Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 26

Search results for: W. Wilfred Godfrey

26 Multishape Task Scheduling Algorithms for Real Time Micro-Controller Based Application

Authors: Ankur Jain, W. Wilfred Godfrey

Abstract:

Embedded systems are usually microcontroller-based systems that represent a class of reliable and dependable dedicated computer systems designed for specific purposes. Micro-controllers are used in most electronic devices in an endless variety of ways. Some micro-controller-based embedded systems are required to respond to external events in the shortest possible time and such systems are known as real-time embedded systems. So in multitasking system there is a need of task Scheduling,there are various scheduling algorithms like Fixed priority Scheduling(FPS),Earliest deadline first(EDF), Rate Monotonic(RM), Deadline Monotonic(DM),etc have been researched. In this Report various conventional algorithms have been reviewed and analyzed, these algorithms consists of single shape task, A new Multishape scheduling algorithms has been proposed and implemented and analyzed.

Keywords: dm, edf, embedded systems, fixed priority, microcontroller, rtos, rm, scheduling algorithms

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25 Trend Detection Using Community Rank and Hawkes Process

Authors: Shashank Bhatnagar, W. Wilfred Godfrey

Abstract:

We develop in this paper, an approach to find the trendy topic, which not only considers the user-topic interaction but also considers the community, in which user belongs. This method modifies the previous approach of user-topic interaction to user-community-topic interaction with better speed-up in the range of [1.1-3]. We assume that trend detection in a social network is dependent on two things. The one is, broadcast of messages in social network governed by self-exciting point process, namely called Hawkes process and the second is, Community Rank. The influencer node links to others in the community and decides the community rank based on its PageRank and the number of users links to that community. The community rank decides the influence of one community over the other. Hence, the Hawkes process with the kernel of user-community-topic decides the trendy topic disseminated into the social network.

Keywords: community detection, community rank, Hawkes process, influencer node, pagerank, trend detection

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24 The Analysis of the Effectiveness of the Children’s Act of 2009 in Curbing Child Sexual Abuse: A Case Study of Francistown and the Surrounding Areas

Authors: Gabaikanngwe Ethel Mambo, Kinyanjui Godfrey Gichuhi

Abstract:

The study analysed the Children’s Act of 2009 of Botswana in curbing child sexual abuse (CSA) in Francistown and its surroundings. The qualitative methodology was used to collect data. Retrospective reports of CSA were obtained from various departments dealing with children. The research findings revealed the ineffectiveness of the Children’s Act of 2009 in identifying and preventing CSA. The Act has failed to deter or prevent the offenders from committing crimes against children. The study demonstrated an increase in CSA cases that were never reported. Lack of skills by the justice system exacerbated sexual molestation. The study also revealed that most CSA cases were underreported. Lastly, the study demonstrated those child victims were sexually molested by someone known to them.

Keywords: sexual abuse, molestation, incest, child

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23 Prevalence and Correlates of Anxiety and Depression among Family Carers of Cancer

Authors: Godfrey Katende, Lillian Nakimera

Abstract:

The process of caregiving may cause emotional distress in form of anxiety and depression among family carers of cancer patients. Little is known about the prevalence anxiety and depression among family carers of cancer patients in Uganda. This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the prevalence of anxiety and depression among family carers of cancer patients and related factors associated with abnormal levels of anxiety and depression. A total of 119 family carers from Uganda Cancer Institute (UCI) were assessed by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) standardized questionnaire. The prevalence of anxiety and depression among family carers was high (45% and 26 % respectively); (2) abnormal levels of anxiety (ALA) and depression (ALD) was significantly associated with being a relative carer. Incorporating evidence based psychological therapies targeting family carers into usual care of cancer patients is imperative.

Keywords: anxiety, cancer, carer, cross-sectional design, depression, Uganda

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22 A Systematic Review on Assessing the Prevalence, Types, and Predictors of Sleep Disturbances in Childhood Traumatic Brain Injury

Authors: E. Botchway, C. Godfrey, V. Anderson, C. Catroppa

Abstract:

Introduction: Sleep disturbances are common after childhood traumatic brain injury (TBI). This systematic review aimed to assess the prevalence, types, and predictors of sleep disturbances in childhood TBI. Methods: Medline, Pubmed, PsychInfo, Web of Science, and EMBASE databases were searched. Out of the 547 articles assessed, 15 met selection criteria for this review. Results: Sleep disturbances were common in children and adolescents with TBI, irrespective of injury severity. Excessive daytime sleepiness and insomnia were the most common sleep disturbances reported. Sleep disturbance was predicted by sex, injury severity, pre-existing sleep disturbances, younger age, pain, and high body mass index. Conclusions: Sleep disturbances are highly prevalent in childhood TBI, regardless of the injury severity. Routine assessment of sleep in survivors of childhood TBI is recommended.

Keywords: traumatic brain injury, sleep diatiurbances, childhood, systematic review

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21 Validation of Solar PV Inverter Harmonics Behaviour at Different Power Levels in a Test Network

Authors: Wilfred Fritz

Abstract:

Grid connected solar PV inverters need to be compliant to standard regulations regarding unwanted harmonic generation. This paper gives an introduction to harmonics, solar PV inverter voltage regulation and balancing through compensation and investigates the behaviour of harmonic generation at different power levels. Practical measurements of harmonics and power levels with a power quality data logger were made, on a test network at a university in Germany. The test setup and test results are discussed. The major finding was that between the morning and afternoon load peak windows when the PV inverters operate under low solar insolation and low power levels, more unwanted harmonics are generated. This has a huge impact on the power quality of the grid as well as capital and maintenance costs. The design of a single-tuned harmonic filter towards harmonic mitigation is presented.

