Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2821

Search results for: fine component

2821 Use of Fine Recycled Aggregates in Normal Concrete Production

Authors: Vignesh Pechiappan Ayyathurai, Mukesh Limbachiya, Hsein Kew

Abstract:

There is a growing interest in using recycled, secondary use and industrial by product materials in high value commercial applications. Potential high volume applications include use of fine aggregate in flowable fill or as a component in manufactured aggregates. However, there is much scientific, as well as applied research needed in this area due to lack to availability of data on the mechanical and environmental properties of elements or products produced using fine recycled aggregates. The principle objectives of this research are to synthesize existing data on the beneficial reuse of fine recycled materials and to develop extensive testing programme for assessing and establishing engineering and long term durability properties of concrete and other construction products produced using such material for use in practical application widely. This paper is a research proposal for PhD admission. The proposed research aims to supply the necessary technical, as well as practical information on fine recycled aggregate concrete to the construction industry for promoting its wider use within the construction industry. Furthermore, to disseminate research outcomes to the local authorities for consideration of use of fine recycled aggregate concrete in various applications.

Keywords: FRA, fine aggregate, recycling, concrete

Procedia PDF Downloads 246
2820 A Combination of Anisotropic Diffusion and Sobel Operator to Enhance the Performance of the Morphological Component Analysis for Automatic Crack Detection

Authors: Ankur Dixit, Hiroaki Wagatsuma

Abstract:

The crack detection on a concrete bridge is an important and constant task in civil engineering. Chronically, humans are checking the bridge for inspection of cracks to maintain the quality and reliability of bridge. But this process is very long and costly. To overcome such limitations, we have used a drone with a digital camera, which took some images of bridge deck and these images are processed by morphological component analysis (MCA). MCA technique is a very strong application of sparse coding and it explores the possibility of separation of images. In this paper, MCA has been used to decompose the image into coarse and fine components with the effectiveness of two dictionaries namely anisotropic diffusion and wavelet transform. An anisotropic diffusion is an adaptive smoothing process used to adjust diffusion coefficient by finding gray level and gradient as features. These cracks in image are enhanced by subtracting the diffused coarse image into the original image and the results are treated by Sobel edge detector and binary filtering to exhibit the cracks in a fine way. Our results demonstrated that proposed MCA framework using anisotropic diffusion followed by Sobel operator and binary filtering may contribute to an automation of crack detection even in open field sever conditions such as bridge decks.

Keywords: anisotropic diffusion, coarse component, fine component, MCA, Sobel edge detector and wavelet transform

Procedia PDF Downloads 110
2819 Investigation of the Effect of Fine-Grained and Its Plastic Properties on Liquefaction Resistance of Sand

Authors: S. A. Naeini, M. Mortezaee

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of fine grain content in soil and its plastic properties on soil liquefaction potential. For this purpose, the conditions for considering the fine grains effect and percentage of plastic fine on the liquefaction resistance of saturated sand presented by researchers has been investigated. Then, some comprehensive results of all the issues raised by some researchers are stated. From these investigations it was observed that by increasing the percentage of cohesive fine grains in the sandy soil (up to 20%), the maximum shear strength decreases and by adding more fine- grained percentage, the maximum shear strength of the resulting soil increases but never reaches the amount of clean sand.

Keywords: fine-grained, liquefaction, plasticity, shear strength, sand

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2818 Development a Fine Motor and Executive Function Assessment (FiM&EF) for Assessing School Aged Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (AD/HD)

Authors: Negar Miri-Lavasani

Abstract:

Background: Children with Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) show fine motor skills difficulties, and it is controversial whether this difficulty is based on problems in their fine motor skills or their executive function impairments. Objectives of Study: The Fine Motor and Executive Function assessment tool (FiM&EF) was developed to answer the question, ‘Do the fine motor skill deficits in children with ADHD come from their fine motor problems or is it caused by their executive function problems?’. This paper describes the development of a new assessment of Fine Motor and Executive Function (FiM &EF) needed by primary school students with ADHD aged 6-12 years with ADHD. Methods: A study on the content validity established through a survey of a panel of nine experts is explained in detail. Findings: Most the experts agreed such an assessment was needed and two items were deleted as a result of experts’ feedback. Relevance to Clinical Practice: Distinguishing the main reason of fine motor problem in these children could help the clinician for their therapy plans. Knowledge on the influence of executive functioning on fine motor ability in selected age children with ADHD would provide a clearer clinical picture of the fine motor capabilities and executive function for these children.

