Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2915

Search results for: code of ethics for professional accountants

2915 Transparency of Audit Firms in Croatia

Authors: Marko Čular

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to raise general awareness of transparency importance for audit firms and for audit services’ users. This paper analyses transparency of audit firms that audited financial statements of listed companies, for year 2011 and 2012. We use this two years because in the meantime Code of Ethics for Professional Accountants has been adopted. This paper investigates whether transparency reports of audit firms are in accordance with the Croatian Audit Act and whether there is a difference on transparency in observed years. For this paper, quality index of transparency report and financial indicators of audit firms are used to get conclusion about condition of audit firms transparency reporting. Results of our study indicate that audit firms are not fully transparent, looking for both years. Transparency of audit firms in 2012 has improved significantly, compared with transparency in 2011.

Keywords: transparency report, index quality of transparency report, Croatian audit act, code of ethics for professional accountants

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2914 Information Technology Competences for Professional Accountants in Thai Small to Medium Accounting Practice

Authors: Manirath Wongsim, Chatchawarn Srimontree, Pornpichit Phosri

Abstract:

Today, the majority of the data innovation may be currently majorly influencing business, what more accepted part of the accountant may be evolving. Information Technology elements have been appearing to be crucial in triggering changes of accountants’ roles. Thus, this study aims to investigate IT competencies among professional accountants to enhance firm performance. This research was conducted with 47 respondents at five organizations in Thailand and used quantitative research. The results indicate that the factor IT competencies for professional accountants in Thai small to medium accounting within the organizational issues defines18 factors. Specifically, these new factors, based on the research findings and the literature, then unique to IT competencies for professional accountants, include ERP software skills and accounting law and legal skills. The evidence in this study suggests that Analytical skills, teamwork skills, and accounting software were ranked as much-needed skills to be acquired by accountants while communication skills were ranked as the most required skills and delegation skills as the least required. The findings of the research’s empirical evidence suggest that organizations should understand appropriate in developing information technology influence competencies for knowledge employees in general and professional accountants in particular and provide assistance in all processes of decision making.

Keywords: IT competencies, IT competences for professional accountants, IT skills for accounting, IT skills in SMEs

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2913 Challenges in Teaching Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct

Authors: Rasika Dayarathna

Abstract:

Computing has reached every corner of our lives in many forms. The Internet, particularly Social Media, Artificial Intelligence, are prominent among them. As a result, computing has changed our lives and it is expected that severe changes will take place in the coming years. It has introduced a new set of ethical challenges and amplified the existing ethical challenges. It is the duty of everyone involved from conceptualizing, designing, implementing, deploying, and using to follow generally accepted practices in order to avoid or minimize harm and improve the quality of life. Since computing in various forms mentioned above has a significant impact on our lives, various codes of conduct and standards have been introduced. Among many, the ACM (Association of Computing Machinery) Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct is a leading one. This was drafted for everyone, including aspiring computing professionals. However, teaching a code of conduct for aspiring computing professionals is very challenging since this universal code needs to be taught for young computing professionals in a local setting where there are value mismatches and exposure to information systems. This paper discusses the importance of teaching the code, how to overcome the challenges, and suggestions to improve the code to make it more appealing and buying in. It is expected that the improved approach would contribute to improving the quality of life.

Keywords: code of conduct, professionalism, ethics, code of ethics, ethics education, moral development

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2912 Awareness in the Code of Ethics for Nurse Educators among Nurse Educators, Nursing Students and Professional Nurses at the Royal Thai Army, Thailand

Authors: Wallapa Boonrod

Abstract:

Thai National Education Act 1999 required all educational institutions received external quality evaluation at least once every five years. The purpose of this study was to compare the awareness in the code of ethics for nurse educators among nurse educators, professional nurses, and nursing students under The Royal Thai Army Nurse College. The sample consisted of 51 of nurse educators 200 nursing students and 340 professional nurses from Army nursing college and hospital by stratified random sampling techniques. The descriptive statistics indicated that the nurse educators, nursing students and professional nurses had different levels of awareness in the 9 roles of nurse educators: Nurse, Reliable Sacrifice, Intelligence, Giver, Nursing Skills, Teaching Responsibility, Unbiased Care, Tie to Organization, and Role Model. The code of ethics for nurse educators (CENE) measurement models from the awareness of nurse educators, professional nurses, and nursing students were well fitted with the empirical data. The CENE models from them were invariant in forms, but variant in factor loadings. Thai Army nurse educators strive to create a learning environment that nurtures the highest nursing potential and standards in their nursing students.