Keywords: harmonics, power quality, pulse width modulation, total harmonic distortion

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20 The Importance of Analysis of Internal Quality Management Systems and Self-Examination Processes in Engineering Accreditation Processes

Authors: Wilfred Fritz

Abstract:

The accreditation process of engineering degree programmes is based on various reports evaluated by the relevant governing bodies of the institution of higher education. One of the aforementioned reports for the accreditation process is a self-assessment report which is to be completed by the applying institution. This paper seeks to emphasise the importance of analysis of internal quality management systems and self-examination processes in the engineering accreditation processes. A description of how the programme fulfils the criteria should be given. Relevant stakeholders all need to contribute in the writing and structuring of the self-assessment report. The last step is to gather evidence in the form of supporting documentation. In conclusion, the paper also identifies learning outcomes in a case study in seeking accreditation from an international relevant professional body.

Keywords: accreditation, governing bodies, self-assessment report, quality management

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19 3D Numerical Studies on External Aerodynamics of a Flying Car

Authors: Sasitharan Ambicapathy, J. Vignesh, P. Sivaraj, Godfrey Derek Sams, K. Sabarinath, V. R. Sanal Kumar

Abstract:

The external flow simulation of a flying car at take off phase is a daunting task owing to the fact that the prediction of the transient unsteady flow features during its deployment phase is very complex. In this paper 3D numerical simulations of external flow of Ferrari F430 proposed flying car with different NACA 9618 rectangular wings have been carried. Additionally, the aerodynamics characteristics have been generated for optimizing its geometry for achieving the minimum take off velocity with better overall performance in both road and air. The three-dimensional standard k-omega turbulence model has been used for capturing the intrinsic flow physics during the take off phase. In the numerical study, a fully implicit finite volume scheme of the compressible, Reynolds-Averaged, Navier-Stokes equations is employed. Through the detailed parametric analytical studies we have conjectured that Ferrari F430 flying car facilitated with high wings having three different deployment histories during the take off phase is the best choice for accomplishing its better performance for the commercial applications.

Keywords: aerodynamics of flying car, air taxi, negative lift, roadable airplane

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18 Estimating Marine Tidal Power Potential in Kenya

Authors: Lucy Patricia Onundo, Wilfred Njoroge Mwema

Abstract:

The rapidly diminishing fossil fuel reserves, their exorbitant cost and the increasingly apparent negative effect of fossil fuels to climate changes is a wake-up call to explore renewable energy. Wind, bio-fuel and solar power have already become staples of Kenyan electricity mix. The potential of electric power generation from marine tidal currents is enormous, with oceans covering more than 70% of the earth. However, attempts to harness marine tidal energy in Kenya, has yet to be studied thoroughly due to its promising, cyclic, reliable and predictable nature and the vast energy contained within it. The high load factors resulting from the fluid properties and the predictable resource characteristics make marine currents particularly attractive for power generation and advantageous when compared to others. Global-level resource assessments and oceanographic literature and data have been compiled in an analysis of the technology-specific requirements for tidal energy technologies and the physical resources. Temporal variations in resource intensity as well as the differences between small-scale applications are considered.

Keywords: tidal power, renewable energy, energy assessment, Kenya

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17 Breaking through Barricades to Enhance the University Library Infrastructure to Aid the Visually Challenged - Contemplated Based within the Sri Lankan Context

Authors: Wilfred Jeyatheese Jeyaraj

Abstract:

The Sri Lankan legislative acts dictate several recommendations to improve accessibility of services for the visually challenged. But the main consideration here is the feasibility and extent to which these endorsements have been implemented in actuality within Sri Lankan academic libraries. This paper tends to assess the existent issues that impediment the implementation of accessibility features for the visually challenged in Sri Lankan academic libraries. Visually challenged students continually walk through immense challenges to step forth into their university life. Reaching their undergrad stage of their academic phase, they should be entitled to access information resources with ease and with equality in comparison to the sighted users of a university library. The current university libraries in Sri Lanka, have well improved services that they render to their users. But, what lacks in this scenario is the consideration as to whether these features offered by libraries are user-friendly and easily accessible by the visually challenged users as well. Hence, this paper tends to analyze the inhibitions in delivering services oriented towards the visually challenged and the sighted, and propose feasible alternatives to create a neutral high-end university library environment.

Keywords: accessibility, university library, Sri Lanka, visually-challenged

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16 Streamline Marketing Strategies for Survival of Librarianship in Developing Countries in the 21st Century: A Study Related to Sri Lanka

Authors: Wilfred Jeyatheese Jeyaraj

Abstract:

Considering the current digital age, Library Marketing, in its entirety, has evolved to elucidate the importance of falling back to the roots of searching for tangible and intangible resources, traversing through pages and references to acquire the required knowledge needs with proper guidance. With the turn of the century, the present generation has deeply entrenched their virtual presence, browsing via search engines for all their information needs. Not fully realizing the adverse effects of the materials available digitally, the authenticity of such resources cannot be verified. So a user might be led to believe false misdirected data. This paper tends to elucidate the prominent strategies to market Sri Lankan libraries in a proper manner so as to captivate a large user base making them aware that all resources and materials that they access without guidance outside the libraries are also available within the libraries with added guidance towards accessing the right data. The main contemplation here is to focus on getting more users to visit libraries in person to copiously apprehend the importance of browsing for materials with the proper direction. The current library marketing strategies in Sri Lankan libraries need to be streamlined to align with the best interest of acquiring the present generations to visit libraries in person to reap its benefits.