Keywords: children with ADHD, executive function, fine motor, test

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2817 Anisotropic Shear Strength of Sand Containing Plastic Fine Materials

Authors: Alaa H. J. Al-Rkaby, A. Chegenizadeh, H. R. Nikraz

Abstract:

Anisotropy is one of the major aspects that affect soil behavior, and extensive efforts have investigated its effect on the mechanical properties of soil. However, very little attention has been given to the combined effect of anisotropy and fine contents. Therefore, in this paper, the anisotropic strength of sand containing different fine content (F) of 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20%, was investigated using hollow cylinder tests under different principal stress directions of α = 0° and α = 90°. For a given principal stress direction (α), it was found that increasing fine content resulted in decreasing deviator stress (q). Moreover, results revealed that all fine contents showed anisotropic strength where there is a clear difference between the strength under 0° and the strength under 90°. This anisotropy was greatest under F = 5% while it decreased with increasing fine contents, particularly at F = 10%. Mixtures with low fine content show low contractive behavior and tended to show more dilation. Moreover, all sand-clay mixtures exhibited less dilation and more compression at α = 90° compared with that at α = 0°.

Keywords: anisotropy, principal stress direction, fine content, hollow cylinder sample

Procedia PDF Downloads 252
2816 Influence of Security Attributes in Component-Based Software Development

Authors: Somayeh Zeinali

Abstract:

A component is generally defined as a piece of executable software with a published interface. Component-based software engineering (CBSE) has become recognized as a new sub-discipline of software engineering. In the component-based software development, components cannot be completely secure and thus easily become vulnerable. Some researchers have investigated this issue and proposed approaches to detect component intrusions or protect distributed components. Software security also refers to the process of creating software that is considered secure.The terms “dependability”, “trustworthiness”, and “survivability” are used interchangeably to describe the properties of software security.

Keywords: component-based software development, component-based software engineering , software security attributes, dependability, component

Procedia PDF Downloads 465
2815 Fingers Exergames to Improve Fine Motor Skill in Autistic Children

Authors: Zulhisyam Salleh, Fizatul Aini Patakor, Rosilah Wahab, Awangku Khairul Ridzwan Awangku Jaya

Abstract:

Autism is a lifelong developmental disability that affects how people perceive the world and interact with others. Most of these children have difficulty with fine motor skills which typically struggle with handwriting and fine activities in their routine life such as getting dressed and controlled use of the everyday tool. Because fine motor activities encompass so many routine functions, a fine motor delay can have a measurable negative impact on a person's ability to handle daily practical tasks. This project proposed a simple fine motor exercise aid plus the game (exergame) for autistic children who discover from fine motor difficulties. The proposed exergame will be blinking randomly and user needs to bend their finger accordingly. It will notify the user, whether they bend the right finger or not. The system is realized using Arduino, which is programmed to control all the operated circuit. The feasibility studies with six autistic children were conducted and found the child interested in using exergame and could quickly get used to it. This study provides important guidance for future investigations of the exergame potential for accessing and improving fine motor skill among autistic children.

Keywords: autism children, Arduino project, fine motor skill, finger exergame

Procedia PDF Downloads 85
2814 Effect of Fault Depth on Near-Fault Peak Ground Velocity

Authors: Yanyan Yu, Haiping Ding, Pengjun Chen, Yiou Sun

Abstract:

Fault depth is an important parameter to be determined in ground motion simulation, and peak ground velocity (PGV) demonstrates good application prospect. Using numerical simulation method, the variations of distribution and peak value of near-fault PGV with different fault depth were studied in detail, and the reason of some phenomena were discussed. The simulation results show that the distribution characteristics of PGV of fault-parallel (FP) component and fault-normal (FN) component are distinctly different; the value of PGV FN component is much larger than that of FP component. With the increase of fault depth, the distribution region of the FN component strong PGV moves forward along the rupture direction, while the strong PGV zone of FP component becomes gradually far away from the fault trace along the direction perpendicular to the strike. However, no matter FN component or FP component, the strong PGV distribution area and its value are both quickly reduced with increased fault depth. The results above suggest that the fault depth have significant effect on both FN component and FP component of near-fault PGV.

