Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 20

Search results for: Abolfazl Mohammadijoo

20 Trajectory Tracking of a 2-Link Mobile Manipulator Using Sliding Mode Control Method

Authors: Abolfazl Mohammadijoo

Abstract:

In this paper, we are investigating the sliding mode control approach for trajectory tracking of a two-link-manipulator with a wheeled mobile robot in its base. The main challenge of this work is the dynamic interaction between mobile base and manipulator, which makes trajectory tracking more difficult than n-link manipulators with a fixed base. Another challenging part of this work is to avoid from chattering phenomenon of sliding mode control that makes lots of damages for actuators in real industrial cases. The results show the effectiveness of the sliding mode control approach for the desired trajectory.

Keywords: mobile manipulator, sliding mode control, dynamic interaction, mobile robotics

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19 Evaluation Demografical Factors for Suicide Attempts among Hazrat Abolfazl Hospital of Minab City during 1389-1390 Years

Authors: Zahra khaksari, Mahboobeh Mehrabi

Abstract:

One of the biggest health problems in communities, suicide is now one of the top ten causes of death in the world. This study aimed to investigate the risk factors of suicide attempt in Minab city over two years. This was a descriptive and cross-sectional study. Subjects of this study were cases who admitted in Hazrat Abolfazl hospital of minab city over two years Since the beginning of 1389 to end of 1390. During this period,their cases were reviewed. To analyze data, descriptive statistics was applied. During this two-year period, 275 patients who had attempted suicide, of which 65 percent are female and most of them were 15-24 years. 60% of them were single and 70 % of rural areas. 51% of suicides in 1390 and most of the suicide attempts occurred at a rate of 37 percent in summer. and the most common way of attempting suicide was medication poisoning (74%). The suicide rate leading to death was 1.5% The chi-square test showes that there were significant relationship between suicide by gender and residence status. This means that more women are committing suicide of rural areas.based on The chi-square test there were significant relation between the gender and method, gender and the result of suicide and means that more women than men commit suicide with the use of drugs. Males were more successful suicide. who had attempted with organophosphates and hanging were more successful in suicide. The finding of the current study showed that most of the suicide victims were female ,rural deweller,14-24 years old,single, serious attention must be paid to the problems of this group. It also extends the field of education professionals and health centers, and psychological therapy that focuses specifically on this topic.

Keywords: attempt to suicide, minab, risk factors, suicide

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18 Numerical Modelling of Crack Initiation around a Wellbore Due to Explosion

Authors: Meysam Lak, Mohammad Fatehi Marji, Alireza Yarahamdi Bafghi, Abolfazl Abdollahipour

Abstract:

A wellbore is a hole that is drilled to aid in the exploration and recovery of natural resources including oil and gas. Occasionally, in order to increase productivity index and porosity of the wellbore and reservoir, the well stimulation methods have been used. Hydraulic fracturing is one of these methods. Moreover, several explosions at the end of the well can stimulate the reservoir and create fractures around it. In this study, crack initiation in rock around the wellbore has been numerically modeled due to explosion. One, two, three, and four pairs of explosion have been set at the end of the wellbore on its wall. After each stage of the explosion, results have been presented and discussed. Results show that this method can initiate and probably propagate several fractures around the wellbore.

Keywords: crack initiation, explosion, finite difference modelling, well productivity

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17 Interaction of Low-Impact Development Techniques and Urban River Flooding on the Zoning – Case Study Qomroud

Authors: Mohammad Reza Kavianpour, Arsalan Behzadifard Pour, Ali Aghazadeh Cloudy, Abolfazl Moqimi

Abstract:

In recent decades, and with increasing of urban population and development of the city, the amount of impermeable surfaces has been increased. This cause urban runoff enhancement. This enhancement, especially in cities with urban river, increases the possibility of urban flooding caused by the river flooding interaction and urban runoff. In this research, we tried SWMM utilizes software development methods and practices that seek to reduce the impact of runoff to the river flows to reduce Qomroud and Effects using Arc GIS and HEC-RAS software on how we see the flood zone.

