Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 48

Search results for: Ankur Chaudhuri

48 Establishing a Cause-Effect Relationship among the Key Success Factors of Healthcare Waste Management in India

Authors: Ankur Chauhan, Amol Singh


The increasing human resource has led to the rapid increment in the generation of healthcare waste across the world. Since, this waste consists of the infectious and hazardous components emerged from the patient care activities in different healthcare facilities; therefore, its proper management becomes vital for mitigating its negative impact on society and environment. The present research work focuses on the identification of the key success factors for developing a successful healthcare waste management plan. In addition, the key success factors have been studied by developing a causal diagram with the help of a decision making trial and evaluation (DEMATEL) approach. The findings of the study would help in the filtration of dominant key success factors which would further help in making a comparative assessment of the waste management plan of different hospitals.

Keywords: healthcare waste disposal, environment and society, multi-criteria decision making, DEMATEL

Procedia PDF Downloads 309
47 Effect of Process Parameters on Mechanical Properties of Friction Stir Welded Aluminium Alloy Joints Using Factorial Design

Authors: Gurjinder Singh, Ankur Gill, Amardeep Singh Kang


In the present work an effort has been made to study the influence of the welding parameters on tensile strength of friction stir welding of aluminum. Three process parameters tool rotation speed, welding speed, and shoulder diameter were selected for the study. Two level factorial design of eight runs was selected for conducting the experiments. The mathematical model was developed from the data obtained. The significance of coefficients and adequacy of developed models were tested by ‘t’ test and ‘F’ test respectively. The effects of process parameters on mechanical properties have been represented in the form of graphs for better understanding.

Keywords: friction stir welding, aluminium alloy, mathematical model, welding speed

Procedia PDF Downloads 345
46 Pharmacophore-Based Modeling of a Series of Human Glutaminyl Cyclase Inhibitors to Identify Lead Molecules by Virtual Screening, Molecular Docking and Molecular Dynamics Simulation Study

Authors: Ankur Chaudhuri, Sibani Sen Chakraborty


In human, glutaminyl cyclase activity is highly abundant in neuronal and secretory tissues and is preferentially restricted to hypothalamus and pituitary. The N-terminal modification of β-amyloids (Aβs) peptides by the generation of a pyro-glutamyl (pGlu) modified Aβs (pE-Aβs) is an important process in the initiation of the formation of neurotoxic plaques in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). This process is catalyzed by glutaminyl cyclase (QC). The expression of QC is characteristically up-regulated in the early stage of AD, and the hallmark of the inhibition of QC is the prevention of the formation of pE-Aβs and plaques. A computer-aided drug design (CADD) process was employed to give an idea for the designing of potentially active compounds to understand the inhibitory potency against human glutaminyl cyclase (QC). This work elaborates the ligand-based and structure-based pharmacophore exploration of glutaminyl cyclase (QC) by using the known inhibitors. Three dimensional (3D) quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) methods were applied to 154 compounds with known IC50 values. All the inhibitors were divided into two sets, training-set, and test-sets. Generally, training-set was used to build the quantitative pharmacophore model based on the principle of structural diversity, whereas the test-set was employed to evaluate the predictive ability of the pharmacophore hypotheses. A chemical feature-based pharmacophore model was generated from the known 92 training-set compounds by HypoGen module implemented in Discovery Studio 2017 R2 software package. The best hypothesis was selected (Hypo1) based upon the highest correlation coefficient (0.8906), lowest total cost (463.72), and the lowest root mean square deviation (2.24Å) values. The highest correlation coefficient value indicates greater predictive activity of the hypothesis, whereas the lower root mean square deviation signifies a small deviation of experimental activity from the predicted one. The best pharmacophore model (Hypo1) of the candidate inhibitors predicted comprised four features: two hydrogen bond acceptor, one hydrogen bond donor, and one hydrophobic feature. The Hypo1 was validated by several parameters such as test set activity prediction, cost analysis, Fischer's randomization test, leave-one-out method, and heat map of ligand profiler. The predicted features were then used for virtual screening of potential compounds from NCI, ASINEX, Maybridge and Chembridge databases. More than seven million compounds were used for this purpose. The hit compounds were filtered by drug-likeness and pharmacokinetics properties. The selective hits were docked to the high-resolution three-dimensional structure of the target protein glutaminyl cyclase (PDB ID: 2AFU/2AFW) to filter these hits further. To validate the molecular docking results, the most active compound from the dataset was selected as a reference molecule. From the density functional theory (DFT) study, ten molecules were selected based on their highest HOMO (highest occupied molecular orbitals) energy and the lowest bandgap values. Molecular dynamics simulations with explicit solvation systems of the final ten hit compounds revealed that a large number of non-covalent interactions were formed with the binding site of the human glutaminyl cyclase. It was suggested that the hit compounds reported in this study could help in future designing of potent inhibitors as leads against human glutaminyl cyclase.