Keywords: fault depth, near-fault, PGV, numerical simulation

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2813 Gender-Based Violence Public Art Projects: An Analysis of the Value of Including Social Justice Topics in Tertiary Courses

Authors: F. Saptouw

Abstract:

This paper will examine the value of introducing social justice issues into the tertiary fine art curriculum at a first-year level. The paper will present detail of the conceptual impetus and the logistics related to the execution of a collaborative teaching project. The cohort of students was registered for the Fine Art Foundation course at the Michaelis School of Fine Art at the University of Cape Town. The course is dedicated to the development of critical thinking, communication skills, and varied approaches to knowledge construction within the first-year cohort. A core component of the course is the examination of the representation of gender, identity, politics, and power. These issues are examined within a range of public and private representations like art galleries, museum spaces, and contemporary popular culture. This particular project was a collaborative project with the Office of Inclusivity and Change, and the project leaders were Fabian Saptouw and Gabriel Khan. The paper will conclude by presenting an argument for the importance of such projects within the tertiary environment.

Keywords: art, education, gender-based violence, social responsiveness

Procedia PDF Downloads 64
2812 A Survey on Intelligent Techniques Based Modelling of Size Enlargement Process for Fine Materials

Authors: Mohammad Nadeem, Haider Banka, R. Venugopal

Abstract:

Granulation or agglomeration is a size enlargement process to transform the fine particulates into larger aggregates since the fine size of available materials and minerals poses difficulty in their utilization. Though a long list of methods is available in the literature for the modeling of granulation process to facilitate the in-depth understanding and interpretation of the system, there is still scope of improvements using novel tools and techniques. Intelligent techniques, such as artificial neural network, fuzzy logic, self-organizing map, support vector machine and others, have emerged as compelling alternatives for dealing with imprecision and complex non-linearity of the systems. The present study tries to review the applications of intelligent techniques in the modeling of size enlargement process for fine materials.

Keywords: fine material, granulation, intelligent technique, modelling

Procedia PDF Downloads 119
2811 The Effect of Hemsball Shooting Techniques on Fine Motor Skill Level of Chidren with Hearing Disabilities

Authors: Meltem Işık, Fatma Gür, İbrahim Kılıç

Abstract:

This study aims to explore the effects of hemsball shooting techniques on the fine motor skill level of children with hearing disabilities. A total number of 26 children with hearing disabilities, ages ranging between 7 and 11 and which were equally divided into experimental group and control group participated in the study. In this context, an exercise training program dedicated to hemsball shooting techniques was introduced to the experimental group 3 days a week in one hour sessions for a period of 10 weeks. BOT-2 fine motor skills test which includes three dimensions (fine motor accuracy, fine motor task completion, and dexterity) was selected as the data collection method. Descriptive statistics along with two-factor ANOVA which was focused on repetitive measurements of the differences between pretest and posttest scores of both groups were used in the analysis of the data collected. The results of this study showed that hemsball shooting techniques have a statistically significant effect on the fine motor skill level.

Keywords: hemsball shooting techniques, BOT-2 test, fine motor skills, hearing disabilities

Procedia PDF Downloads 189
2810 Fine-Grained Sentiment Analysis: Recent Progress

Authors: Jie Liu, Xudong Luo, Pingping Lin, Yifan Fan

Abstract:

Facebook, Twitter, Weibo, and other social media and significant e-commerce sites generate a massive amount of online texts, which can be used to analyse people’s opinions or sentiments for better decision-making. So, sentiment analysis, especially fine-grained sentiment analysis, is a very active research topic. In this paper, we survey various methods for fine-grained sentiment analysis, including traditional sentiment lexicon-based methods, machine learning-based methods, and deep learning-based methods in aspect/target/attribute-based sentiment analysis tasks. Besides, we discuss their advantages and problems worthy of careful studies in the future.

Keywords: sentiment analysis, fine-grained, machine learning, deep learning

Procedia PDF Downloads 127
2809 Effects of Particle Size Distribution of Binders on the Performance of Slag-Limestone Ternary Cement

Authors: Zhuomin Zou, Elke Gruyaert, Thijs Van Landeghem

Abstract:

Using supplementary cementitious materials, such as blast-furnace slag and limestone, to replace cement clinker is a promising method to reduce the carbon emissions from cement production. To efficiently use slag and limestone, it is necessary to carefully select the particle size distribution (PSD) of the binders. This study investigated the effects of the PSD of binders on the performance of slag-limestone ternary cement. The Portland cement (PC) was prepared by grinding 95% clinker + 5% gypsum. Based on the PSD parameters of the binders, three types of ternary cements with a similar overall PSD were designed, i.e., NO.1 fine slag, medium PC, and coarse limestone; NO.2 fine limestone, medium PC, and coarse slag; NO.3. fine PC, medium slag, and coarse limestone. The binder contents in the ternary cements were (a) 50 % PC, 40 % slag, and 10 % limestone (called high cement group) or (b) 35 % PC, 55 % slag, and 10 % limestone (called low cement group). The pure PC and binary cement with 50% slag and 50% PC prepared with the same binders as the ternary cement were considered as reference cements. All these cements were used to investigate the mortar performance in terms of workability, strength at 2, 7, 28, and 90 days, carbonation resistance, and non-steady state chloride migration resistance at 28 and 56 days. Results show that blending medium PC with fine slag could exhibit comparable performance to blending fine PC with medium/coarse slag in binary cement. For the three ternary cements in the high cement group, ternary cement with fine limestone (NO.2) shows the lowest strength, carbonation, and chloride migration performance. Ternary cements with fine slag (NO.1) and with fine PC (NO.3) show the highest flexural strength at early and late ages, respectively. In addition, compared with ternary cement with fine PC (NO.3), ternary cement with fine slag (NO.1) has a similar carbonation resistance and a better chloride migration resistance. For the low cement group, three ternary cements have a similar flexural and compressive strength before 7 days. After 28 days, ternary cement with fine limestone (NO.2) shows the highest flexural strength while fine PC (NO.3) has the highest compressive strength. In addition, ternary cement with fine slag (NO.1) shows a better chloride migration resistance but a lower carbonation resistance compared with the other two ternary cements. Moreover, the durability performance of ternary cement with fine PC (NO.3) is better than that of fine limestone (NO.2).

Keywords: limestone, particle size distribution, slag, ternary cement

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2808 Study on Brick Aggregate Made Pervious Concrete at Zero Fine Level

Authors: Monjurul Hasan, Golam Kibria, Abdus Salam

Abstract:

Pervious concrete is a form of lightweight porous concrete, obtained by eliminating the fine aggregate from the normal concrete mix. The advantages of this type of concrete are lower density, lower cost due to lower cement content, lower thermal conductivity, relatively low drying shrinkage, no segregation and capillary movement of water. In this paper an investigation is made on the mechanical response of the pervious concrete at zero fine level (zero fine concrete) made with local brick aggregate. Effect of aggregate size variation on the strength, void ratio and permeability of the zero fine concrete is studied. Finally, a comparison is also presented between the stone aggregate made pervious concrete and brick aggregate made pervious concrete. In total 75 concrete cylinder were tested for compressive strength, 15 cylinder were tested for void ratio and 15 cylinder were tested for permeability test. Mix proportion (cement: Coarse aggregate) was kept fixed at 1:6 (by weights), where water cement ratio was valued 0.35 for preparing the sample specimens. The brick aggregate size varied among 25mm, 19mm, 12mm. It has been found that the compressive strength decreased with the increment of aggregate size but permeability increases and concrete made with 19mm maximum aggregate size yields the optimum value. No significant differences on the strength and permeability test are observed between the brick aggregate made zero fine concrete and stone aggregate made zero fine concrete.

Keywords: pervious concrete, brick aggregate concrete, zero fine concrete, permeability, porosity

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2807 Development of Non-Structural Crushed Palm Kernel Shell Fine Aggregate Concrete

Authors: Kazeem K. Adewole, Ismail A. Yahya

Abstract:

In the published literature, Palm Kernel Shell (PKS), an agricultural waste has largely been used as a large aggregate in PKS concrete production. In this paper, the development of Crushed Palm Kernel Shell Fine Aggregate Concrete (CPKSFAC) with crushed PKS (CPKS) as the fine aggregate and granite as the coarse aggregate is presented. 100mm x 100mm x 100mm 1:11/2:3 and 1:2:4 CPKSFAC and River Sand Fine Aggregate Concrete (RSFAC) cubes were molded, cured for 28 days and subjected to a compressive strength test. The average wet densities of the 1:11/2:3 and 1:2:4 CPKSFAC cubes are 2240kg/m3 and 2335kg/m3 respectively. The average wet densities of the 1:11/2:3 and 1:2:4 RSFAC cubes are 2606kg/m3 and 2553kg/m3 respectively. The average compressive strengths of the 1:11/2:3 and 1:2:4 CPKSFAC cubes are 15.40MPa and 14.30MPa respectively. This study demonstrates that CPKSFA is suitable for the production of non-structural C8/10 and C12/15 concrete specified in BS EN 206-1:2000.