Keywords: flood management, SWMM, runoff, flood zone

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16 Improving an Automotive Bumper Structure for Pedestrian Protection

Authors: Mohammad Hassan Shojaeefard, Abolfazl Khalkhali, Khashayar Ghadirinejad

Abstract:

In the present study, first, a three-dimensional finite element model of lower legform impactor according to the pedestrian protection regulation EC 78/2009 is carried out. The FE model of lower legform impactor then validated on static and dynamic tests by three main criteria which are bending angle, shear displacement and upper tibia acceleration. At the second step, the validated impactor is employed to evaluate bumper of a B-class automotive based on pedestrian protection criteria defined in EC regulation. Finally, based on some investigations an improved design for the bumper is then represented and compared with the base design. Results show that very good improvement in meeting the pedestrian protection criteria is achieved.

Keywords: pedestrian protection, legform impactor, automotive bumper, finite element method

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15 Dioxomolybdenum (VI) Schiff Base Complex Supported on Magnetic Nanoparticles as a Green Nanocatalysis in Epoxidation of Olefins

Authors: Abolfazl Bezaatpour, Sahar Khatami

Abstract:

Fe3O4 nanoparticles were prepared by the co-precipitation method and silica was then coated on the magnetic nanoparticles followed by modification with (3-aminopropyl) trimethoxysilane. Then, dioxomolybdenum(VI) Schiff base complex of N,N′-bis(5-chloromethyl-salicylidine)-1,2-phenylenediamine) was immobilized on the surface of magnetic nanoparticles as a heterogeneous catalyst. The catalyst was identified by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), X-ray diffraction, IR spectroscopy, diffuse reflectance spectra and atomic absorption spectroscopy techniques. The catalyst shows excellent catalytic activity in epoxidation of olefins using tert-butylhydroperoxide in 1,2-dichloroethane. In this report, the supported complex exhibited 100% selectivity for epoxidation with 100% conversion for cyclooctene. Nanocatalyst can be easily recovered by a magnetic field and reused for subsequent reactions for at least 5 times with less deterioration in catalytic activity.

Keywords: dioxomolybdenum (VI), epoxidation, nanocatalysis, nanoparticles, Schiff base

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14 The Effect of Conservative Tillage on Physical Properties of Soil and Yield of Rainfed Wheat

Authors: Abolfazl Hedayatipoor, Mohammad Younesi Alamooti

Abstract:

In order to study the effect of conservative tillage on a number of physical properties of soil and the yield of rainfed wheat, an experiment in the form of a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications was conducted in a field in Aliabad County, Iran. The study treatments included: T1) Conventional method, T2) Combined moldboard plow method, T3) Chisel-packer method, and T4) Direct planting method. During early October, the study soil was prepared based on these treatments in a field which was used for rainfed wheat farming in the previous year. The apparent specific gravity of soil, weighted mean diameter (WMD) of soil aggregates, soil mechanical resistance, and soil permeability were measured. Data were analyzed in MSTAT-C. Results showed that the tillage practice had no significant effect on grain yield (p < 0.05). Soil permeability was 10.9, 16.3, 15.7 and 17.9 mm/h for T1, T2, T3 and T4, respectively.

Keywords: rainfed agriculture, conservative tillage, energy consumption, wheat

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13 Alternator Fault Detection Using Wigner-Ville Distribution

Authors: Amin Ranjbar, Amir Arsalan Jalili Zolfaghari, Amir Abolfazl Suratgar, Mehrdad Khajavi

Abstract:

This paper describes two stages of learning-based fault detection procedure in alternators. The procedure consists of three states of machine condition namely shortened brush, high impedance relay and maintaining a healthy condition in the alternator. The fault detection algorithm uses Wigner-Ville distribution as a feature extractor and also appropriate feature classifier. In this work, ANN (Artificial Neural Network) and also SVM (support vector machine) were compared to determine more suitable performance evaluated by the mean squared of errors criteria. Modules work together to detect possible faulty conditions of machines working. To test the method performance, a signal database is prepared by making different conditions on a laboratory setup. Therefore, it seems by implementing this method, satisfactory results are achieved.