Keywords: glutaminyl cyclase, hit lead, pharmacophore model, simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 56
45 Multishape Task Scheduling Algorithms for Real Time Micro-Controller Based Application

Authors: Ankur Jain, W. Wilfred Godfrey


Embedded systems are usually microcontroller-based systems that represent a class of reliable and dependable dedicated computer systems designed for specific purposes. Micro-controllers are used in most electronic devices in an endless variety of ways. Some micro-controller-based embedded systems are required to respond to external events in the shortest possible time and such systems are known as real-time embedded systems. So in multitasking system there is a need of task Scheduling,there are various scheduling algorithms like Fixed priority Scheduling(FPS),Earliest deadline first(EDF), Rate Monotonic(RM), Deadline Monotonic(DM),etc have been researched. In this Report various conventional algorithms have been reviewed and analyzed, these algorithms consists of single shape task, A new Multishape scheduling algorithms has been proposed and implemented and analyzed.

Keywords: dm, edf, embedded systems, fixed priority, microcontroller, rtos, rm, scheduling algorithms

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44 Ultrasensitive Hepatitis B Virus Detection in Blood Using Nano-Porous Silicon Oxide: Towards POC Diagnostics

Authors: N. Das, N. Samanta, L. Pandey, C. Roy Chaudhuri


Early diagnosis of infection like Hep-B virus in blood is important for low cost medical treatment. For this purpose, it is desirable to develop a point of care device which should be able to detect trace quantities of the target molecule in blood. In this paper, we report a nanoporous silicon oxide sensor which is capable of detecting down to 1fM concentration of Hep-B surface antigen in blood without the requirement of any centrifuge or pre-concentration. This has been made possible by the presence of resonant peak in the sensitivity characteristics. This peak is observed to be dependent only on the concentration of the specific antigen and not on the interfering species in blood serum. The occurrence of opposite impedance change within the pores and at the bottom of the pore is responsible for this effect. An electronic interface has also been designed to provide a display of the virus concentration.

Keywords: impedance spectroscopy, ultrasensitive detection in blood, peak frequency, electronic interface

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43 Butterfly Diversity along Urban-Rural Gradient in Kolkata, India

Authors: Sushmita Chaudhuri, Parthiba Basu


Urbanization leads to habitat degradation and is responsible for the fast disappearance of native butterfly species. Random sampling of rural, suburban and urban sites in an around Kolkata metropolis revealed the presence of 28 species of butterfly belonging to 5 different families in winter (February-March). Butterfly diversity, species richness and abundance decreased with increase in urbanization. Psyche (Leptosia nina of family Pieridae) was the most predominant butterfly species found everywhere in Kolkata during the winter period. The most dominant family was Nymphalidae (11species), followed by Pieridae (6 species), Lycaenidae (5 species), Papilionidae (4 species) and Hesperiidae (2 species). The rural and suburban sites had butterfly species that were unique to those sites. Vegetation cover and flowering shrub density were significantly related to butterfly diversity.

Keywords: butterfly, Kolkata metropolis, Shannon-Weiner diversity index, species diversity

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42 Dielectric Properties of Ternary Composite Based on Complex Perovskite Oxides Synthesized by Semi-Wet Route

Authors: K. D. Mandal, Anil Kumar Mourya, Ankur Khare


Ceramics of 0.6 CaCu3TiO12 – 0.2 Bi2/3Cu3TiO12 – 0.2 Y2/3Cu3TiO12 (i.e. 0.6CCTO-0.2BCTO-0.2 YCTO) were prepared via semi - wet route. The phase structure of the sample was identified by X-Ray diffraction. The micro structure of the sample was observed by SEM, which displays grains of different shapes having diameter in range of 2 µm–4 µm. We have studied the frequency and temperature dependence of permittivity and impedance of the compound with LCR Meter in the range of 100 Hz–1 MHz and 300–500 K. The material shows its highest dielectric constant (428000) at 100 Hz and 368 K. The material shows Debye–like relaxation and their dielectric constant are independent of frequency and temperature over a wide range. The sample shows two electrical responses in impedance formalism, indicating that there are two distinct contributions. We attribute them to grain and grain boundaries in the ceramic sample and explain the dielectric behaviors by Maxwell–Wagner relaxation arising at the interfaces between grain and their boundaries.

Keywords: complex perovskite, ceramics composite, impedance study, SEM

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41 Carbon Dioxide Capture, Utilization, and Storage: Sequestration

Authors: Ankur Sachan


Carbon dioxide being the most anthropogenic greenhouse gas,it needs to be isolated from entering into atmosphere. Carbon capture and storage is process that captures CO2 emitted from various sources, separates it from other gases and stores it in a safe place preferably in underground geological formations for large period of time. It is then purified and monitored so that can be made to reuse. Monoethanolamine, zeolitic imidazolate framework, microalgae, membranes etc are utilized to capture CO2. Post-combustion, pre-combustion and oxyfuel combustion along with chemical looping combustion are technologies for scrubbing CO2. The properties of CO2 being easily miscible and readily dissolving in oil with impurities makes it capable for numerous applications such as in producing oil by enhanced oil recovery (EOR), Bio CCS Algal Synthesis etc. CO2-EOR operation is capable to produce million barrels of oil and extend the field's lifetime as in case of Weyburn Oil Field in Canada. The physical storage of CO2 is technically the most feasible direction provided that the associated safety and sustainability issues can be met and new materials for CCUS process at low cost are urgently found so that so that fossil based systems with carbon capture are cost competitive.