Keywords: awareness of the code of ethics for nurse educators, nursing college and hospital under The Royal Thai Army, Thai Army nurse educators, professional nurses

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2911 IT Skills and Soft Skills for Accountants in Thailand

Authors: Manirath Wongsim

Abstract:

Information technology management has become important for the achievement of organisations. An increase in the pace of technological change has revolutionised the way accountants perform their jobs. In response to this challenge, the identification of a new comprehensive set of information technology competencies combined with information technology skills and other skills (namely, soft skills) are necessary. Thus, this study aims to investigate IT competencies among professional accountants to enhance firm performance. This research was conducted with 42 respondents at ten organisations in Thailand. This research used qualitative, interpretive evidence.The results indicate that the factor IT competencies within the organizational issues defines19 factors. Specifically, these new factors, based on the research findings and the literature and unique to IT competences for professional accountants, include ERP software skills, BI software skills and accounting law and legal skills. The evidence in this study suggests that ERP software, spreadsheets, BI software and accounting software were ranked as much-needed skills to be acquired by accountants while communication skills were ranked as the most required skills, and delegation skills as the least required. The findings of the research’s empirical evidence suggest that organizations should understand appropriate into developing information technology related competencies for knowledge workers in general and professional accountants in particular and provide assistance in all processes of decision making.

Keywords: IT competencies, IT competencies for accountants, IT skills for accounting, soft skills for accountants

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2910 Ethical and Personality Factors and Accounting Professional Judgement

Authors: Shannon Hashemi, Alireza Daneshfar

Abstract:

Accounting ethical awareness has been widely promoted in recent years both in academia and in practice. However, the effectiveness of ethical awareness on accountants' judgment and choice of action is still debatable. This study investigates whether Machiavellianism and gender, as significant personality factors, influence the effect of ethical awareness on accountants' decision-making. Using an experiment, the results of ANOVA tests show that although introducing ethical awareness positively influences the accountants' judgment and choice of action, such an effect is significantly moderated by the accountants' Machiavellianism score and gender. Specifically, the test results show that the effect of introducing ethical awareness was higher on males with low Machiavellian score. The results also show that when the Machiavellian scores were high, the effect of ethical awareness was lower for both males and females. Applications of the results are discussed for accounting professionals as well as accounting ethics educators and researchers.

Keywords: ethical awareness, accounting decision making, Machiavellianism, ANOVA, ethics, accounting education

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2909 A Comprehensive Model of Professional Ethics Based on the Teachings of the Holy Quran

Authors: Zahra Mohagheghian, Fatema Agharebparast

Abstract:

Professional ethic is a subject that has been an issue today, so most of the businesses, including the teaching profession, understand the need and importance of it. So they need to develop a code of professional ethics for their own. In this regard, this study seeks to answer the question, with respect to the integrity of the Qur'an (Nahl / 89), is it possible to contemplate the divine teachers conduct to extract the divine pattern for teaching and training? In the code of conduct for divine teachers what are the most important moral obligations and duties of the teaching professionals? The results of this study show that the teaching of Khidr, according to the Quran’s verses, Abundant and subtle hints emphasized that it can be as comprehensive and divine pattern used in teaching and in the drafting of the charter of professional ethics of teachers used it. Also, the results show that in there have been many ethical principles in prophet Khidr’s teaching pattern.The most important ethical principles include: Student assessment, using objective and not subjective examples, assessment during teaching, flexibility, and others. According to each of these principles can help teachers achieve their educational goals and lead human being in their path toward spiritual evaluation.

Keywords: professional ethics, teaching-learning process, teacher, student, Quran

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2908 Need, Relevancy and Impact of Ethics Education in Accounting Profession

Authors: Mrigakshi Das

Abstract:

The ethics of a business is currently a high profile issue owing to sensational corporate scandals that had taken place in many countries causing extensive damages to the economy and society. These corporate scandals question the morality of businessmen in general and accountants in particular. It is argued that the accountants have been the main contributors to the decline in ethical standards of a business. This researcher has reviewed the need and impact of ethics education in accounting profession. Despite of ethical interventions, the rate of accounting scandals are increasing and have left the public questioning that has the profession become really less ethical?