Keywords: crushed palm kernel shell, fine aggregate, lightweight concrete, non-structural concrete

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2806 Effects of Web-Enabled Sculpture Package on Colleges of Education Students’ Psychomotor Ability in Fine Arts in South-West, Nigeria

Authors: Ibrahim A. Kareem, Sina O. Ayelaagbe

Abstract:

This study investigated the effects of web-enabled Sculpture package on Colleges of Education students’ psychomotor level in Fine Arts in South-west, Nigeria. The objectives of this study were to: (i) determine the effect of web-enabled Sculpture package on Fine Arts Students’ performance; (ii) find out the effect of ability levels on Fine Arts Students’ performance and (iii) ascertain the interaction effect of treatment and ability levels on Fine Arts Students’ performance. The study was quasi-experimental design. A total of 48 Fine Arts Students participated in the study. There were 26 students in experimental and 22 for the control. The respondents were purposively sampled from Adeyemi College of Education, Ondo and Federal College of Education (Special) Oyo. Sculpture Achievement Test, Sculpture Skill Test and Sculpture ‘on the Spot’ Skill Assessment Instrument were validated by experts while Pearson’s Product Moment Correlation (PPMC) statistics was used to analyse the instrument while the remaining two instruments were subjected to Cronbach alpha statistics. Data were analysed using t-test and ANCOVA were used to test the hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The findings of the study revealed that: (i) Fine Arts Students’ in the experimental group performed significantly better than the control group; (ii) there was a significant difference among high, medium and low ability levels mean scores of Fine Arts Students’ performance in Colleges of Education; (iii) there was no significant interaction effect of treatment and ability levels on the mean scores of Fine Arts Students’ performance in Colleges of Education and. The study concluded that Fine Arts Students exposed to web-enabled Sculpture package performed better than those taught using the conventional method. Based on the study it was recommended that lecturers in Colleges of Education should endeavour to adapt and utilise web-enabled Sculpture package for teaching sculpture.

Keywords: fine art, psychomotor, sculpture, web-enabled

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2805 Comparative Study of Medical and Fine Art Students on the Level of Perceived Stress and Coping Skills

Authors: Bushra Mussawar, Saleha Younus

Abstract:

Students often view their academic life demanding and stressful. However, apart from academics, stress springs from various other sources namely, finance, family, health, friends etc. The present study aims to assess the level of perceived stress in medical and fine arts students, and to determine the coping strategies used by the students to mitigate stress. The sample of the study consisted of 178 medical and fine arts students. The sample was selected through purposive sampling. Pearson correlation coefficient and T-test were used to analyze data. Results of the study revealed that there exists a positive relationship between perceived stress and coping strategies. Additionally, the two groups showed marked differences in terms of stress perception and coping styles. The level of perceived stress was found to be high in medical students nonetheless, they employed more positive coping strategies than fine arts students who scored high on negative coping strategies which are deleterious to the overall wellbeing.

Keywords: perceived stress, coping strategies, medical, fine arts students

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2804 Object-Oriented Program Comprehension by Identification of Software Components and Their Connexions

Authors: Abdelhak-Djamel Seriai, Selim Kebir, Allaoua Chaoui

Abstract:

During the last decades, object oriented program- ming has been massively used to build large-scale systems. However, evolution and maintenance of such systems become a laborious task because of the lack of object oriented programming to offer a precise view of the functional building blocks of the system. This lack is caused by the fine granularity of classes and objects. In this paper, we use a post object-oriented technology namely software components, to propose an approach based on the identification of the functional building blocks of an object oriented system by analyzing its source code. These functional blocks are specified as software components and the result is a multi-layer component based software architecture.

Keywords: software comprehension, software component, object oriented, software architecture, reverse engineering

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2803 Moisture Impact on the Utilization of Recycled Concrete Fine Aggregate to Produce Mortar

Authors: Rahimullah Habibzai

Abstract:

To achieve a sustainable concrete industry, reduce exploitation of the natural aggregate resources, and mitigate waste concrete environmental burden, one way is to use recycled concrete aggregate. The utilization of low-quality fine aggregate inclusively recycled concrete sand that is produced from crushing waste concrete recently has become a popular and challenging topic among researchers nowadays. This study provides a scientific base for promoting the application of concrete waste as fine aggregate in producing concrete by conducting a comprehensive laboratory program. The mechanical properties of mortar made from recycled concrete fine aggregate (RCFA), that is produced by pulse power crushing concrete waste are satisfactory and capable of being utilized in the construction industry. A better treatment of RCFA particles and enhancing its quality will make it possible to be utilized in producing structural concrete. Pulse power discharge technology is proposed in this research to produce RCFA, which is a more effective and promising technique compared to other recycling methods to generate medium to high-quality recycled concrete fine aggregate with a reduced amount of powder, mitigate the environmental burden, and save more space.