Keywords: accessibility, librarianship, marketing, Sri Lanka

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15 Assessment of Tidal Current Energy Potential at LAMU and Mombasa in Kenya

Authors: Lucy Patricia Onundo, Wilfred Njoroge Mwema

Abstract:

The tidal power potential available for electricity generation from Mombasa and Lamu sites in Kenya will be examined. Several African countries in the Western Indian Ocean endure insufficiencies in the power sector, including both generation and distribution. One important step towards increasing energy security and availability is to intensify the use of renewable energy sources. The access to cost-efficient hydropower is low in Mombasa and Lamu hence Ocean energy will play an important role. Global-Level resource assessments and oceanographic literature and data have been compiled in an analysis between technology-specific requirements for ocean energy technologies (salinity, tide, tidal current, wave, Ocean thermal energy conversion, wind and solar) and the physical resources in Lamu and Mombasa. The potential for tide and tidal current power is more restricted but may be of interest at some locations. The theoretical maximum power produced over a tidal cycle is determined by the product of the forcing tide and the undisturbed volumetric flow-rate. The extraction of the maximum power reduces the flow-rate, but a significant portion of the maximum power can be extracted with little change to the tidal dynamics. Two-dimensional finite-element, numerical simulations designed and developed agree with the theory. Temporal variations in resource intensity, as well as the differences between small-scale and large-scale applications, are considered.

Keywords: energy assessment, marine tidal power, renewable energy, tidal dynamics

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14 Synthesis and Physiochemical Properties of 3-Propanenitrile Imidazolium - Based Dual Functionalized Ionic Liquids Incorporating Dioctyl Sulfosuccinate Anion

Authors: Abobakr Khidir Ziyada, Cecilia Devi Wilfred

Abstract:

In the present work, a new series of 3-propanenitrile imidazolium-based Room Temperature Ionic Liquids (RTILs), incorporating dioctyl sulfosuccinate (DOSS) were prepared by reacting imidazole with acrylonitrile and then reacting the product with allyl chloride, 2-chloroethanol, and benzyl chloride. After the reaction had been completed, metathesis reaction was carried out using sodium dioctyl sulfosuccinate. The densities and viscosities of the present RTILs were measured at atmospheric pressure at T=293.15 to 353.15 K, the refractive index was measured at T=293.15 to 333.15 K, whereas, the start and decomposition temperatures were determined at heating rate 10°C. min^-1. The thermal expansion coefficient, densities at a range of temperatures and pressures, molecular volume, molar refraction, standard entropy and the lattice energy of these RTILs were also estimated. The present RTILs showed higher densities, similar refractive indices, and higher viscosities compared to the other 1-alkyl-3-propanenitrile imidazolium-based RTILs. The densities of the present synthesized RTILs are lower compared to the other nitrile-functionalized ILs. These present RTILs showed a weak temperature dependence on the thermal expansion coefficients, αp=5.0 × 10^−4 to 7.50 × 10−4 K^-1. Empirical correlations were proposed to represent the present data on the physical properties. The lattice energy for the present RTILs was similar to other nitrile–based imidazolium RTILs. The present RTILs showed very high molar refraction when compared similar RTILs incorporating other anions.

Keywords: dioctyl sulfosuccinate, nitrile ILs, 3-propanenitrile, anion, room temperature ionic liquids, RTIL

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13 Investment and Economic Growth: An Empirical Analysis for Tanzania

Authors: Manamba Epaphra

Abstract:

This paper analyzes the causal effect between domestic private investment, public investment, foreign direct investment and economic growth in Tanzania during the 1970-2014 period. The modified neo-classical growth model that includes control variables such as trade liberalization, life expectancy and macroeconomic stability proxied by inflation is used to estimate the impact of investment on economic growth. Also, the economic growth models based on Phetsavong and Ichihashi (2012), and Le and Suruga (2005) are used to estimate the crowding out effect of public investment on private domestic investment on one hand and foreign direct investment on the other hand. A correlation test is applied to check the correlation among independent variables, and the results show that there is very low correlation suggesting that multicollinearity is not a serious problem. Moreover, the diagnostic tests including RESET regression errors specification test, Breusch-Godfrey serial correlation LM test, Jacque-Bera-normality test and white heteroskedasticity test reveal that the model has no signs of misspecification and that, the residuals are serially uncorrelated, normally distributed and homoskedastic. Generally, the empirical results show that the domestic private investment plays an important role in economic growth in Tanzania. FDI also tends to affect growth positively, while control variables such as high population growth and inflation appear to harm economic growth. Results also reveal that control variables such as trade openness and life expectancy improvement tend to increase real GDP growth. Moreover, a revealed negative, albeit weak, association between public and private investment suggests that the positive effect of domestic private investment on economic growth reduces when public investment-to-GDP ratio exceeds 8-10 percent. Thus, there is a great need for promoting domestic saving so as to encourage domestic investment for economic growth.