Keywords: carbon capture, CCUS, sustainability, oil

Procedia PDF Downloads 441
40 Accuracy and Depiction of Mental Illness-Popular Cinema

Authors: Ankur Kapur, Moosath Vasudevan


This movie review looks at the depiction of mental illness in popular cinema, using the movie A Beautiful Mind as a case study. It tries to understand cinema and media from a clinical psychology perspective in terms of the portrayal of symptoms and caregiver support. The review aims to analyze the portrayal of schizophrenia in the book and the movie ‘A Beautiful Mind’ on Professor John Nash. It will analyze the differences in portrayal of schizophrenia, under different media and the creative applications of the author, directors and actors in depicting the disorder as closely as it is understood in Clinical Psychology. The differences would be studied for romanticisation of symptoms in the book and the movie. Even within a medium (only the movie), verbal and non-verbal cues of the disorder will be compared for the depiction of schizophrenia. The study will dwell on the comparative description of how the caregivers coped with the patient and his illness. For this, the study will understand it through the lens of Bowen’s Family Systems Theory.

Keywords: caregiver, communication, media, systems theory

Procedia PDF Downloads 197
39 Seismic Data Scaling: Uncertainties, Potential and Applications in Workstation Interpretation

Authors: Ankur Mundhra, Shubhadeep Chakraborty, Y. R. Singh, Vishal Das


Seismic data scaling affects the dynamic range of a data and with present day lower costs of storage and higher reliability of Hard Disk data, scaling is not suggested. However, in dealing with data of different vintages, which perhaps were processed in 16 bits or even 8 bits and are need to be processed with 32 bit available data, scaling is performed. Also, scaling amplifies low amplitude events in deeper region which disappear due to high amplitude shallow events that saturate amplitude scale. We have focused on significance of scaling data to aid interpretation. This study elucidates a proper seismic loading procedure in workstations without using default preset parameters as available in most software suites. Differences and distribution of amplitude values at different depth for seismic data are probed in this exercise. Proper loading parameters are identified and associated steps are explained that needs to be taken care of while loading data. Finally, the exercise interprets the un-certainties which might arise when correlating scaled and unscaled versions of seismic data with synthetics. As, seismic well tie correlates the seismic reflection events with well markers, for our study it is used to identify regions which are enhanced and/or affected by scaling parameter(s).

Keywords: clipping, compression, resolution, seismic scaling

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38 An Epsilon Hierarchical Fuzzy Twin Support Vector Regression

Authors: Arindam Chaudhuri


The research presents epsilon- hierarchical fuzzy twin support vector regression (epsilon-HFTSVR) based on epsilon-fuzzy twin support vector regression (epsilon-FTSVR) and epsilon-twin support vector regression (epsilon-TSVR). Epsilon-FTSVR is achieved by incorporating trapezoidal fuzzy numbers to epsilon-TSVR which takes care of uncertainty existing in forecasting problems. Epsilon-FTSVR determines a pair of epsilon-insensitive proximal functions by solving two related quadratic programming problems. The structural risk minimization principle is implemented by introducing regularization term in primal problems of epsilon-FTSVR. This yields dual stable positive definite problems which improves regression performance. Epsilon-FTSVR is then reformulated as epsilon-HFTSVR consisting of a set of hierarchical layers each containing epsilon-FTSVR. Experimental results on both synthetic and real datasets reveal that epsilon-HFTSVR has remarkable generalization performance with minimum training time.

Keywords: regression, epsilon-TSVR, epsilon-FTSVR, epsilon-HFTSVR

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37 Dispersion-Less All Reflective Split and Delay Unit for Ultrafast Metrology

Authors: Akansha Tyagi, Mehar S. Sidhu, Ankur Mandal, Sanjay Kapoor, Sunil Dahiya, Jan M. Rost, Thomas Pfeifer, Kamal P. Singh


An all-reflective split and delay unit is designed for dispersion free measurement of broadband ultrashort pulses using a pair of reflective knife edge prism for splitting and recombining of the measuring pulse. It is based on symmetrical wavefront splitting of the measuring pulse having two separate arms to independently shape both split parts. We have validated our delay line with NIR –femtosecond pulse measurement centered at 800 nm using second harmonic-Interferometric frequency resolved optical gating (SH-IFROG). The delay line is compact, easy to align and provides attosecond stability and precision and thus make it more versatile for wide range of applications in ultrafast measurements. We envision that the present delay line will find applications in IR-IR controlling for high harmonic generation (HHG) and attosecond IR-XUV pump-probe measurements with solids and gases providing attosecond resolution and wide delay range.