Keywords: construction and demolition waste, concrete waste recycle fine aggregate, pulse power discharge

Procedia PDF Downloads 75
2802 Software Quality Assurance in Component Based Software Development – a Survey Analysis

Authors: Abeer Toheed Quadri, Maria Abubakar, Mehreen Sirshar

Abstract:

Component Based Software Development (CBSD) is a new trend in software development. Selection of quality components is not enough to ensure software quality in Component Based Software System (CBSS). A software product is considered to be a quality product if it satisfies its customer’s needs and has minimum defects. Authors’ survey different research papers and analyzes various techniques which ensure software quality in component based software development. This paper includes an investigation about how to improve the quality of a component based software system without effecting quality attributes. The reported information is identified from literature survey. The developments of component based systems are rising as they reduce the development time, effort and cost by means of reuse. After analysis, it has been explored that in order to achieve the quality in a CBSS we need to have the components that are certified through software measure because the predictability of software quality attributes of system depend on the quality attributes of the constituent components, integration process and the framework used.

Keywords: CBSD (component based software development), CBSS (component based software system), quality components, SQA (software quality assurance)

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2801 Malposition of Femoral Component in Total Hip Arthroplasty

Authors: Renate Krassnig, Gloria M. Hohenberger, Uldis Berzins, Stefen Fischerauer

Abstract:

Background: Only a few reports discuss the effectiveness of intraoperative radiographs for placing femoral components. Therefore there is no international standard in using intraoperative imaging in the proceeding of total hip replacement. Method: Case report; an 84-year-old female patient underwent changing the components of the Total hip arthroplasty (THA) because of aseptic loosening. Due to circumstances, the surgeon decided to implant a cemented femoral component. The procedure was without any significant abnormalities. The first postoperative radiograph was planned after recovery – as usual. The x-ray imaging showed a misplaced femoral component. Therefore a CT-scan was performed additionally and the malposition of the cemented femoral component was confirmed. The patient had to undergo another surgery – removing of the cemented femoral component and implantation of a new well placed one. Conclusion: Intraoperative imaging of the femoral component is not a common standard but this case shows that intraoperative imaging is a useful method for detecting errors and gives the surgeon the opportunity to correct errors intraoperatively.

Keywords: femoral component, intraoperative imaging, malplacement, revison

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2800 Evaluation of Liquefaction Potential of Fine Grained Soil: Kerman Case Study

Authors: Reza Ziaie Moayed, Maedeh Akhavan Tavakkoli

Abstract:

This research aims to investigate and evaluate the liquefaction potential in a project in Kerman city based on different methods for fine-grained soils. Examining the previous damages caused by recent earthquakes, it has been observed that fine-grained soils play an essential role in the level of damage caused by soil liquefaction. But, based on previous investigations related to liquefaction, there is limited attention to evaluating the cyclic resistance ratio for fine-grain soils, especially with the SPT method. Although using a standard penetration test (SPT) to find the liquefaction potential of fine-grain soil is not common, it can be a helpful method based on its rapidness, serviceability, and availability. In the present study, the liquefaction potential has been first determined by the soil’s physical properties obtained from laboratory tests. Then, using the SPT test and its available criterion for evaluating the cyclic resistance ratio and safety factor of liquefaction, the correction of effecting fine-grained soils is made, and then the results are compared. The results show that using the SPT test for liquefaction is more accurate than using laboratory tests in most cases due to the contribution of different physical parameters of soil, which leads to an increase in the ultimate N₁(60,cs).

Keywords: liquefaction, cyclic resistance ratio, SPT test, clay soil, cohesion soils

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2799 Chemical Leaching of Metals from Landfill’s Fine Fraction

Authors: E. Balkauskaitė, A. Bučinskas, R. Ivanauskas, M. Kriipsalu, G. Denafas

Abstract:

Leaching of heavy metals (chromium, zinc, copper) from the fine fraction of the Torma landfill (Estonia) was investigated. The leaching kinetics studies have determined the dependence of some metal’s concentration on the leaching time. Metals were leached with Aqua Regia, distilled water and EDTA (Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid); process was most intensive 2 hours after the start of the experiment, except for copper with EDTA (0.5 h) and lead with EDTA (4 h). During leaching, steady concentrations of Fe, Mn, Cd and Pb were fully stabilized after 8 h; however concentrations of Cu and Ni were not stabilized after 10 h.

Keywords: fine fraction, landfills, leached metals, leaching kinetics

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2798 Kohonen Self-Organizing Maps as a New Method for Determination of Salt Composition of Multi-Component Solutions

Authors: Sergey A. Burikov, Tatiana A. Dolenko, Kirill A. Gushchin, Sergey A. Dolenko

Abstract:

The paper presents the results of clusterization by Kohonen self-organizing maps (SOM) applied for analysis of array of Raman spectra of multi-component solutions of inorganic salts, for determination of types of salts present in the solution. It is demonstrated that use of SOM is a promising method for solution of clusterization and classification problems in spectroscopy of multi-component objects, as attributing a pattern to some cluster may be used for recognition of component composition of the object.