Keywords: alternator, artificial neural network, support vector machine, time-frequency analysis, Wigner-Ville distribution

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12 The Impact of Instructing Interpretation Specific Strategies on Interpretation Performance of Undergraduate Translation Students

Authors: Abolfazl Ghelichi, Ghasem Modarresi

Abstract:

The problem with interpretation courses arises from the fact that Interpretation Courses at University levels are presented by most of the instructors based on listening activities and testing listening performance while interpretation strategies have been underrated. The data are gathered from30 students majoring in Translation Studies to fulfill the major aims of the study including. The study aimed at: 1) examining the significant relationship between specific interpretation strategies and interpretation performance of translation students in interpretation courses, 2) investigating the significant difference between males and females in their interpretation performance, and 3) exploring the interpretation strategies which are more effective for the translation students to improve their interpretation performance from students’ opinions. The results of the study revealed that there was a statistically significant difference in the mean scores for the two groups. The experimental group outperformed the control group in their interpretation performance and the effect size was large. However, there was no significant difference between male and female with respect to their cognition [t (28) =.79, p<.05]. As for the results obtained from the interviews with the students, the commonalities emerged from the students’ responses were analyzed and reported by the researchers.

Keywords: anticipation, interpretation performance, interpretation strategy, shadowing

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11 Designing Inventory System with Constrained by Reducing Ordering Cost, Lead Time and Lost Sale Rate and Considering Random Disturbance in Ordering Quantity

Authors: Arezoo Heidary, Abolfazl Mirzazadeh, Aref Gholami-Qadikolaei

Abstract:

In the business environment it is very common that a lot received may not be equal to quantity ordered. in this work, a random disturbance in a received quantity is considered. It is assumed a maximum allowable limit for storage space and inventory investment.The impact of lead time and ordering cost reductions once they act dependently is also investigated. Further, considering a mixture of back order and lost sales for allowable shortage system, the effect of investment on reducing lost sale rate is analyzed. For the proposed control system, a Lagrangian method is applied in order to solve the problem and an algorithmic procedure is utilized to achieve optimal solution with the global minimum expected cost. Finally, proves on concavity and convexity of the model in the decision variables are shown.

Keywords: stochastic inventory system, lead time, ordering cost, lost sale rate, inventory constraints, random disturbance

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10 Topology and Shape Optimization of Macpherson Control Arm under Fatigue Loading

Authors: Abolfazl Hosseinpour, Javad Marzbanrad

Abstract:

In this research, the topology and shape optimization of a Macpherson control arm has been accomplished to achieve lighter weight. Present automotive market demands low cost and light weight component to meet the need of fuel efficient and cost effective vehicle. This in turn gives the rise to more effective use of materials for automotive parts which can reduce the mass of vehicle. Since automotive components are under dynamic loads which cause fatigue damage, considering fatigue criteria seems to be essential in designing automotive components. At first, in order to create severe loading condition for control arm, some rough roads are generated through power spectral density. Then, the most critical loading conditions are obtained through multibody dynamics analysis of a full vehicle model. Then, the topology optimization is performed based on fatigue life criterion using HyperMesh software, which resulted to 50 percent mass reduction. In the next step a CAD model is created using CATIA software and shape optimization is performed to achieve accurate dimensions with less mass.

Keywords: topology optimization, shape optimization, fatigue life, MacPherson control arm

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9 A Comparison of Transdiagnostic Components in Generalized Anxiety Disorder, Unipolar Mood Disorder and Nonclinical Population

Authors: Imaneh Abbasi, Ladan Fata, Majid Sadeghi, Sara Banihashemi, Abolfazl Mohammadee

Abstract:

Background: Dimensional and transdiagnostic approaches as a result of high comorbidity among mental disorders have captured researchers and clinicians interests for exploring the latent factors of development and maintenance of some psychological disorders. The goal of present study is to compare some of these common factors between generalized anxiety disorder and unipolar mood disorder. Methods: 27 patients with generalized anxiety disorder, 29 patients with depression disorder were recruited using SCID-I and 69 non-clinical population were selected using GHQ cut off point. MANCOVA was used for analyzing data. Results: The results show that worry, rumination, intolerance of uncertainty, maladaptive metacognitive beliefs, and experiential avoidance were all significantly different between GAD and unipolar mood disorder groups. However, there were not any significant differences in difficulties in emotion regulation and neuroticism between GAD and unipolar mood disorder groups. Discussion: Results indicate that although there are some transdiagnostic and common factors in GAD and unipolar mood disorder, there may be some specific vulnerability factors for each disorder. Further study is needed for answering these questions.