Keywords: HHG, nonlinear optics, pump-probe spectroscopy, ultrafast metrology

Procedia PDF Downloads 42
36 Robust Data Image Watermarking for Data Security

Authors: Harsh Vikram Singh, Ankur Rai, Anand Mohan


In this paper, we propose secure and robust data hiding algorithm based on DCT by Arnold transform and chaotic sequence. The watermark image is scrambled by Arnold cat map to increases its security and then the chaotic map is used for watermark signal spread in middle band of DCT coefficients of the cover image The chaotic map can be used as pseudo-random generator for digital data hiding, to increase security and robustness .Performance evaluation for robustness and imperceptibility of proposed algorithm has been made using bit error rate (BER), normalized correlation (NC), and peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR) value for different watermark and cover images such as Lena, Girl, Tank images and gain factor .We use a binary logo image and text image as watermark. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm achieves higher security and robustness against JPEG compression as well as other attacks such as addition of noise, low pass filtering and cropping attacks compared to other existing algorithm using DCT coefficients. Moreover, to recover watermarks in proposed algorithm, there is no need to original cover image.

Keywords: data hiding, watermarking, DCT, chaotic sequence, arnold transforms

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35 Coverage Probability Analysis of WiMAX Network under Additive White Gaussian Noise and Predicted Empirical Path Loss Model

Authors: Chaudhuri Manoj Kumar Swain, Susmita Das


This paper explores a detailed procedure of predicting a path loss (PL) model and its application in estimating the coverage probability in a WiMAX network. For this a hybrid approach is followed in predicting an empirical PL model of a 2.65 GHz WiMAX network deployed in a suburban environment. Data collection, statistical analysis, and regression analysis are the phases of operations incorporated in this approach and the importance of each of these phases has been discussed properly. The procedure of collecting data such as received signal strength indicator (RSSI) through experimental set up is demonstrated. From the collected data set, empirical PL and RSSI models are predicted with regression technique. Furthermore, with the aid of the predicted PL model, essential parameters such as PL exponent as well as the coverage probability of the network are evaluated. This research work may assist in the process of deployment and optimisation of any cellular network significantly.

Keywords: WiMAX, RSSI, path loss, coverage probability, regression analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 89
34 Semiconducting Nanostructures Based Organic Pollutant Degradation Using Natural Sunlight for Water Remediation

Authors: Ankur Gupta, Jayant Raj Saurav, Shantanu Bhattacharya


In this work we report an effective water filtration system based on the photo catalytic performance of semiconducting dense nano-brushes under natural sunlight. During thin-film photocatalysis usually performed by a deposited layer of photocatalyst, a stagnant boundary layer is created near the catalyst which adversely affects the rate of adsorption because of diffusional restrictions. One strategy that may be used is to disrupt this laminar boundary layer by creating a super dense nanostructure near the surface of the catalyst. Further it is adequate to fabricate a structured filter element for a through pass of the water with as grown nanostructures coming out of the surface of such an element. So, the dye remediation is performed through solar means. This remediation was initially limited to lower efficiency because of diffusional restrictions but has now turned around as a fast process owing to the development of the filter materials with standing out dense nanostructures. The effect of increased surface area due to microholes on fraction adsorbed is also investigated and found that there is an optimum value of hole diameter for maximum adsorption.

Keywords: nano materials, photocatalysis, waste water treatment, water remediation

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33 Performance of Buildings with Base-Isolation System under Geometric Irregularities

Authors: Firoz Alam Faroque, Ankur Neog


Earthquake causes significant loss of lives and severe damage to infrastructure. Base isolator is one of the most suitable solutions to make a building earthquake resistant. Base isolation consists of installing an isolator along with the steel plates covered with pads of strong material like steel, rubber, etc. In our study, we have used lead rubber bearing (LRB). The basic idea of seismic isolation is based on the reduction of the earthquake-induced inertia forces by shifting the fundamental period of the structure out of dangerous resonance range, and concentration of the deformation and energy dissipation demands at the isolation and energy dissipation systems, which are designed for this purpose. In this paper, RC frame buildings have been modeled and analyzed by response spectrum method using ETABS software. The LRB used in the model is designed as per uniform building code (UBC) 97. It is found that time period for the base isolated structures are higher than that of the fixed base structure and the value of base shear significantly reduces in the case of base-isolated buildings. It has also been found that buildings with vertical irregularities give better performance as compared to building with plan irregularities using base isolators.