Keywords: FDI, public investment, domestic private investment, crowding out effect, economic growth

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12 Bridging the Gaping Levels of Information Entree for Visually Impaired Students in the Sri Lankan University Libraries

Authors: Wilfred Jeyatheese Jeyaraj

Abstract:

Education is a key determinant of future success, and every person deserves non-discriminant access to information for educational inevitabilities in any case. Analysing and understanding complex information is a crucial learning tool, especially for students. In order to compete equally with sighted students, visually impaired students require the unhinged access to access to all the available information resources. When the education of visually impaired students comes to a focal point, it can be stated that visually impaired students encounter several obstacles and barriers before they enter the university and during their time there as students. These obstacles and barriers are spread across technical, organizational and social arenas. This study reveals the possible approaches to absorb and benefit from the information provided by the Sri Lankan University Libraries for visually impaired students. Purposive sampling technique was used to select sample visually impaired students attached to the Sri Lankan National universities. There are 07 National universities which accommodate the visually impaired students and with the identified data, they were selected for this study and 80 visually impaired students were selected as the sample group. Descriptive type survey method was used to collect data. Structured questionnaires, interviews and direct observation were used as research instruments. As far as the Sri Lankan context spread is concerned, visually impaired students are able to finish their courses through their own determination to overcome the barriers they encounter on their way to graduation, through moral and practical support from their own friends and very often through a high level of creativity. According to the findings there are no specially trained university librarians to serve visually impaired users and less number of assistive technology equipment are available at present. This paper enables all university libraries in Sri Lanka to be informed about the social isolation of visually compromised students at the Sri Lankan universities and focuses on the rectification issues by considering their distinct case for interaction.

Keywords: information access, Sri Lanka, university libraries, visual impairment

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11 Development of a Passive Solar Tomato Dryer with Movable Heat Storage System

Authors: Jacob T. Liberty, Wilfred I. Okonkwo

Abstract:

The present study designed and constructed a post-harvest passive solar tomato dryer of dimension 176 x 152 x 54cm for drying tomato. Quality of the dried crop was evaluated and compared with the fresh ones. The solar dryer consist of solar collector (air heater), 110 x 61 x 10 x 10cm, the drying chamber, 102 x54cm, removal heat storage unit, 40 x 35 x 13cm and drying trays, 43 x 42cm. The physicochemical properties of this crop were evaluated before and after drying. Physicochemical properties evaluated includes moisture, protein, fat, fibre, ash, carbohydrate and vitamin C, contents. The fresh, open and solar dried samples were analysed for their proximate composition using the recommended method of AOAC. Also, statistical analysis of the data was conducted using analysis of variance (ANOVA) using completely Randomize Design (CRD) and means were separated by Duncan’s New Multiple Range test (DNMRT). Proximate analysis showed that solar dried tomato had significantly (P < 0.05) higher protein, fibre, ash, carbohydrate and vitamin C except for the fat content that was significantly (P < 0.05) higher for all the open sun dried samples than the solar dried and fresh product. The nutrient which is highly affected by sun drying is vitamin C. Result indicates that moisture loss in solar dried tomato was faster and lower than the open dried samples and as such makes the solar dried products of lesser tendency to mould and bacterial growth. Also, the open sun dried samples had to be carried into the sheltered place each time it rained. The solar dried produce is of high quality. Further processing of the dried crops will involve packaging for commercial purposes. This will also help in making these agricultural product available in a relatively cheap price in off season and also avert micronutrient deficiencies in diet especially among the low-income groups in Nigeria.

Keywords: tomato, passive solar dryer, physicochemical properties, removal heat storage

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10 Use of Information and Communication Technologies in Enhancing Health Care Delivery for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Patients in Bamenda Health District

Authors: Abanda Wilfred Chick

Abstract:

Background: According to World Health Organization (WHO), the role of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in health sectors of developing nations has been demonstrated to have had a great improvement of fifty percent reduction in mortality and or twenty-five-fifty percent increase in productivity. The objective of this study was to assess the use of information and communication technologies in enhancing health care delivery for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) patients in Bamenda Health District. Methods: This was a descriptive-analytical cross-sectional study in which 388 participants were consecutively selected amongst health personnel and HIV patients from public and private health institutions involved in Human Immunodeficiency Virus management. Data on socio-demographic variables, the use of information and communication technologies tools, and associated challenges were collected using structured questionnaires. Descriptive statistics with a ninety-five percent confidence interval were used to summarize findings, while Cramer’s V test, logistic regression, and Chi-square test were used to measure the association between variables, Epi info version7.2, MS Excel, and SPSS version 25.0 were utilized for data entry and statistical analysis respectively. Results: Of the participants, one-quarter were health personnel, and three-quarters were HIV patients. For both groups of participants, there was a significant relationship between the use of ICT and demographic information such as level of education, marital status, and age (p<0.05). For the impediments to using ICT tools, a greater proportion identified the high cost of airtime or internet bundles, followed by an average proportion that indicated inadequate training on ICT tools; for health personnel, the majority said inadequate training on ICT tools/applications and half said unavailability of electricity. Conclusion: Not up to half of the HIV patients effectively make use of ICT tools/applications to receive health care. Of health personnel, three quarters use ICTs, and only one quarter effectively use mobile phones and one-third of computers, respectively, to render care to HIV patients.