Keywords: accounting, ethics education and intervention in accounting, accounting education, accounting profession, moral reasoning and development, ethics education

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2907 Accounting Practitioners’ Insight into Distance-Learning Graduates’ Workplace Ethics

Authors: Annelien A. Van Rooyen, Carol S. Binnekade, Deon Scott, Christina C. Shuttleworth

Abstract:

Society expects professional accountants to uphold fundamental principles of professional competence, confidentiality, and ethical behavior. Their work needs to be trusted by the public, clients and other stakeholders. However, self-interest, intimidation and even ignorance could create conditions in which accounting practitioners and their staff may act contradictory to these principles. Similarly, plagiarism and cheating occur regularly at higher education institutions, where students claim ignorance of these actions and the accompanying consequences. Teaching students ethical skills in a distance-learning environment where interaction between students and instructors is limited is a challenge for academics. This also applies to instructors who teach accounting subjects to potential professional accountants. The researchers wanted to understand the concerns of accounting practitioners regarding recently qualified accounting students’ understanding of ethics and the resulting influence on their conduct. A mixed method approach was used to obtain feedback from numerous accounting practitioners in South Africa. The research questions focused mainly on ethical conduct in the workplace and the influence of social media on the behavior of graduates. The findings of the research suggested, inter alia, that accounting practitioners are of the opinion that the ethical conduct of graduates starts at home, but higher education institutions play a pivotal role in providing students with an understanding of ethics in the workplace, including the role of social media. The paper concludes with recommendations on how academics in higher education institutions need to address these challenges.

Keywords: accounting profession, distance learning, ethics, workplace

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2906 Accountants and Anti-Money Laundering Compliance in the Real Estate Sector

Authors: Mark E. Lokanan, Liz Lee

Abstract:

This paper aims to examine the role of accountants as gatekeepers in anti-money laundering compliance in real estate transactions. The paper seeks to answer questions on ways in which accountants are involved in real estate transactions and mandatory compliance with regulatory authorities in Canada. The data for the study came from semi-structured interviews with accountants, lawyers, and government officials. Preliminary results reveal that there is a conflict between accountants’ obligation to disclose and loyalty to their clients. Accountants often do not see why they are obligated to disclose their clients' information to government agencies. The importance of the client in terms of the amount of revenue contributed to the accounting firm also plays a significant role in accountants' reporting decision-making process. Although the involvement of accountants in real estate purchase and sale transactions is limited to lawyers or notaries, they are often involved in designing financing schemes, which may involve money laundering activities. The paper is of wider public policy interests to both accountants and regulators. It is hard not to see Chartered Professional Accountant (CPA) Canada and government regulators using the findings to better understand the decision-making processes of accountants in their reporting practices to regulatory authorities.

Keywords: money laundering, real estate, disclosure, legislation, compliance

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2905 Guidance for Strengthening Ethics of Entrepreneurs in Information and Communication Technology Professional

Authors: Routsukol Sunalai

Abstract:

The objectives of this paper were to study current problem of ethics of entrepreneurs in information and communication technology professional, and to build their awareness of ethics, which would be useful as guidance for strengthening professional ethics among them. The study employed quantitative research method in order to analyze relationships or differences found in each ethics factor and report in statistics. The sample of this paper was 300 information technology users of Rajabhat Universities in Bangkok. The findings revealed that the ethics factors which gained the highest and high level of opinion included possessing principles of righteousness, having trust in themselves and others, and respecting different opinions of others and accepting the fact that people of different opinions.