Keywords: base isolation, base shear, irregularities in buildings, lead rubber bearing (LRB)

Procedia PDF Downloads 248
32 Uncertainty and Optimization Analysis Using PETREL RE

Authors: Ankur Sachan


The ability to make quick yet intelligent and value-added decisions to develop new fields has always been of great significance. In situations where the capital expenses and subsurface risk are high, carefully analyzing the inherent uncertainties in the reservoir and how they impact the predicted hydrocarbon accumulation and production becomes a daunting task. The problem is compounded in offshore environments, especially in the presence of heavy oils and disconnected sands where the margin for error is small. Uncertainty refers to the degree to which the data set may be in error or stray from the predicted values. To understand and quantify the uncertainties in reservoir model is important when estimating the reserves. Uncertainty parameters can be geophysical, geological, petrophysical etc. Identification of these parameters is necessary to carry out the uncertainty analysis. With so many uncertainties working at different scales, it becomes essential to have a consistent and efficient way of incorporating them into our analysis. Ranking the uncertainties based on their impact on reserves helps to prioritize/ guide future data gathering and uncertainty reduction efforts. Assigning probabilistic ranges to key uncertainties also enables the computation of probabilistic reserves. With this in mind, this paper, with the help the uncertainty and optimization process in petrel RE shows how the most influential uncertainties can be determined efficiently and how much impact so they have on the reservoir model thus helping in determining a cost effective and accurate model of the reservoir.

Keywords: uncertainty, reservoir model, parameters, optimization analysis

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31 Service Life Modelling of Concrete Deterioration Due to Biogenic Sulphuric Acid (BSA) Attack-State-of-an-Art-Review

Authors: Ankur Bansal, Shashank Bishnoi


Degradation of Sewage pipes, sewage pumping station and Sewage treatment plants(STP) is of major concern due to difficulty in their maintenance and the high cost of replacement. Most of these systems undergo degradation due to Biogenic sulphuric acid (BSA) attack. Since most of Waste water treatment system are underground, detection of this deterioration remains hidden. This paper presents a literature review, outlining the mechanism of this attack focusing on critical parameters of BSA attack, along with available models and software to predict the deterioration due to this attack. This paper critically examines the various steps and equation in various Models of BSA degradation, detail on assumptions and working of different softwares are also highlighted in this paper. The paper also focuses on the service life design technique available through various codes and method to integrate the servile life design with BSA degradation on concrete. In the end, various methods enhancing the resistance of concrete against Biogenic sulphuric acid attack are highlighted. It may be concluded that the effective modelling for degradation phenomena may bring positive economical and environmental impacts. With current computing capabilities integrated degradation models combining the various durability aspects can bring positive change for sustainable society.

Keywords: concrete degradation, modelling, service life, sulphuric acid attack

Procedia PDF Downloads 235
30 An Application of Sinc Function to Approximate Quadrature Integrals in Generalized Linear Mixed Models

Authors: Altaf H. Khan, Frank Stenger, Mohammed A. Hussein, Reaz A. Chaudhuri, Sameera Asif


This paper discusses a novel approach to approximate quadrature integrals that arise in the estimation of likelihood parameters for the generalized linear mixed models (GLMM) as well as Bayesian methodology also requires computation of multidimensional integrals with respect to the posterior distributions in which computation are not only tedious and cumbersome rather in some situations impossible to find solutions because of singularities, irregular domains, etc. An attempt has been made in this work to apply Sinc function based quadrature rules to approximate intractable integrals, as there are several advantages of using Sinc based methods, for example: order of convergence is exponential, works very well in the neighborhood of singularities, in general quite stable and provide high accurate and double precisions estimates. The Sinc function based approach seems to be utilized first time in statistical domain to our knowledge, and it's viability and future scopes have been discussed to apply in the estimation of parameters for GLMM models as well as some other statistical areas.

Keywords: generalized linear mixed model, likelihood parameters, qudarature, Sinc function

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29 Analysis of Impact of Air Pollution over Megacity Delhi Due to Agricultural Biomass Burning in the Neighbouring States

Authors: Ankur P. Sati, Manju Mohan


The hazardous combination of smoke and pollutant gases, smog, is harmful for health. There are strong evidences that the Agricultural waste burning (AWB) in the Northern India leads to adverse air quality in Delhi and its surrounding regions. A severe smog episode was observed over Delhi, India during November 2012 which resulted in very low visibility and various respiratory problems. Very high values of pollutants (PM10 as high as 989 µg m-3, PM2.5 as high as 585 µg m-3 an NO2 as high as 540 µg m-3) were measured all over Delhi during the smog episode. Ultra Violet Aerosol Index (UVAI) from Aura satellite and Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) are used in the present study along with the output trajectories from HYSPLIT model and the in-situ data. Satellite data also reveal that AOD, UVAI are always at its highest during the farmfires duration in Punjab region of India and the extent of these farmfires may be increasing. It is observed that during the smog episode all the AOD, UVAI, PM2.5 and PM10 values surpassed those of the Diwali period (one of the most polluted events in the city) by a considerable amount at all stations across Delhi. The parameters used from the remote sensing data and the ground based observations at various stations across Delhi are very well in agreement about the intensity of Smog episode. The analysis clearly shows that regional pollution can have greater contributions in deteriorating the air quality than the local under adverse meteorological conditions.

