car, fuel economy, CO₂ footprint

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24 Perceptions of Corporate Governance and Business Ethics Practices in Kuwaiti Islamic and Conventional Banks

Authors: Khaled Alotaibi, Salah Alhamadi, Ibraheem Almubarak

Abstract:

The study attempts to explore both corporate governance (GC) and business ethics (BE) practices in Kuwaiti banks and the relationship between CG and BE, using an accountability framework. By examining the perceptions of key stakeholder groups, this study investigates the practices of BE and CG in Islamic banks (IBs) compared to conventional banks (CBs). We contribute to the scarce studies concerned with relations between CG and BE. We have employed a questionnaire survey method for a random sample of crucial relevant stakeholder groups. The empirical analysis of the participants’ perceptions highlights the importance of applying CG regulations and BE for Kuwaiti banks and the clear link between the two concepts. We find that the main concern is not the absence of CG and BE codes, but the lack of consistent enforcement of the regulations. Such a system needs to be strictly and effectively implemented in Kuwaiti banks to protect all stakeholders’ wealth, not only that of stockholders. There are significant patterns in the CG and BE expectations among different stakeholder groups. Most interestingly, banks’ client groups illustrate high expectations concerning CG and BE practices.

Keywords: corporate governance, GC, business ethics, BE, Islamic banks, IBs, conventional banks, CBs, accountability

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23 Challenges in Promoting Software Usability and Applying Principles of Usage-Centred Design in Saudi Arabia

Authors: Kholod J. Alotaibi, Andrew M. Gravell

Abstract:

A study was conducted in which 212 software developers in higher education institutions in Saudi Arabia were surveyed to gather an indication of their understanding of the concept of usability, their acceptance of its importance, and to see how well its principles are applied. Interviews were then held with 20 of these developers, and a demonstration of Usage-Centred Design was attempted, a highly usability focused software development methodology, at one select institution for its redesign of an e-learning exam system interface during the requirements gathering phase. The study confirms the need to raise awareness of usability and its importance, and for Usage-Centred Design to be applied in its entirety, also need to encourage greater consultation with potential end-users of software and collaborative practices. The demonstration of Usage-Centred Design confirmed its ability to capture usability requirements more completely and precisely than would otherwise be the case, and hence its usefulness for developers concerned with improving software usability. The concluding discussion delves on the challenges for promoting usability and Usage-Centred Design in light of the research results and findings and recommendations are made for the same.

Keywords: usability, usage-centred, applying principles of usage-centred, Saudi Arabia

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22 The New Educators: The Reasons for Saudi Arabia to Invest More in Student Counseling Programs

Authors: Turki Alotaibi

Abstract:

Student counseling programs can provide many benefits to students in schools all around the world. In theory, the government of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (Saudi Arabia) has committed itself to school counseling programs in educational institutions throughout the country. Student counselors face a number of burdens and obstacles that impact student counseling programs. It is also widely known that Saudi Arabia has extremely high prevalence rates for overweight and obesity, anxiety and depression, and diabetes in children. It has also been demonstrated that teachers and staff are inadequately prepared when dealing with health issues relating to diabetes in schools in Saudi Arabia. This study will clearly demonstrate how student counselors in Saudi Arabia could become 'New Educators' in Saudi schools in relation to these health issues. This would allow them to leverage their position as student counselor to improve the management of these health issues in Saudi schools, to improve the quality of care provided to school children, and to overcome burdens and obstacles that are currently negatively affecting student counseling in Saudi schools.

Keywords: anxiety and depression, diabetes, overweight and obesity, policy recommendations, student counseling, The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

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21 Active Learning Role on Strategic I-Map Thinking in Developing Reasoning Thinking and the Intrinsic-Motivation Orientation

Authors: Khaled Alotaibi

Abstract:

This paper deals with developing reasoning thinking and the intrinsic-extrinsic motivation for learning, and enhancing the academic achievement of a sample of students at Teachers' College in King Saud University. The study sample included 58 students who were divided randomly into two groups; one was an experimental group with 20 students and the other was a control group with 22 students. The following tools were used: e-courses by using I-map, Reasoning Thinking Tes, questionnaire to measure the intrinsic-extrinsic motivation for learning and an academic achievement test. Experimental group was taught using e-courses by using I-map, while the control group was taught by using traditional education. The results showed that: - There were no statistically significant differences between the experimental group and the control group in Reasoning thinking skills. - There were statistically significant differences between the experimental group and the control group in the intrinsic-extrinsic motivation for learning in favor of the experimental group. - There were statistically significant differences between the experimental group and the control group in academic achievement in favor of the experimental group.