Keywords: Kohonen self-organizing maps, clusterization, multi-component solutions, Raman spectroscopy

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2797 Rethinking the Value of Pancreatic Cyst CEA Levels from Endoscopic Ultrasound Fine-Needle Aspiration (EUS-FNA): A Longitudinal Analysis

Authors: Giselle Tran, Ralitza Parina, Phuong T. Nguyen

Abstract:

Background/Aims: Pancreatic cysts (PC) have recently become an increasingly common entity, often diagnosed as incidental findings on cross-sectional imaging. Clinically, management of the lesions is difficult because of uncertainties in their potential for malignant degeneration. Prior series have reported that carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), a biomarker collected from cyst fluid aspiration, has a high diagnostic accuracy for discriminating between mucinous and non-mucinous lesions, at the patient’s initial presentation. To the author’s best knowledge, no prior studies have reported PC CEA levels obtained from endoscopic ultrasound fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) over years of serial EUS surveillance imaging. Methods: We report a consecutive retrospective series of 624 patients who underwent EUS evaluation for a PC between 11/20/2009 and 11/13/2018. Of these patients, 401 patients had CEA values obtained at the point of entry. Of these, 157 patients had two or more CEA values obtained over the course of their EUS surveillance. Of the 157 patients (96 F, 61 M; mean age 68 [range, 62-76]), the mean interval of EUS follow-up was 29.7 months [3.5-128]. The mean number of EUS procedures was 3 [2-7]. To assess CEA value fluctuations, we defined an appreciable increase in CEA as "spikes" – two-times increase in CEA on a subsequent EUS-FNA of the same cyst, with the second CEA value being greater than 1000 ng/mL. Using this definition, cysts with a spike in CEA were compared to those without a spike in a bivariate analysis to determine if a CEA spike is associated with poorer outcomes and the presence of high-risk features. Results: Of the 157 patients analyzed, 29 had a spike in CEA. Of these 29 patients, 5 had a cyst with size increase >0.5cm (p=0.93); 2 had a large cyst, >3cm (p=0.77); 1 had a cyst that developed a new solid component (p=0.03); 7 had a cyst with a solid component at any time during surveillance (p=0.08); 21 had a complex cyst (p=0.34); 4 had a cyst categorized as "Statistically Higher Risk" based on molecular analysis (p=0.11); and 0 underwent surgical resection (p=0.28). Conclusion: With serial EUS imaging in the surveillance of PC, an increase in CEA level defined as a spike did not predict poorer outcomes. Most notably, a spike in CEA did not correlate with the number of patients sent to surgery or patients with an appreciable increase in cyst size. A spike in CEA did not correlate with the development of a solid nodule within the PC nor progression on molecular analysis. Future studies should focus on the selected use of CEA analysis when patients undergo EUS surveillance evaluation for PCs.

Keywords: carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), endoscopic ultrasound (EUS), fine-needle aspiration (FNA), pancreatic cyst, spike

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2796 Studying Frame-Resistant Steel Structures under Near Field Ground Motion

Authors: S. A. Hashemi, A. Khoshraftar

Abstract:

This paper presents the influence of the vertical seismic component on the non-linear dynamics analysis of three different structures. The subject structures were analyzed and designed according to recent codes. This paper considers three types of buildings: 5-, 10-, and 15-story buildings. The non-linear dynamics analysis of the structures with assuming elastic-perfectly-plastic behavior was performed using Ram Perform-3D software; the horizontal component was taken into consideration with and without the incorporation of the corresponding vertical component. Dynamic responses obtained for the horizontal component acting alone were compared with those obtained from the simultaneous application of both seismic components. The results show that the effect of the vertical component of the ground motion may increase the axial load significantly in the interior columns and consequently, the stories. The plastic mechanisms would be changed. The P-Delta effect is expected to increase. The punching base plate shear of the columns should be considered. Moreover, the vertical component increases the input energy when the structures exhibit inelastic behavior and are taller.