Keywords: smog, farmfires, AOD, remote sensing

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28 A Combination of Anisotropic Diffusion and Sobel Operator to Enhance the Performance of the Morphological Component Analysis for Automatic Crack Detection

Authors: Ankur Dixit, Hiroaki Wagatsuma


The crack detection on a concrete bridge is an important and constant task in civil engineering. Chronically, humans are checking the bridge for inspection of cracks to maintain the quality and reliability of bridge. But this process is very long and costly. To overcome such limitations, we have used a drone with a digital camera, which took some images of bridge deck and these images are processed by morphological component analysis (MCA). MCA technique is a very strong application of sparse coding and it explores the possibility of separation of images. In this paper, MCA has been used to decompose the image into coarse and fine components with the effectiveness of two dictionaries namely anisotropic diffusion and wavelet transform. An anisotropic diffusion is an adaptive smoothing process used to adjust diffusion coefficient by finding gray level and gradient as features. These cracks in image are enhanced by subtracting the diffused coarse image into the original image and the results are treated by Sobel edge detector and binary filtering to exhibit the cracks in a fine way. Our results demonstrated that proposed MCA framework using anisotropic diffusion followed by Sobel operator and binary filtering may contribute to an automation of crack detection even in open field sever conditions such as bridge decks.

Keywords: anisotropic diffusion, coarse component, fine component, MCA, Sobel edge detector and wavelet transform

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27 Open Minds but Closed Access: Why Are There so Few Gold Open Access LIS Journals And Why Are so Many Librarians Unwilling to Unlock Their Scholarship?

Authors: Sarah Baker, Jayati Chaudhuri


Librarians have embraced the open access movement in all disciplines but their own. They are strong advocates on college campuses and curate institutional repositories, yet there are surprisingly few open access LIS journals. Presenters evaluated the open access availability of library and information science literature. After analyzing the top 100 library science journals (the top 50 journals from Scimago and JCR) and finding very few gold open access journals, they then investigated the availability of open access articles from the top 10 closed access journals. Presenters would like to generate a conversation on what type of proactive approach librarians can take to increase open access to literature within our discipline. Librarians like their colleagues in other disciplines are not motivated to submit their articles to their institutional repositories. Presenters have found a similar reluctance from their fellow colleagues regarding open access initiatives on campus. Presenters will describe Open Access Week activities as part of a campus-wide initiative and share some faculty comments, concerns, and misconceptions that came up as a part of this dialog. Presenters will discuss their personal experiences providing access to faculty publications through the California State University Los Angeles institutional repository.

Keywords: faculty scholarship, institutional repositories, library and information science journals, open access

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26 Distributed Coordination of Connected and Automated Vehicles at Multiple Interconnected Intersections

Authors: Zhiyuan Du, Baisravan Hom Chaudhuri, Pierluigi Pisu


In connected vehicle systems where wireless communication is available among the involved vehicles and intersection controllers, it is possible to design an intersection coordination strategy that leads the connected and automated vehicles (CAVs) travel through the road intersections without the conventional traffic light control. In this paper, we present a distributed coordination strategy for the CAVs at multiple interconnected intersections that aims at improving system fuel efficiency and system mobility. We present a distributed control solution where in the higher level, the intersection controllers calculate the road desired average velocity and optimally assign reference velocities of each vehicle. In the lower level, every vehicle is considered to use model predictive control (MPC) to track their reference velocity obtained from the higher level controller. The proposed method has been implemented on a simulation-based case with two-interconnected intersection network. Additionally, the effects of mixed vehicle types on the coordination strategy has been explored. Simulation results indicate the improvement on vehicle fuel efficiency and traffic mobility of the proposed method.

Keywords: connected vehicles, automated vehicles, intersection coordination systems, multiple interconnected intersections, model predictive control

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25 Rural Water Supply Services in India: Developing a Composite Summary Score

Authors: Mimi Roy, Sriroop Chaudhuri


Sustainable water supply is among the basic needs for human development, especially in the rural areas of the developing nations where safe water supply and basic sanitation infrastructure is direly needed. In light of the above, we propose a simple methodology to develop a composite water sustainability index (WSI) to assess the collective performance of the existing rural water supply services (RWSS) in India over time. The WSI will be computed by summarizing the details of all the different varieties of water supply schemes presently available in India comprising of 40 liters per capita per day (lpcd), 55 lpcd, and piped water supply (PWS) per household. The WSI will be computed annually, between 2010 and 2016, to elucidate changes in holistic RWSS performances. Results will be integrated within a robust geospatial framework to identify the ‘hotspots’ (states/districts) which have persistent issues over adequate RWSS coverage and warrant spatially-optimized policy reforms in future to address sustainable human development. Dataset will be obtained from the National Rural Drinking Water Program (NRDWP), operating under the aegis of the Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation (MoDWS), at state/district/block levels to offer the authorities a cross-sectional view of RWSS at different levels of administrative hierarchy. Due to simplistic design, complemented by spatio-temporal cartograms, similar approaches can also be adopted in other parts of the world where RWSS need a thorough appraisal.