Keywords: reasoning, thinking, intrinsic motivation, active learning

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20 The Applicability of Western Environmental Criminology Theories to the Arabic Context

Authors: Nawaf Alotaibi, Andy Evans, Alison Heppenstall, Nick Malleson

Abstract:

Throughout the last two decades, motor vehicle theft (MVT) has accounted for the largest proportion of property crime incidents in Saudi Arabia (SA). However, to date, few studies have investigated SA’s MVT problem. Those that have are primarily focused on the characteristics of car thieves, and most have overlooked any spatial-temporal distribution of MVT incidents and the characteristics of victims. This paper represents the first step in understanding this problem by reviewing the existing MVT studies contextualised within the theoretical frameworks developed in environmental criminology theories – originating in the West – and exploring to what extent they are relevant to the SA context. To achieve this, the paper has identified a range of key features in SA that are different from typical Western contexts, that could limit the appropriateness and capability of applying existing environmental criminology theories. Furthermore, despite these Western studies reviewed so far having introduced a number of explanatory variables for MVT rates, a range of significant elements are apparently absent in the current literature and this requires further analysis. For example, almost no attempts have been made to quantify the associations between the locations of vehicle theft, recovery of stolen vehicles, joyriding and traffic volume.

Keywords: environmental criminology theories, motor vehicle theft, Saudi Arabia, spatial analysis

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19 Public-Private Partnership in Tourism Development: Kuwait Experience within 2035 Vision

Authors: Obaid Alotaibi

Abstract:

Tourism and recreation have become one of the important and influential sectors in most of the modern economies. This sector has been accepted as one of the alternative sources of national income, employment, and foreign exchange. Kuwait has many potentialities in tourism and recreation, and exploitation of this leads to more diversification of the economy besides augmenting its contribution to the GDP. It is an import-oriented economy; it requires hard currencies (foreign exchange) to meet the import costs as well as to maintain stability in the international market. To compensate for the revenue fall stemmed from fluctuations in oil prices -where the agriculture, fisheries, and industrial sectors are too immune and inelastic- the only alternative solution is the regeneration of the tourism and recreation to surface. This study envisages the characteristics of tourism and recreation, the economic and social importance for the society, the physical and human endowments, as well as the tourist pattern and plans for promoting and sustaining tourism in the country. The study summarizes many recommendations, including the necessity of establishing authority or a council for tourism, linking the planning of tourism development with the comprehensive planning for economic and social development in Kuwait in the shadow of 2035 vision, and to encourage the investors to develop new tourist and recreation projects.

Keywords: Kuwait, public-private, partnership, tourism, 2035 vision

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18 Developing and Validating an Instrument for Measuring Mobile Government Adoption in Saudi Arabia

Authors: Sultan Alotaibi, Dmitri Roussinov

Abstract:

Many governments recently started to change the ways of providing their services by allowing their citizens to access services from anywhere without the need of visiting the location of the service provider. Mobile government (M-government) is one of the techniques that fulfill that goal. It has been adopted by many governments. M-government can be defined as an implementation of Electronic Government (E-Government) by using mobile technology with the aim of improving service delivery to citizens, businesses and all government agencies. There have been several research projects developing models to understand the behavior of individuals towards the adoption of m-government. This paper proposes a model for adoption of m-government services in Saudi Arabia by extending Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) by introducing external factors. This paper also reports on the development of a survey instrument designed to measure user perception of mobile government acceptance. A survey instrument has been developed by using existing scales from prior instruments and a pilot study has been conducted by distributing the survey to 33 participants. As a result, a survey instrument has been refined to retain 43 items. The results also showed that the reliabilities of all the scales in the survey instrument are above the levels acceptable in current academic research, thus the instruments developed by us are capable of analyzing the factors in M-government adoption.