Keywords: transdiagnostic, depression, generalized anxiety disorder, emotion regulation

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8 Phenolic Compounds, Antiradical Activity, and Antioxidant Efficacy of Satureja hortensisl - Extracts in Vegetable Oil Protection

Authors: Abolfazl Kamkar

Abstract:

Vegetable oils and fats are recognized as important components of our diet. They provide essential fatty acids, which are precursors of important hormones and control many physiological factors such as blood pressure, cholesterol level, and the reproductive system.Vegetable oils with higher contents of unsaturated fatty acids, especially polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are more susceptible to oxidation.Protective effects of Sature jahortensis(SE) extracts in stabilizing soybean oil at different concentrations (200 and 400 ppm) were tested. Results showed that plant extracts could significantly (P< 0.05) lower the peroxide value and thiobarbituric acid value of oil during storage at 60 oC. The IC50 values for methanol and ethanol extracts were 31.5 ± 0.7 and 37.00 ± 0 µg/ml, respectively. In the β- carotene/linoleic acid system, methanol and ethanol extracts exhibited 87.5 ± 1.41% and 74.0 ±2.25 % inhibition against linoleic acid oxidation. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents of methanol and ethanol extracts were (101.58 ± 0. 26m g/ g) and (96.00 ± 0.027 mg/ g), (44.91 ± 0.14 m g/ g) and (14.30 ± 0.12 mg/ g) expressed in Gallic acid and Quercetin equivalents, respectively.These findings suggest that Satureja extracts may have potential application as natural antioxidants in the edible oil and food industry.

Keywords: satureja hortensis, antioxidant activity, oxidative stability, vegetable oil, extract

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7 Performance Prediction of a SANDIA 17-m Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Using Improved Double Multiple Streamtube

Authors: Abolfazl Hosseinkhani, Sepehr Sanaye

Abstract:

Different approaches have been used to predict the performance of the vertical axis wind turbines (VAWT), such as experimental, computational fluid dynamics (CFD), and analytical methods. Analytical methods, such as momentum models that use streamtubes, have low computational cost and sufficient accuracy. The double multiple streamtube (DMST) is one of the most commonly used of momentum models, which divide the rotor plane of VAWT into upwind and downwind. In fact, results from the DMST method have shown some discrepancy compared with experiment results; that is because the Darrieus turbine is a complex and aerodynamically unsteady configuration. In this study, analytical-experimental-based corrections, including dynamic stall, streamtube expansion, and finite blade length correction are used to improve the DMST method. Results indicated that using these corrections for a SANDIA 17-m VAWT will lead to improving the results of DMST.

Keywords: vertical axis wind turbine, analytical, double multiple streamtube, streamtube expansion model, dynamic stall model, finite blade length correction

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6 Fundamentals of Islamic Resistive Economy and Practical Solutions: A Study from Perspective of Infallible Imams

Authors: Abolfazl Alishahi Ghalehjoughi

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Economic independence and security of Islamic world is the top priority. Economic dependence of Muslim countries on economies of non-Muslim imperialist countries results in political and cultural dependencies, and such dependencies will jeopardize the noble Islamic culture; because the will of a dependent country to implements the noble teachings of Islam would be faced with challenges. Solidarity of Muslim countries to achieve a uniformed and resistive economy-based Islamic economic system can improve ability of Islamic world to resist and counteract economic shocks produced by imperialists. Islam is the most complete religion in every aspect, from ideological and epistemological, to legislative and ethical, and economic aspect is no exception. Islam provides solutions to develop a flourishing economy for the whole Islamic nation. Knowledge of such solutions and identification of mechanisms to operationalise them in Islamic communities can highly contributed to establishment of the superior Islamic economy. Encourage of hard working, achievement and knowledge production, correction of consumption patterns, optimized management of import and export, avoiding Islamically prohibited income, economic discipline and equity, and promotion of interest free loan and the like are among the most important solutions to realize such resistive economy.