Keywords: rural water supply services, piped water supply, sustainability, composite index, spatial, drinking water

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24 Folding Pathway and Thermodynamic Stability of Monomeric GroEL

Authors: Sarita Puri, Tapan K. Chaudhuri


Chaperonin GroEL is a tetradecameric Escherichia coli protein having identical subunits of 57 kDa. The elucidation of thermodynamic parameters related to stability for the native GroEL is not feasible as it undergoes irreversible unfolding because of its large size (800kDa) and multimeric nature. Nevertheless, it is important to determine the thermodynamic stability parameters for the highly stable GroEL protein as it helps in folding and holding of many substrate proteins during many cellular stresses. Properly folded monomers work as building-block for the formation of native tetradecameric GroEL. Spontaneous refolding behavior of monomeric GroEL makes it suitable for protein-denaturant interactions and thermodynamic stability based studies. The urea mediated unfolding is a three state process which means there is the formation of one intermediate state along with native and unfolded states. The heat mediated denaturation is a two-state process. The unfolding process is reversible as observed by the spontaneous refolding of denatured protein in both urea and head mediated refolding processes. Analysis of folding/unfolding data provides a measure of various thermodynamic stability parameters for the monomeric GroEL. The proposed mechanism of unfolding of monomeric GroEL is a three state process which involves formation of one stable intermediate having folded apical domain and unfolded equatorial, intermediate domains. Research in progress is to demonstrate the importance of specific residues in stability and oligomerization of GroEL protein. Several mutant versions of GroEL are under investigation to resolve the above mentioned issue.

Keywords: equilibrium unfolding, monomeric GroEl, spontaneous refolding, thermodynamic stability

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23 Person-Led Organizations Nurture Bullying Behavior: A Qualitative Study

Authors: Shreya Mishra, Manosi Chaudhuri, Ajoy K. Dey


Workplace bullying is a social phenomenon which has proved to be hazardous not only for employees’ well-being but also organizations. Despite being prevalent across geographical boundaries, Indian organizations have failed to acknowledge its vices. This paper aims to understand targets’ perception on what makes bullying nurture in organizations. The paper suggests that person-led Indian work settings give birth to bullying behavior as it lacks professional acumen and systems. An analysis of 13 in-depth interviews of employees from the organized sector suggests that organizations, where decision making lies with single individual, may be a hub of hostile behavior due to the culture which promotes ‘yesmanship’, ‘authoritarianism’ and/or blind belief of leaders on certain set of employees. The study used constructivist grounded theory approach, and the data was analyzed using R Based Qualitative Data Analysis (RQDA) software. Respondents reported that bullying behavior is taken lightly by the management with 'just ignore it' attitude. According to the respondents, the behavior prolong as the perpetrator have a direct approach to the top authority. The study concludes that person-led organizations may create a family-like environment which is favored by employees; however, authoritative leaders are unable to gain the trust of employees. Also, employees who are close to the leader may either be a perpetrator or a target of bullying. It is recommended that leaders in such organizations need to acknowledge the presence of bullying which affects an employees’ commitment towards their job and/or organization. They need to have an assertive check on individuals who hide behind ‘yesman’ attitude. This may help employees feel safe in such work settings.

Keywords: constructivist grounded theory, person-led organization, RQDA, workplace bullying

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22 Effect of Clerodendrum Species on Oxidative Stress with Possible Implication in Alleviating Carcinogenesis

Authors: Somit Dutta, Pallab Kar, Arnab Kumar Chakraborty, Arnab Sen, Tapas Kumar Chaudhuri


In the present study three species of Clerodendrum; Clerodendrum indicum, Volkameria inermis and Clerodendrum colebrookianum were used to investigate the possible activity against oxidative stress. A detailed in-vivo and in-vitro antioxidant profiling, directly associated with inflammation-related carcinogenesis, has been executed with a motive to evaluate the free radical scavenging activity of Clerodendrum extract. Measurement of cell viability and ROS generation in HEK-293 (Human Embryonic Kidney Cell Line) cells was also estimated. The immune cell proliferative properties (MTT) and in-vitro assay for evaluation of their antioxidant activities including hydroxyl radical, nitric oxide, singlet oxygen, peroxinitrate and hydrogen peroxide, etc. were investigated. GC-MS and FTIR analyses have been performed to identify the active biological compounds. These active biological compounds were further studied to assess their potential medicinal properties, aided by molecular docking and interaction analysis between the active compounds and different proteins related to oxidative stress leading to progression of carcinogenesis. The research article clearly demonstrates the role of ROS in various phases of carcinogenesis. Therefore, the antioxidant and free radical scavenging capacity of all the Clerodendrum species might prove beneficial for the immune system. It might be concluded that this plant species offers great promise for cancer prevention and therapy due to the presence of several bioactive compounds and potent antioxidant capacity of C. colebrookianum.