Keywords: TAM, m-government, e-government, model, acceptance, mobile government

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17 Rural Education in Saudi Arabia School Leaders’ and Teachers’ Experiences and Perceptions

Authors: Emad Matar Alotaibi

Abstract:

In line with other Arabic countries, Saudi Arabia is currently undergoing large scale school reform in response to key factors brought about by globalization. While there is a growing body of research exploring these systemic changes in urban environments, there is very little published research regarding rural schools. In fact, rural schools are still under-examined globally comparing to their urban and suburban counterparts over a range of reform dimensions. In Saudi Arabia, there are around 1128 rural areas that contain about 3200 schools. Several challenges face rural schools, especially in relation to recruitment, retention, and professional development opportunities for teachers and school leaders. However, there is very little in depth research which explores these issues “on the ground”. The aim of this research is fill this knowledge gap and explore teachers’ and leaders’ perceptions and experiences of working in rural schools in KSA. In Saudi Arabia, there is a growing body of research into school leadership. However, there is very little published research specifically exploring rural schools. By using an in-depth case study approach and adopting an analytical framework based on the interlinking concepts of leadership practices, culture, and CPD, this study offers and significant and original contribution to knowledge in this area. This study also will adopt a qualitative multiple case studies, which is going to employ semi-structured interviews, focus groups, and documentary analysis.

Keywords: leadership practice, school culture, continuing professional development, rural school

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16 Pregnancy Rhinitis Prevalence among Saudi Women

Authors: Mohammed G. Alotaibi, Sameer Albahkaly, Salwa M. Bahkali, Abdullah M. Alghamdi, Raseel S. Alswidan, Maha Bin Shafi, Sarah Almaiman

Abstract:

Introduction: Rhinitis is common in Saudi Arabia. Therefore, our study was designed to evaluate the prevalence, triggering factors, severity and progression of rhinitis during pregnancy. Methods: Prospective cross-sectional study was conducted in eight governmental and private medical centers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, during June and July 2014. Validated Arabic language self-administered questionnaire was used. Sample size of 260 Saudi pregnant women was calculated by Raosoft sample size calculator. Random sampling was achieved by choosing one and skipping every five patients in the clinic list. Data were coded and entered manually into spreadsheets then transferred to SPSS statistical package version 16.0 for Windows. Consent, Privacy and confidentiality of information were assured. Results: Pregnancy rhinitis was reported 31.2% (CI 25.6 - 37.2%). Symptoms arising in first trimester appeared in 79.2% of PR cases and mostly worsen. The most prevalent symptoms were nasal pruritis (67.5%), followed by sneezing (57.1%), congestion (50.6%), and post nasal drip (46.7%). The major triggering factor was dust (71.4%), followed by Tobacco/Shisha smoke (57.6%) and perfume(47%). Preexisting allergic diseases were markedly associated with developing pregnancy rhinitis. Conclusion: Rhinitis during pregnancy manifested in one third of Saudi pregnant ladies. Nasal pruritus was the most common symptom and dust was the widespread triggering factor.

Keywords: allergy, pregnancy, Rhinitis, sneezing

Procedia PDF Downloads 171
15 Identification of Social Responsibility Factors within Mega Construction Projects

Authors: Ali Alotaibi, Francis Edum-Fotwe, Andrew Price /

Abstract:

Mega construction projects create buildings and major infrastructure to respond to work and life requirements while playing a vital role in promoting any nation’s economy. However, the industry is often criticised for not balancing economic, environmental and social dimensions of their projects, with emphasis typically on one aspect to the detriment of the others. This has resulted in many negative impacts including environmental pollution, waste throughout the project lifecycle, low productivity, and avoidable accidents. The identification of comprehensive Social Responsibility (SR) indicators, which combine social, environmental and economic aspects, is urgently needed. This is particularly the case in the context of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), which often has mega public construction projects. The aim of this paper is to develop a set of wide-ranging SR indicators which encompass social, economic and environmental aspects unique to the KSA. A qualitative approach was applied to explore relevant indicators through a review of the existing literature, international standards and reports. A list of appropriate indicators was developed, and its comprehensiveness was corroborated by interviews with experts on mega construction projects working with SR concepts in the KSA. The findings present 39 indicators and their metrics, covering 10 economic, 12 environmental and 17 social aspects of SR mapped against their references. These indicators are a valuable reference for decision-makers and academics in the KSA to understand factors related to SR in mega construction projects. The indicators are related to mega construction projects within the KSA and require validation in a real case scenario or within a different industry to demonstrate their generalisability.