Keywords: inelastic behavior, non-linear dynamic analysis, steel structure, vertical component

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2795 Polymer Modification of Fine Grained Concretes Used in Textile Reinforced Cementitious Composites

Authors: Esma Gizem Daskiran, Mehmet Mustafa Daskiran, Mustafa Gencoglu

Abstract:

Textile reinforced cementitious composite (TRCC) is a development of a composite material where textile and fine-grained concrete (matrix) materials are used in combination. These matrices offer high performance properties in many aspects. To achieve high performance, polymer modified fine-grained concretes were used as matrix material which have high flexural strength. In this study, ten latex polymers and ten powder polymers were added to fine-grained concrete mixtures. These latex and powder polymers were added to the mixtures at different rates related to binder weight. Mechanical properties such as compressive and flexural strength were studied. Results showed that latex polymer and redispersible polymer modified fine-grained concretes showed different mechanical performance. A wide range of both latex and redispersible powder polymers were studied. As the addition rate increased compressive strength decreased for all mixtures. Flexural strength increased as the addition rate increased but significant enhancement was not observed through all mixtures.

Keywords: textile reinforced composite, cement, fine grained concrete, latex, redispersible powder

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2794 Sepiolite as a Processing Aid in Fibre Reinforced Cement Produced in Hatschek Machine

Authors: R. Pérez Castells, J. M. Carbajo

Abstract:

Sepiolite is used as a processing aid in the manufacture of fibre cement from the start of the replacement of asbestos in the 80s. Sepiolite increases the inter-laminar bond between cement layers and improves homogeneity of the slurries. A new type of sepiolite processed product, Wollatrop TF/C, has been checked as a retention agent for fine particles in the production of fibre cement in a Hatschek machine. The effect of Wollatrop T/FC on filtering and fine particle losses was studied as well as the interaction with anionic polyacrylamide and microsilica. The design of the experiments were factorial and the VDT equipment used for measuring retention and drainage was modified Rapid Köethen laboratory sheet former. Wollatrop TF/C increased the fine particle retention improving the economy of the process and reducing the accumulation of solids in recycled process water. At the same time, drainage time increased sharply at high concentration, however drainage time can be improved by adjusting APAM concentration. Wollatrop TF/C and microsilica are having very small interactions among them. Microsilica does not control fine particle losses while Wollatrop TF/C does efficiently. Further research on APAM type (molecular weight and anionic character) is advisable to improve drainage.

Keywords: drainage, fibre-reinforced cement, fine particle losses, flocculation, microsilica, sepiolite

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2793 Fine Grained Action Recognition of Skateboarding Tricks

Authors: Frederik Calsius, Mirela Popa, Alexia Briassouli

Abstract:

In the field of machine learning, it is common practice to use benchmark datasets to prove the working of a method. The domain of action recognition in videos often uses datasets like Kinet-ics, Something-Something, UCF-101 and HMDB-51 to report results. Considering the properties of the datasets, there are no datasets that focus solely on very short clips (2 to 3 seconds), and on highly-similar fine-grained actions within one specific domain. This paper researches how current state-of-the-art action recognition methods perform on a dataset that consists of highly similar, fine-grained actions. To do so, a dataset of skateboarding tricks was created. The performed analysis highlights both benefits and limitations of state-of-the-art methods, while proposing future research directions in the activity recognition domain. The conducted research shows that the best results are obtained by fusing RGB data with OpenPose data for the Temporal Shift Module.

Keywords: activity recognition, fused deep representations, fine-grained dataset, temporal modeling

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2792 A Robust and Adaptive Unscented Kalman Filter for the Air Fine Alignment of the Strapdown Inertial Navigation System/GPS

Authors: Jian Shi, Baoguo Yu, Haonan Jia, Meng Liu, Ping Huang

Abstract:

Adapting to the flexibility of war, a large number of guided weapons launch from aircraft. Therefore, the inertial navigation system loaded in the weapon needs to undergo an alignment process in the air. This article proposes the following methods to the problem of inaccurate modeling of the system under large misalignment angles, the accuracy reduction of filtering caused by outliers, and the noise changes in GPS signals: first, considering the large misalignment errors of Strapdown Inertial Navigation System (SINS)/GPS, a more accurate model is made rather than to make a small-angle approximation, and the Unscented Kalman Filter (UKF) algorithms are used to estimate the state; then, taking into account the impact of GPS noise changes on the fine alignment algorithm, the innovation adaptive filtering algorithm is introduced to estimate the GPS’s noise in real-time; at the same time, in order to improve the anti-interference ability of the air fine alignment algorithm, a robust filtering algorithm based on outlier detection is combined with the air fine alignment algorithm to improve the robustness of the algorithm. The algorithm can improve the alignment accuracy and robustness under interference conditions, which is verified by simulation.

Keywords: air alignment, fine alignment, inertial navigation system, integrated navigation system, UKF

Procedia PDF Downloads 62