Keywords: ICT tools, HIV patients, health personnel, health care delivery

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9 A Foodborne Cholera Outbreak in a School Caused by Eating Contaminated Fried Fish: Hoima Municipality, Uganda, February 2018

Authors: Dativa Maria Aliddeki, Fred Monje, Godfrey Nsereko, Benon Kwesiga, Daniel Kadobera, Alex Riolexus Ario

Abstract:

Background: Cholera is a severe gastrointestinal disease caused by Vibrio cholera. It has caused several pandemics. On 26 February 2018, a suspected cholera outbreak, with one death, occurred in School X in Hoima Municipality, western Uganda. We investigated to identify the scope and mode of transmission of the outbreak, and recommend evidence-based control measures. Methods: We defined a suspected case as onset of diarrhea, vomiting, or abdominal pain in a student or staff of School X or their family members during 14 February–10 March. A confirmed case was a suspected case with V. cholerae cultured from stool. We reviewed medical records at Hoima Hospital and searched for cases at School X. We conducted descriptive epidemiologic analysis and hypothesis-generating interviews of 15 case-patients. In a retrospective cohort study, we compared attack rates between exposed and unexposed persons. Results: We identified 15 cases among 75 students and staff of School X and their family members (attack rate=20%), with onset from 25-28 February. One patient died (case-fatality rate=6.6%). The epidemic curve indicated a point-source exposure. On 24 February, a student brought fried fish from her home in a fishing village, where a cholera outbreak was ongoing. Of the 21 persons who ate the fish, 57% developed cholera, compared with 5.6% of 54 persons who did not eat (RR=10; 95% CI=3.2-33). None of 4 persons who recooked the fish before eating, compared with 71% of 17 who did not recook it, developed cholera (RR=0.0, 95%CIFisher exact=0.0-0.95). Of 12 stool specimens cultured, 6 yielded V. cholerae. Conclusion: This cholera outbreak was caused by eating fried fish, which might have been contaminated with V. cholerae in a village with an ongoing outbreak. Lack of thorough cooking of the fish might have facilitated the outbreak. We recommended thoroughly cooking fish before consumption.

Keywords: cholera, disease outbreak, foodborne, global health security, Uganda

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8 Transformation to M-Learning at the Nursing Institute in the Armed Force Hospital Alhada, in Saudi Arabia Based on Activity Theory

Authors: Rahimah Abdulrahman, A. Eardle, Wilfred Alan, Abdel Hamid Soliman

Abstract:

With the rapid development in technology, and advances in learning technologies, m-learning has begun to occupy a great part of our lives. The pace of the life getting together with the need for learning started mobile learning (m-learning) concept. In 2008, Saudi Arabia requested a national plan for the adoption of information technology (IT) across the country. Part of the recommendations of this plan concerns the implementation of mobile learning (m-learning) as well as their prospective applications to higher education within the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The overall aim of the research is to explore the main issues that impact the deployment of m-learning in nursing institutes in Saudi Arabia, at the Armed Force Hospitals (AFH), Alhada. This is in order to be able to develop a generic model to enable and assist the educational policy makers and implementers of m-learning, to comprehend and treat those issues effectively. Specifically, the research will explore the concept of m-learning; identify and analyse the main organisational; technological and cultural issue, that relate to the adoption of m-learning; develop a model of m-learning; investigate the perception of the students of the Nursing Institutes to the use of m-learning technologies for their nursing diploma programmes based on their experiences; conduct a validation of the m-learning model with the use of the nursing Institute of the AFH, Alhada in Saudi Arabia, and evaluate the research project as a learning experience and as a contribution to the body of knowledge. Activity Theory (AT) will be adopted for the study due to the fact that it provides a conceptual framework that engenders an understanding of the structure, development and the context of computer-supported activities. The study will be adopt a set of data collection methods which engage nursing students in a quantitative survey, while nurse teachers are engaged through in depth qualitative studies to get first-hand information about the organisational, technological and cultural issues that impact on the deployment of m-learning. The original contribution will be a model for developing m-learning material for classroom-based learning in the nursing institute that can have a general application.

Keywords: activity theory (at), mobile learning (m-learning), nursing institute, Saudi Arabia (sa)

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7 Malaria Outbreak Facilitated by Appearance of Vector-Breeding Sites after Heavy Rainfall and Inadequate Preventive Measures: Nwoya District, Uganda, March–May 2018

Authors: Godfrey Nsereko, Daniel Kadobera, Denis Okethwangu, Joyce Nguna, Alex Riolexus Ario

Abstract:

Background: Malaria is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Uganda. In April 2018, malaria cases surged in Nwoya District, northern Uganda, exceeding the action thresholds. We investigated to assess the outbreak’s magnitude, identify transmission risk factors, and recommend evidence-based control measures. Methods: We defined a malaria case as onset of fever in a resident of Nwoya District with a positive Rapid Diagnostic Test or microscopy for malaria P. falciparum from 1 February to 22 May 2018. We reviewed medical records in all health facilities of affected sub-counties to find cases. In a case-control study, we compared exposure risk factors between 107 case-persons and 107 asymptomatic controls matched by age and village. We conducted entomological assessment on vector-density and behavior. Results: We identified 3,879 case-persons (attack rate [AR]=6.5%) and 2 deaths (case-fatality rate=5.2/10,000). Females (AR=8.1%) were more affected than males (AR=4.7%). Of all age groups, the 5-18 year age group (AR=8.4%) was most affected. Heavy rain started on 4 March; a propagated outbreak began during the week of 2 April. In the case-control study, 55% (59/107) of case-patients and 18% (19/107) of controls had stagnant water around households for several days following rainfall (ORM-H=5.6, 95%CI=3.0-11); 25% (27/107) of case-patients and 51% (55/107) of controls wore long-sleeve cloths during evening hours (ORM-H=0.30, 95%CI=0.20-0.60); 29% (31/107) of case-patients and 15% (16/107) of controls did not sleep under a long-lasting insecticide-treated net (LLIN) (ORM-H=2.3, 95%CI=1.1-4.9); 37% (40/107) of case-patients and 52% (56/107) of controls had ≥1 LLIN per 2 household members (ORM-H=0.54, 95%CI=0.30-0.97). Entomological assessment indicated active breeding sites; Anopheles gambiae sensu lato species were the predominant vector. Conclusion: Increased vector breeding sites after heavy rainfall, together with inadequate malaria preventive measures caused this outbreak. We recommended increasing coverage for LLINs and larviciding breeding sites.