Keywords: social responsibility, construction projects, economic, social, environmental, indicators

Procedia PDF Downloads 87
14 Investigation of the Effects of Gamma Radiation on the Electrically Active Defects in InAs/InGaAs Quantum Dots Laser Structures Grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy on GaAs Substrates Using Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy

Authors: M. Al Huwayz, A. Salhi, S. Alhassan, S. Alotaibi, A. Almalki, M.Almunyif, A. Alhassni, M. Henini

Abstract:

Recently, there has been much research carried out to investigate quantum dots (QDs) lasers with the aim to increase the gain of quantum well lasers. However, one of the difficulties with these structures is that electrically active defects can lead to serious issues in the performance of these devices. It is therefore essential to fully understand the types of defects introduced during the growth and/or the fabrication process. In this study, the effects of Gamma radiation on the electrically active defects in p-i-n InAs/InGaAsQDs laser structures grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) technique on GaAs substrates were investigated. Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS), current-voltage (I-V), and capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements were performed to explore these effects on the electrical properties of these QDs lasers. I-V measurements showed that as-grown sample had better electrical properties than the irradiated sample. However, DLTS and Laplace DLTS measurements at different reverse biases revealed that the defects in the-region of the p-i-n structures were decreased in the irradiated sample. In both samples, a trap with an activation energy of ~ 0.21 eV was assigned to the well-known defect M1 in GaAs layers

Keywords: quantum dots laser structures, gamma radiation, DLTS, defects, nAs/IngaAs

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13 Effect of Rapid Thermal Annealing on the Optical Properties of InAs Quantum Dots Grown on (100) and (311)B GaAs Substrates by Molecular Beam Epitaxy

Authors: Amjad Almunyif, Amra Alhassni, Sultan Alhassan, Maryam Al Huwayz, Saud Alotaibi, Abdulaziz Almalki, Mohamed Henini

Abstract:

The effect of rapid thermal annealing (RTA) on the optical properties of InAs quantum dots (QDs) grown at an As overpressure of 2x 10⁻⁶ Torr by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) on (100) and (311)B GaAs substrates was investigated using photoluminescence (PL) technique. PL results showed that for the as-grown samples, the QDs grown on the high index plane (311)B have lower PL intensity and lower full width at half maximum (FWHM) than those grown on the conventional (100) plane. The latter demonstrates that the (311)B QDs have better size uniformity than (100) QDs. Compared with as-grown samples, a blue-shift was observed for all samples with increasing annealing temperature from 600°C to 700°C. For (100) samples, a narrowing of the FWHM was observed with increasing annealing temperature from 600°C to 700°C. However, in (311)B samples, the FWHM showed a different behaviour; it slightly increased when the samples were annealed at 600°C and then decreased when the annealing temperature increased to 700°C. As expected, the PL peak intensity for all samples increased when the laser excitation power increased. The PL peak energy temperature dependence showed a strong redshift when the temperature was increased from 10 K to 120 K. The PL peak energy exhibited an abnormal S-shape behaviour as a function of temperature for all samples. Most samples exhibited a significant enhancement in their activation energies when annealed at 600°C and 700°C, suggesting that annealing annihilated defects created during sample growth.

Keywords: RTA, QDs, InAs, MBE

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12 The Impact of Water Resources on Economic and Social Development in Kuwait

Authors: Obaid Alotaibi

Abstract:

The geographical location of the State of Kuwait contributed significantly to the suffering of Kuwait in the past, due to the scarcity of natural water resources and the inability of the State's financial resources to provide other water resources to meet the needs of the population. The problem of water scarcity in Kuwait remained until the beginning of the second half of the twentieth century, as the country's economic conditions revived with the emergence and export of oil; which was clearly reflected in the steady growth of the population. To cope with this population, increase, it was necessary to expand the various development programs to include all sectors of the state. The process of development and urbanization could not start without finding solutions to the problem of water shortage in Kuwait. The only option for officials to meet the needs of the population and the different sectors of water development is the desalination of seawater. This process necessitated the establishment of six desalination plants along the coast of Kuwait and extended freshwater arteries to reach everywhere on the land. However, this does not mean that the problem of water shortage has been completely solved. The desalination plants are not meeting the country's future water needs, especially considering the increasing population growth. These stations are nearing completion and they need to be replaced, renovation and maintenance, require significant expenses. Therefore, it was necessary for scientific research to address the issue of water in Kuwait, whether in the field of development of existing resources or in the field of rationalization of consumption and protection of available resources. The study focused on how to address the increasing demand for water resulting from population increase, the impact of water on economic and social development, the prospects of water resources in Kuwait and its ability to meet the needs of the country by 2030.