Keywords: antioxidant, cancer, oxidative stress, reactive oxygen species (ROS)

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21 Earthquake Resistant Sustainable Steel Green Building

Authors: Arup Saha Chaudhuri


Structural steel is a very ductile material with high strength carrying capacity, thus it is very useful to make earthquake resistant buildings. It is a homogeneous material also. The member section and the structural system can be made very efficient for economical design. As the steel is recyclable and reused, it is a green material. The embodied energy for the efficiently designed steel structure is less than the RC structure. For sustainable green building steel is the best material nowadays. Moreover, pre-engineered and pre-fabricated faster construction methodologies help the development work to complete within the stipulated time. In this paper, the usefulness of Eccentric Bracing Frame (EBF) in steel structure over Moment Resisting Frame (MRF) and Concentric Bracing Frame (CBF) is shown. Stability of the steel structures against horizontal forces especially in seismic condition is efficiently possible by Eccentric bracing systems with economic connection details. The EBF is pin–ended, but the beam-column joints are designed for pin ended or for full connectivity. The EBF has several desirable features for seismic resistance. In comparison with CBF system, EBF system can be designed for appropriate stiffness and drift control. The link beam is supposed to yield in shear or flexure before initiation of yielding or buckling of the bracing member in tension or compression. The behavior of a 2-D steel frame is observed under seismic loading condition in the present paper. Ductility and brittleness of the frames are compared with respect to time period of vibration and dynamic base shear. It is observed that the EBF system is better than MRF system comparing the time period of vibration and base shear participation.

Keywords: steel building, green and sustainable, earthquake resistant, EBF system

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20 Low Voltage and High Field-Effect Mobility Thin Film Transistor Using Crystalline Polymer Nanocomposite as Gate Dielectric

Authors: Debabrata Bhadra, B. K. Chaudhuri


The operation of organic thin film transistors (OFETs) with low voltage is currently a prevailing issue. We have fabricated anthracene thin-film transistor (TFT) with an ultrathin layer (~450nm) of Poly-vinylidene fluoride (PVDF)/CuO nanocomposites as a gate insulator. We obtained a device with excellent electrical characteristics at low operating voltages (<1V). Different layers of the film were also prepared to achieve the best optimization of ideal gate insulator with various static dielectric constant (εr ). Capacitance density, leakage current at 1V gate voltage and electrical characteristics of OFETs with a single and multi layer films were investigated. This device was found to have highest field effect mobility of 2.27 cm2/Vs, a threshold voltage of 0.34V, an exceptionally low sub threshold slope of 380 mV/decade and an on/off ratio of 106. Such favorable combination of properties means that these OFETs can be utilized successfully as voltages below 1V. A very simple fabrication process has been used along with step wise poling process for enhancing the pyroelectric effects on the device performance. The output characteristic of OFET after poling were changed and exhibited linear current-voltage relationship showing the evidence of large polarization. The temperature dependent response of the device was also investigated. The stable performance of the OFET after poling operation makes it reliable in temperature sensor applications. Such High-ε CuO/PVDF gate dielectric appears to be highly promising candidates for organic non-volatile memory and sensor field-effect transistors (FETs).

Keywords: organic field effect transistors, thin film transistor, gate dielectric, organic semiconductor

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19 Beneficiation of Low Grade Chromite Ore and Its Characterization for the Formation of Magnesia-Chromite Refractory by Economically Viable Process

Authors: Amit Kumar Bhandary, Prithviraj Gupta, Siddhartha Mukherjee, Mahua Ghosh Chaudhuri, Rajib Dey


Chromite ores are primarily used for extraction of chromium, which is an expensive metal. For low grade chromite ores (containing less than 40% Cr2O3), the chromium extraction is not usually economically viable. India possesses huge quantities of low grade chromite reserves. This deposit can be utilized after proper physical beneficiation. Magnetic separation techniques may be useful after reduction for the beneficiation of low grade chromite ore. The sample collected from the sukinda mines is characterized by XRD which shows predominant phases like maghemite, chromite, silica, magnesia and alumina. The raw ore is crushed and ground to below 75 micrometer size. The microstructure of the ore shows that the chromite grains surrounded by a silicate matrix and porosity observed the exposed side of the chromite ore. However, this ore may be utilized in refractory applications. Chromite ores contain Cr2O3, FeO, Al2O3 and other oxides like Fe-Cr, Mg-Cr have a high tendency to form spinel compounds, which usually show high refractoriness. Initially, the low grade chromite ore (containing 34.8% Cr2O3) was reduced at 1200 0C for 80 minutes with 30% coke fines by weight, before being subjected to magnetic separation. The reduction by coke leads to conversion of higher state of iron oxides converted to lower state of iron oxides. The pre-reduced samples are then characterized by XRD. The magnetically inert mass was then reacted with 20% MgO by weight at 1450 0C for 2 hours. The resultant product was then tested for various refractoriness parameters like apparent porosity, slag resistance etc. The results were satisfactory, indicating that the resultant spinel compounds are suitable for refractory applications for elevated temperature processes.

Keywords: apparent porosity, beneficiation, low-grade chromite, refractory, spinel compounds, slag resistance

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