Keywords: malaria outbreak, Plasmodium falciparum, global health security, Uganda

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6 Advances in Health Risk Assessment of Mycotoxins in Africa

Authors: Wilfred A. Abiaa, Chibundu N. Ezekiel, Benedikt Warth, Michael Sulyok, Paul C. Turner, Rudolf Krska, Paul F. Moundipa

Abstract:

Mycotoxins are a wide range of toxic secondary metabolites of fungi that contaminate various food commodities worldwide especially in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Such contamination seriously compromises food safety and quality posing a serious problem for human health as well as to trade and the economy. Their concentrations depend on various factors, such as the commodity itself, climatic conditions, storage conditions, seasonal variances, and processing methods. When humans consume foods contaminated by mycotoxins, they exert toxic effects to their health through various modes of actions. Rural populations in sub-Saharan Africa, are exposed to dietary mycotoxins, but it is supposed that exposure levels and health risks associated with mycotoxins between SSA countries may vary. Dietary exposures and health risk assessment studies have been limited by lack of equipment for the proper assessment of the associated health implications on consumer populations when they eat contaminated agricultural products. As such, mycotoxin research is premature in several SSA nations with product evaluation for mycotoxin loads below/above legislative limits being inadequate. Few nations have health risk assessment reports mainly based on direct quantification of the toxins in foods ('external exposure') and linking food levels with data from food frequency questionnaires. Nonetheless, the assessment of the exposure and health risk to mycotoxins requires more than the traditional approaches. Only a fraction of the mycotoxins in contaminated foods reaches the blood stream and exert toxicity ('internal exposure'). Also, internal exposure is usually smaller than external exposure thus dependence on external exposure alone may induce confounders in risk assessment. Some studies from SSA earlier focused on biomarker analysis mainly on aflatoxins while a few recent studies have concentrated on the multi-biomarker analysis of exposures in urine providing probable associations between observed disease occurrences and dietary mycotoxins levels. As a result, new techniques that could assess the levels of exposures directly in body tissue or fluid, and possibly link them to the disease state of individuals became urgent.

Keywords: mycotoxins, biomarkers, exposure assessment, health risk assessment, sub-Saharan Africa

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5 Mechanisms Underlying the Effects of School-Based Internet Intervention for Alcohol Drinking Behaviours among Chinese Adolescent

Authors: Keith T. S. Tung, Frederick K. Ho, Rosa S. Wong, Camilla K. M. Lo, Wilfred H. S. Wong, C. B. Chow, Patrick Ip

Abstract:

Objectives: Underage drinking is an important public health problem both locally and globally. Conventional prevention/intervention relies on unidirectional knowledge transfer such as mail leaflets or health talks which showed mixed results in changing the target behaviour. Previously, we conducted a school internet-based intervention which was found to be effective in reducing alcohol use among adolescents, yet the underlying mechanisms have not been properly investigated. This study, therefore, examined the mechanisms that explain how the intervention produced a change in alcohol drinking behaviours among Chinese adolescent as observed in our previous clustered randomised controlled trial (RCT) study. Methods: This is a cluster randomised controlled trial with parallel group design. Participating schools were randomised to the Internet intervention or the conventional health education group (control) with a 1:1 allocation ratio. Secondary 1–3 students of the participating schools were enrolled in this study. The Internet intervention was a web-based quiz game competition, in which participating students would answer 1,000 alcohol-related multiple-choice quiz questions. Conventional health education group received a promotional package on equivalent alcohol-related knowledge. The participants’ alcohol-related attitude, knowledge, and perceived behavioural control were self-reported before the intervention (baseline) and one month and three months after the intervention. Results: Our RCT results showed that participants in the Internet group were less likely to drink (risk ratio [RR] 0.79, p < 0.01) as well as in lesser amount (β -0.06, p < 0.05) compared to those in the control group at both post-intervention follow-ups. Within the intervention group, regression analyses showed that high quiz scorer had greater improvement in alcohol-related knowledge (β 0.28, p < 0.01) and attitude (β -0.26, p < 0.01) at 1 month after intervention, which in turn increased their perceived behavioural control against alcohol use (β 0.10 and -0.26, both p < 0.01). Attitude, compared to knowledge, was found to be a stronger contributor to the intervention effect on perceived behavioural control. Conclusions: Our internet-based intervention has demonstrated effectiveness in reducing the risk of underage drinking when compared with conventional health education. Our study results further showed an attitude to be a more important factor than knowledge in changing health-related behaviour. This has an important implication for future prevention/intervention on an underage drinking problem.