Keywords: resistive economy, cultural independence, Islam, solidarity

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5 Chrysin-Loaded PLGA-PEG Nanoparticles Designed for Enhanced Inhibitory Effect on the Breast Cancer Cell Line

Authors: Faraz Zarghami, Elham Anari, Nosratollah Zarghami, Yones Pilehvar-Soltanahmadi, Abolfazl Akbarzadeh, Sepideh Jalilzadeh-Tabrizi

Abstract:

The development of nanotherapy has presented a new method of drug delivery targeted directly to the neoplasmic tissues, to maximize the action with fewer dose requirements. In the past two decades, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) has frequently been investigated by many researchers and is a popular polymeric candidate, due to its biocompatibility and biodegradability, exhibition of a wide range of erosion times, tunable mechanical properties, and most notably, because it is a FDA-approved polymer. Chrysin is a natural flavonoid which has been reported to have some significant biological effects on the processes of chemical defense, nitrogen fixation, inflammation, and oxidation. However, the low solubility in water decreases its bioavailability and consequently disrupts the biomedical benefits. Being loaded with PLGA-PEG increases chrysin solubility and drug tolerance, and decreases the discordant effects of the drug. The well-structured chrysin efficiently accumulates in the breast cancer cell line (T47D). In the present study, the structure and chrysin loading were delineated using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (HNMR), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the in vitro cytotoxicity of pure and nanochrysin was studied by the MTT assay. Next, the RNA was exploited and the cytotoxic effects of chrysin were studied by real-time PCR. In conclusion, the nanochrysin therapy developed is a novel method that could increase cytotoxicity to cancer cells without damaging the normal cells, and would be promising in breast cancer therapy.

Keywords: MTT assay, chrysin, flavonoids, nanotherapy

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4 A Study on Al-Riba Al-Hukmi and Its Instances from View of Islam

Authors: Abolfazl Alishahi Ghalehjoughi, Bi Bi Zeinab Hoseni

Abstract:

Islam is a comprehensive religion, and has rules for any thing. Islam attaches respect and importance to properties as well, and outlaws some types of transaction. A type of transaction that is strictly forbidden by the Islam is riba (usury), for which special punishments is considered in the Qur’an and hadiths. Usury is divided into (riba qarzi) loan usury and riba muamili (transaction usury); sometimes, in transaction and interest free loan contracts, ziyadah aini (interest in kind and of the same kind as that of the object of transaction) is not stipulated, but performance of work, provision of an advantage or a service, or a respite is stipulated, in which case although no ziyadah aini is in place, the transaction still constitutes usury and is outlaw. For instance, if a bank stipulates in an interest free loan contract that it pays a person the interest free loan only if he/she deposits a sum in the bank, this is an instance of riba hukmi. Or, for muamilah sarfi (transaction is which object of transaction and consideration is gold or silver) to be legitimate, it necessary that both the object of transaction and the consideration be handed over between the parties, because if a party takes delivery of the considered or object of transaction while the other party does not, the party who has taken delivery will accrue a benefit, as he/she wins time until he/she makes delivery to the other party, and this tantamount to usury in muamilah sarfi. Or, if a person lends a sum to another person, while the lender is indebted to the borrower, if the lender stipulates that he/she lends such amount only if the borrower postpones the maturity date of the lender’s debt to borrower, which is in one month, for a particular period of time, such loan will constitute usury. This research first provides views on riba hukmi, and then proceeds to analysis of views, trying to study fundamentals and proof regarding prohibition of riba hukmi, and to analyze instances of riba hukmi according to religious and hadith books.

Keywords: Islam, riba, prohibition, riba hukmi

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3 The Relationship among Attachment Styles, Humor Styles and Communication Patterns in Female Married Students

Authors: Elham Fathi, Seyed Mohammad Kalantarkousheh, Abolfazl Hatami Varzane

Abstract:

The present study aimed to determine predict capacity of the relationship among attachment styles, humor styles and communication patterns in female married students. Statistical population consisted of female married students from Allameh Tabataba’i University. The research sample consisted of 104 married students selected through convenience sampling. They responded to study instruments that consisted of attachment styles, humor styles and Communication patterns questionnaires. Data was analyzed by means of correlation method. The results indicated significant positive relationship between secure attachment styles with adaptive humor styles, and anxious attachment styles with maladaptive humor styles. Also a negative relationship between avoidant attachment with affiliative humor, and anxious attachment with self-enhancing humor was found. Furthermore, a negative relationship between self- enhancing humor styles with demand – withdraw communication pattern, and between affiliative humor with mutual avoidant communication pattern and a positive relationship between affiliative humor with mutual constructive communication pattern was observed. The relationship between secure attachment with mutual constructive communication pattern was positive, while relationship between avoidant attachment to mutual constructive communication pattern was negative and significant and its relation with mutual avoidant communication pattern was significantly positive. The result of regression analysis indicated that affliative humor style and secure attachment style, positively predicted mutual constructive communication pattern. Avoidant attachment style positively and affliative humor style negatively predicted the mutual avoidant communication pattern. And self-enhancing humor style negatively predicted the demand – withdraw communication pattern style.

Keywords: attachment styles, communication patterns, humor styles, female married students

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2 Bright Light Effects on the Concentration and Diffuse Attention Reaction Time, Tension, Angry, Fatigue and Alertness among Shift Workers

Authors: Mohammad Imani, JabraeilNasl Seraji, Abolfazl Zakerian

Abstract:

Background: Reaction time is the amount of time it takes to respond to a stimulus. In fact The time that passes between the introduction of a stimulus and the reaction by the subject to that stimulus. The aim of this interventional study is evaluation of bright light effects on concentration and diffuse attention reaction time, tension, angry, fatigue and alertness among shift workers. There are several incentives that can reduce the reaction time or added. Bright light as one of the environmental factors can reduce reaction time. Material &Method: This cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in 1391, in 88 subjects (44 Fixed morning worker and 44 shift worker ) In a 24 h time (13-16-19-22-1-4-7-10) in an ordinary light situation after a randomly selected sample size calculation, concentration and diffuse attention test (reaction time) has been done. After intervention and using of bright light (4500lux), again reaction time test was done. After analyzing by ElISA method obtained data were analyzed by statistical software SPSS 19 and using T-test and ANOVA statistical analysis. Results: Between average of reaction time tests in ordinary light exposed to fixed morning workers and bright light exposed to shift worker, with 95% CI, (P>%5) there was no significant relationship. After the intervention and the use of bright light (4500 lux),between average of concentration and diffused attention reaction time tests in ordinary light exposure on the fixed morning workers and bright light exposure shift workers with 95% CI, (P<5%) there was significant relationship. Conclusion: In sometimes of 24 h during ordinary light exposure concentration and diffused attention reaction time has changed in shift workers. After intervention, during bright light (4500lux) exposure as a light shower, focused and diffuse attention reaction time, tension ,angry and fatigue decreased.

Keywords: bright light, reaction time, tension, angry, fatigue, alertness

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1 A Leader-Follower Kinematic-Based Control System for a Cable-Driven Hyper-Redundant Manipulator

Authors: Abolfazl Zaraki, Yoshikatsu Hayashi, Harry Thorpe, Vincent Strong, Gisle-Andre Larsen, William Holderbaum

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Thanks to the high maneuverability of the cable-driven hyper-redundant manipulators (HRMs), this class of robots has shown a superior capability in highly confined and unstructured space applications. Although the large number of degrees of freedom (DOF) of HRMs enhances the motion flexibility and the robot’s reachability range, it highly increases the complexity of the kinematic configuration which makes the kinematic control problem very challenging or even impossible to solve. This paper presents our current progress achieved on the development of a kinematic-based leader-follower control system which is designed to control not only the robot’s body posture but also to control the trajectory of the robot’s movement in a semi-autonomous manner (the human operator is retained in the robot’s control loop). To obtain the forward kinematic model, the coordinate frames are established by the classical Denavit–Hartenburg (D-H) convention for a hyper-redundant serial manipulator which has a controlled cables-driven mechanism. To solve the inverse kinematics of the robot, unlike the conventional methods, a leader-follower mechanism, based on the sequential inverse kinematic, is followed. Using this mechanism, the inverse kinematic problem is solved for all sequential joints starting from the head joint to the base joint of the robot. To verify the kinematic design and simulate the robot motion, the MATLAB robotic toolbox is used. The simulation result demonstrated the promising capability of the proposed leader-follower control system in controlling the robot motion and trajectory in our confined space application.

Keywords: hyper-redundant robots, kinematic analysis, semi-autonomous control, serial manipulators

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