Keywords: economic, development, Kuwait, social, water resources

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11 The Impact of COVID-19 on the Mental Health of Residents of Saudi Arabia

Authors: Khaleel Alyahya, Faizah Alotaibi

Abstract:

The coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic has caused an increase in general fear and anxiety around the globe. With the public health measures, including lockdown and travel restrictions, the COVID-19 period further resulted in a sudden increase in the vulnerability of people too ill mental health. This becomes greater among individuals who have a history of mental illness or are undergoing treatment and do not have easy access to medication and medical consultations. The study aims to measure the impact of COVID-19 and the degree of distress with the DASS scale on the mental health of residents living in Saudi Arabia. The study is a quantitative, observational, and cross-sectional conducted in Saudi Arabia to measure the impact of COVID-19 on the mental health of both citizens and residents of Saudi Arabia during pandemics. The study ran from February 2021 to June 2021, and a validated questionnaire was used. The targeted population of the study was Saudi citizens and non-Saudi residents. A sample size of 800 participants was calculated with a single proportion formula at 95% level of significance and 5% allowable error. The result revealed that participants who were always doing exercise experienced the lowest level of depression, anxiety, and stress. The highest prevalence of severe and extremely severe depression was among participants who sometimes do exercise at 53.2% for each. Similar results were obtained for anxiety and stress, where the extremely severe form was reported by those who sometimes did exercise at 54.8% and 72.2%, respectively. There was an inverse association between physical activity levels and levels of depression, anxiety, and stress during the COVID-19. Similarly, the levels of depression, anxiety, and stress differed significantly according to the exercise frequency during COVID-19.

Keywords: mental, COVID-19, pandemic, lockdown, depression, anxiety, stress

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10 The Impact of Culture on Tourists’ Evaluation of Hotel Service Experiences

Authors: Eid Alotaibi

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of tourists’ culture on perception and evaluation of hotel service experience and behavioral intentions. Drawing on Hofested’s cultural dimensions, this study seeks to further contribute towards understanding the effect of culture on perception and evaluation of hotels’ services, and whether there are differences between Saudi and European tourists’ perceptions of hotel services evaluation. A descriptive cross-sectional design was used in this study. Data were collected from tourists staying in five-star hotels in Saudi Arabia using the self-completion technique. The findings show that evaluations of hotel services differ from one culture to another. T-test results reveal that Saudis were more tolerant and reported significantly higher levels of satisfaction, were more likely to return and recommend the hotel, and perceived the price for the hotel stay as being good value for money as compared to their European counterparts. The sample was relatively small and specific to only five-star hotel evaluations. As a result, findings cannot be generalized to the wider tourist population. The results of this research have important implications for management within the Saudi hospitality industry. The study contributes to the tourist cultural theory by emphasizing the relative importance of cultural dimensions in-service evaluation. The author argues that no studies could be identified that compare Saudis and Europeans in their evaluations of their experiences staying at hotels. Therefore, the current study would enhance understanding of the effects of cultural factors on service evaluations and provide valuable input for international market segmentation and resource allocation in the Saudi hotel industry.

Keywords: culture, tourist, service experience, hotel industry, Hofested’s cultural dimensions

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9 Improved Thermal Comfort and Sensation with Occupant Control of Ceiling Personalized Ventilation System: A Lab Study

Authors: Walid Chakroun, Sorour Alotaibi, Nesreen Ghaddar, Kamel Ghali

Abstract:

This study aims at determining the extent to which occupant control of microenvironment influences, improves thermal sensation and comfort, and saves energy in spaces equipped with ceiling personalized ventilation (CPV) system assisted by chair fans (CF) and desk fans (DF) in 2 experiments in a climatic chamber equipped with two-station CPV systems, one that allows control of fan flow rate and the other is set to the fan speed of the selected participant in control. Each experiment included two participants each entering the cooled space from transitional environment at a conventional mixed ventilation (MV) at 24 °C. For CPV diffuser, fresh air was delivered at a rate of 20 Cubic feet per minute (CFM) and a temperature of 16 °C while the recirculated air was delivered at the same temperature but at a flow rate 150 CFM. The macroclimate air of the space was at 26 °C. The full speed flow rates for both the CFs and DFs were at 5 CFM and 20 CFM, respectively. Occupant 1 was allowed to operate the CFs or the DFs at (1/3 of the full speed, 2/3 of the full speed, and the full speed) while occupant 2 had no control on the fan speed and their fan speed was selected by occupant 1. Furthermore, a parametric study was conducted to study the effect of increasing the fresh air flow rate on the occupants’ thermal comfort and whole body sensations. The results showed that most occupants in the CPV+CFs, who did not control the CF flow rate, felt comfortable 6 minutes. The participants, who controlled the CF speeds, felt comfortable in around 24 minutes because they were preoccupied with the CFs. For the DF speed control experiments, most participants who did not control the DFs felt comfortable within the first 8 minutes. Similarly to the CPV+CFs, the participants who controlled the DF flow rates felt comfortable at around 26 minutes. When the CPV system was either supported by CFs or DFs, 93% of participants in both cases reached thermal comfort. Participants in the parametric study felt more comfortable when the fresh air flow rate was low, and felt cold when as the flow rate increased.