Keywords: adolescents, internet-based intervention, randomized controlled trial, underage drinking

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4 Cockpit Integration and Piloted Assessment of an Upset Detection and Recovery System

Authors: Hafid Smaili, Wilfred Rouwhorst, Paul Frost

Abstract:

The trend of recent accident and incident cases worldwide show that the state-of-the-art automation and operations, for current and future demanding operational environments, does not provide the desired level of operational safety under crew peak workload conditions, specifically in complex situations such as loss-of-control in-flight (LOC-I). Today, the short term focus is on preparing crews to recognise and handle LOC-I situations through upset recovery training. This paper describes the cockpit integration aspects and piloted assessment of both a manually assisted and automatic upset detection and recovery system that has been developed and demonstrated within the European Advanced Cockpit for Reduction Of StreSs and workload (ACROSS) programme. The proposed system is a function that continuously monitors and intervenes when the aircraft enters an upset and provides either manually pilot-assisted guidance or takes over full control of the aircraft to recover from an upset. In order to mitigate the highly physical and psychological impact during aircraft upset events, the system provides new cockpit functionalities to support the pilot in recovering from any upset both manually assisted and automatically. A piloted simulator assessment was made in Oct-Nov 2015 using ten pilots in a representative civil large transport fly-by-wire aircraft in terms of the preference of the tested upset detection and recovery system configurations to reduce pilot workload, increase situational awareness and safe interaction with the manually assisted or automated modes. The piloted simulator evaluation of the upset detection and recovery system showed that the functionalities of the system are able to support pilots during an upset. The experiment showed that pilots are willing to rely on the guidance provided by the system during an upset. Thereby, it is important for pilots to see and understand what the aircraft is doing and trying to do especially in automatic modes. Comparing the manually assisted and the automatic recovery modes, the pilot’s opinion was that an automatic recovery reduces the workload so that they could perform a proper screening of the primary flight display. The results further show that the manually assisted recoveries, with recovery guidance cues on the cockpit primary flight display, reduced workload for severe upsets compared to today’s situation. The level of situation awareness was improved for automatic upset recoveries where the pilot could monitor what the system was trying to accomplish compared to automatic recovery modes without any guidance. An improvement in situation awareness was also noticeable with the manually assisted upset recovery functionalities as compared to the current non-assisted recovery procedures. This study shows that automatic upset detection and recovery functionalities are likely to positively impact the operational safety by means of reduced workload, improved situation awareness and crew stress reduction. It is thus believed that future developments for upset recovery guidance and loss-of-control prevention should focus on automatic recovery solutions.

Keywords: aircraft accidents, automatic flight control, loss-of-control, upset recovery

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3 On-Farm Mechanized Conservation Agriculture: Preliminary Agro-Economic Performance Difference between Disc Harrowing, Ripping and No-Till

Authors: Godfrey Omulo, Regina Birner, Karlheinz Koller, Thomas Daum

Abstract:

Conservation agriculture (CA) as a climate-resilient and sustainable practice have been carried out for over three decades in Zambia. However, its continued promotion and adoption has been predominantly on a small-scale basis. Despite the plethora of scholarship pointing to the positive benefits of CA in regard to enhanced yield, profitability, carbon sequestration and minimal environmental degradation, these have not stimulated commensurate agricultural extensification desired for Zambia. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential differences between mechanized conventional and conservation tillage practices on operation time, fuel consumption, labor costs, soil moisture retention, soil temperature and crop yield. An on-farm mechanized conservation agriculture (MCA) experiment arranged in a randomized complete block design with four replications was used. The research was conducted on a 15 ha of sandy loam rainfed land: soybeans on 7ha with plot dimensions of 24 m by 210 m and maize on 8ha with plot dimensions of 24 m by 250 m. The three tillage treatments were: residue burning followed by disc harrowing, ripping tillage and no-till. The crops were rotated in two subsequent seasons. All operations were done using a 60hp 2-wheel tractor, a disc harrow, a two-tine ripper and a two-row planter. Soil measurements and the agro-economic factors were recorded for two farming seasons. The season results showed that the yield of maize and soybeans under no-till and ripping tillage practices were not significantly different from the conventional burning and discing. But, there was a significant difference in soil moisture content between no-till (25.31SFU±2.77) and disced (11.91SFU±0.59) plots at depths from 10-60 cm. Soil temperature in no-till plots (24.59°C±0.91) was significantly lower compared to the disced plots (26.20°C±1.75) at the depths 15 cm and 45 cm. For maize, there was a significant difference in operation time between disc-harrowed (3.68hr/ha±1.27) and no-till (1.85hr/ha±0.04) plots, and a significant difference in cost of labor between disc-harrowed (45.45$/ha±19.56) and no-till (21.76$/ha) plots. There was no significant difference in fuel consumption between ripping and disc-harrowing and direct seeding. For soybeans, there was a significant difference in operation time between no-tillage (1.96hr/ha±0.31) and ripping (3.34hr/ha±0.53) and disc harrowing (3.30hr/ha±0.16). Further, fuel consumption and labor on no-till plots were significantly different from both the ripped and disc-harrowed plots. The high seed emergence percentage on maize disc-harrowed plot (93.75%±5.87) was not significantly different from ripping and no-till plots. Again, the high seed emergence percentage for the soybean ripped plot (93.75%±13.03) had no significant difference with discing and ripping. The results show that it is economically sound and timesaving to practice MCA and get viable yields compared to conventional farming. This research fills the gap on the potential of MCA in the context of Zambia and its profitability in incentivizing policymakers to invest in appropriate and sustainable machinery and implements for extensive agricultural production.

Keywords: climate-smart agriculture, labor cost, mechanized conservation agriculture, soil moisture, Zambia

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2 Rheolaser: Light Scattering Characterization of Viscoelastic Properties of Hair Cosmetics That Are Related to Performance and Stability of the Respective Colloidal Soft Materials

Authors: Heitor Oliveira, Gabriele De-Waal, Juergen Schmenger, Lynsey Godfrey, Tibor Kovacs

Abstract:

Rheolaser MASTER™ makes use of multiple scattering of light, caused by scattering objects in a continuous medium (such as droplets and particles in colloids), to characterize the viscoelasticity of soft materials. It offers an alternative to conventional rheometers to characterize viscoelasticity of products such as hair cosmetics. Up to six simultaneous measurements at controlled temperature can be carried out simultaneously (10-15 min), and the method requires only minor sample preparation work. Conversely to conventional rheometer based methods, no mechanical stress is applied to the material during the measurements. Therefore, the properties of the exact same sample can be monitored over time, like in aging and stability studies. We determined the elastic index (EI) of water/emulsion mixtures (1 ≤ fat alcohols (FA) ≤ 5 wt%) and emulsion/gel-network mixtures (8 ≤ FA ≤ 17 wt%) and compared with the elastic/sorage mudulus (G’) for the respective samples using a TA conventional rheometer with flat plates geometry. As expected, it was found that log(EI) vs log(G’) presents a linear behavior. Moreover, log(EI) increased in a linear fashion with solids level in the entire range of compositions (1 ≤ FA ≤ 17 wt%), while rheometer measurements were limited to samples down to 4 wt% solids level. Alternatively, a concentric cilinder geometry would be required for more diluted samples (FA > 4 wt%) and rheometer results from different sample holder geometries are not comparable. The plot of the rheolaser output parameters solid-liquid balance (SLB) vs EI were suitable to monitor product aging processes. These data could quantitatively describe some observations such as formation of lumps over aging time. Moreover, this method allowed to identify that the different specifications of a key raw material (RM < 0.4 wt%) in the respective gel-network (GN) product has minor impact on product viscoelastic properties and it is not consumer perceivable after a short aging time. Broadening of a RM spec range typically has a positive impact on cost savings. Last but not least, the photon path length (λ*)—proportional to droplet size and inversely proportional to volume fraction of scattering objects, accordingly to the Mie theory—and the EI were suitable to characterize product destabilization processes (e.g., coalescence and creaming) and to predict product stability about eight times faster than our standard methods. Using these parameters we could successfully identify formulation and process parameters that resulted in unstable products. In conclusion, Rheolaser allows quick and reliable characterization of viscoelastic properties of hair cosmetics that are related to their performance and stability. It operates in a broad range of product compositions and has applications spanning from the formulation of our hair cosmetics to fast release criteria in our production sites. Last but not least, this powerful tool has positive impact on R&D development time—faster delivery of new products to the market—and consequently on cost savings.

Keywords: colloids, hair cosmetics, light scattering, performance and stability, soft materials, viscoelastic properties

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1 Culture and Health Equity: Unpacking the Sociocultural Determinants of Eye Health for Indigenous Australian Diabetics

Authors: Aryati Yashadhana, Ted Fields Jnr., Wendy Fernando, Kelvin Brown, Godfrey Blitner, Francis Hayes, Ruby Stanley, Brian Donnelly, Bridgette Jerrard, Anthea Burnett, Anthony B. Zwi

Abstract:

Indigenous Australians experience some of the worst health outcomes globally, with life expectancy being significantly poorer than those of non-Indigenous Australians. This is largely attributed to preventable diseases such as diabetes (prevalence 39% in Indigenous Australian adults > 55 years), which is attributed to a raised risk of diabetic visual impairment and cataract among Indigenous adults. Our study aims to explore the interface between structural and sociocultural determinants and human agency, in order to understand how they impact (1) accessibility of eye health and chronic disease services and (2) the potential for Indigenous patients to achieve positive clinical eye health outcomes. We used Participatory Action Research methods, and aimed to privilege the voices of Indigenous people through community collaboration. Semi-structured interviews (n=82) and patient focus groups (n=8) were conducted by Indigenous Community-Based Researchers (CBRs) with diabetic Indigenous adults (> 40 years) in four remote communities in Australia. Interviews (n=25) and focus groups (n=4) with primary health care clinicians in each community were also conducted. Data were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analysed thematically using grounded theory, comparative analysis and Nvivo 10. Preliminary analysis occurred in tandem with data collection to determine theoretical saturation. The principal investigator (AY) led analysis sessions with CBRs, fostering cultural and contextual appropriateness to interpreting responses, knowledge exchange and capacity building. Identified themes were conceptualised into three spheres of influence: structural (health services, government), sociocultural (Indigenous cultural values, distrust of the health system, ongoing effects of colonialism and dispossession) and individual (health beliefs/perceptions, patient phenomenology). Permeating these spheres of influence were three core determinants: economic disadvantage, health literacy/education, and cultural marginalisation. These core determinants affected accessibility of services, and the potential for patients to achieve positive clinical outcomes at every level of care (primary, secondary, tertiary). Our findings highlight the clinical realities of institutionalised and structural inequities, illustrated through the lived experiences of Indigenous patients and primary care clinicians in the four sampled communities. The complex determinants surrounding inequity in health for Indigenous Australians, are entrenched through a longstanding experience of cultural discrimination and ostracism. Secure and long term funding of Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Services will be valuable, but are insufficient to address issues of inequity. Rather, working collaboratively with communities to build trust, and identify needs and solutions at the grassroots level, while leveraging community voices to drive change at the systemic/policy level are recommended.

Keywords: indigenous, Australia, culture, public health, eye health, diabetes, social determinants of health, sociology, anthropology, health equity, aboriginal and Torres strait islander, primary care

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