Keywords: PMV, thermal comfort, thermal environment, thermal sensation

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8 The Role of Transport Investment and Enhanced Railway Accessibility in Regional Efficiency Improvement in Saudi Arabia: Data Envelopment Analysis

Authors: Saleh Alotaibi, Mohammed Quddus, Craig Morton, Jobair Bin Alam

Abstract:

This paper explores the role of large-scale investment in transport sectors and the impact of increased railway accessibility on the efficiency of the regional economic productivity in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). There are considerable differences among the KSA regions in terms of their levels of investment and productivity due to their geographical scale and location, which in turn greatly affect their relative efficiency. The study used a non-parametric linear programming technique - Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) - to measure the regional efficiency change over time and determine the drivers of inefficiency and their scope of improvement. In addition, Window DEA analysis is carried out to compare the efficiency performance change for various time periods. Malmquist index (MI) is also analyzed to identify the sources of productivity change between two subsequent years. The analysis involves spatial and temporal panel data collected from 1999 to 2018 for the 13 regions of the country. Outcomes reveal that transport investment and improved railway accessibility, in general, have significantly contributed to regional economic development. Moreover, the endowment of the new railway stations has spill-over effects. The DEA Window analysis confirmed the dynamic improvement in the average regional efficiency over the study periods. MI showed that the technical efficiency change was the main source of regional productivity improvement. However, there is evidence of investment allocation discrepancy among regions which could limit the achievement of development goals in the long term. These relevant findings will assist the Saudi government in developing better strategic decisions for future transport investments and their allocation at the regional level.

Keywords: data envelopment analysis, transport investment, railway accessibility, efficiency

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7 Effect of Summer Training Volunteering Practices in Healthcare on Self-Confidence of Nursing Students in Riyadh

Authors: Alyaa Farouk Abdelfattah Ibrahim, Samah Mohamed, Huda Jrady, Mashail Alrashidi, Alaa Mohammad, Fatimah Alotaibi, Maram Almutiri

Abstract:

Participation in volunteering was associated with better mental and physical health, self-esteem, and life satisfaction. The main motivator for students in particular is the chance to gain work-related experiences, improve skills, and build on qualifications that may help them achieve their educational goals and further their careers. This study aimed to assess the effect of summer training volunteering practices in healthcare on self-confidence of nursing students in Riyadh. In a crossectional study design, 150 nursing students at King Saud bin Abdul-Aziz University for health sciences in Riyadh were included in the study. Bio-socio-demographic, self-confidence, patients’ care and skills questionnaires were used for data collection. Results: Participants’ age ranged between 20 and 26 years. The majority were from the educational level seven (80%). 40.7 % of them reported volunteering in summer training programs; 70.37% of them volunteered at least once and for a duration of at least one month. Nursing students from level 6 were less likely to have self-confidence in their patients’ care skills than those in level 7. Students who volunteered were more likely to be more interested in becoming social, professional, and independent healthcare workers. There was no difference regarding experience in clinical skills and education by volunteering status. Clinical skills improved by a level of education in this group. Conclusion: Professional self-confidence and clinical performance are related in this group of nursing students. Monitoring, arranging, and encouraging volunteering activities for nursing students are important to help them broaden their interests, their self-confidence in their capabilities, and advancement in their chosen profession. Mostly, volunteering enhanced knowledge in patient safety and quality of care and attempts to secure volunteering opportunities should be a priority on the nursing education agenda.

Keywords: volunteering, health care volunteering, nursing students, summer training

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