Keywords: communication, ethics, information, entrepreneurs

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2904 Corporate Governance Development in Mongolia: The Role of Professional Accountants

Authors: Ernest Nweke

Abstract:

The work of Professional Accountants and Corporate governance are synonymous and cannot be divorced from each other. Organizations, profit and non-profit alike cannot implement sound corporate practices without inputs from Professional Accountants. In today’s dynamic corporate world, good corporate governance practice is a sine qua non. More so, following the corporate failures of the past decades like Enron and WorldCom, governments around the world, including Mongolia are becoming more proactive in ensuring sound corporate governance mechanisms. In the past fifteen years, the Mongolian government has taken several measures to establish and strengthen internal corporate governance structures in firms. This paper highlights the role of professional accountants and auditors play in ensuring that good corporate governance mechanisms are entrenched in listed companies in Mongolia. Both primary and secondary data are utilized in this research. In collection of primary data, Delphi method was used, securing responses from only knowledgeable senior employees, top managers, and some CEOs. Using this method, a total of 107 top-level company employees and executives randomly selected from 22 companies were surveyed; maximum of 5 and minimum of 4 from each company. These companies cut across several sectors. It was concluded that Professional Accountants play key roles in setting and maintaining firm governance. They do this by ensuring full compliance with all the requirements of good and sound corporate governance, establishing reporting, monitoring and evaluating standards, assisting in the setting up of proper controls, efficient and effective audit systems, sound fraud risk management and putting in place an overall vision for the enterprise. Companies with effective corporate governance mechanisms are usually strong and fraud-resilient. It was also discovered that companies with big 4 audit firms tend to have better governance structures in Mongolia.

Keywords: accountants, corporate disclosure, corporate failure, corporate governance

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2903 The Audit Quality Effects on Reputation of the Certified Public Accountants in Thailand

Authors: Prateep Wajeetongratana

Abstract:

This research aims to study the audit quality that affected to the reputation of the certified public accountants in Thailand. The researcher defined the population for this research as a group of the certified public accountants in Thailand who are the member of the federation of accounting professions under the royal patronage of his majesty the king also disclose their information .The total sampling size is 325. The results showed the audit quality factor has influence to the reputation of the certified public accountants in Thailand by accuracy auditing, objectiveness auditing and clearness auditing .These factors show by y1 = 1.381 + .372x1.1 + .309x1.2 + .305x1.3 can be describe as professional standard strictly factor (Y.1.1) and the new clients raised from word of mount of old clients regularly factor (Y.1.2) by regression coefficient (R2) as.242, this shows that such variables could predict the audit quality variable as 24.2 percent.

Keywords: audit quality, certified public accountants in Thailand, reputation

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2902 The Influences of Accountants’ Potential Performance on Their Working Process: Government Savings Bank, Northeast, Thailand

Authors: Prateep Wajeetongratana

Abstract:

The purpose of this research was to study the influence of accountants’ potential performance on their working process, a case study of Government Savings Banks in the northeast of Thailand. The independent variables included accounting knowledge, accounting skill, accounting value, accounting ethics, and accounting attitude, while the dependent variable included the success of the working process. A total of 155 accountants working for Government Savings Banks were selected by random sampling. A questionnaire was used as a tool for collecting data. Descriptive statistics in this research included percentage, mean, and multiple regression analyses. The findings revealed that the majority of accountants were female with an age between 35-40 years old. Most of the respondents had an undergraduate degree with ten years of experience. Moreover, the factors of accounting knowledge, accounting skill, accounting a value and accounting ethics and accounting attitude were rated at a high level. The findings from regression analysis of observation data revealed a causal relationship in that the observation data could explain at least 51 percent of the success in the accountants’ working process.

Keywords: influence, potential performance, success, working process

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2901 Accounting Knowledge Management and Value Creation of SME in Chatuchak Market: Case Study Ceramics Product

Authors: Runglaksamee Rodkam

Abstract:

The purpose of this research was to study the influence of accountants’ potential performance on their working process, a case study of Government Savings Banks in the northeast of Thailand. The independent variables included accounting knowledge, accounting skill, accounting value, accounting ethics, and accounting attitude, while the dependent variable included the success of the working process. A total of 155 accountants working for Government Savings Banks were selected by random sampling. A questionnaire was used as a tool for collecting data. Descriptive statistics in this research included percentage, mean, and multiple regression analyses. The findings revealed that the majority of accountants were female with an age between 35-40 years old. Most of the respondents had an undergraduate degree with ten years of experience. Moreover, the factors of accounting knowledge, accounting skill, accounting a value and accounting ethics and accounting attitude were rated at a high level. The findings from regression analysis of observation data revealed a causal relationship in that the observation data could explain at least 51 percent of the success in the accountants’ working process.

Keywords: influence, potential performance, success, working process

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2900 The Effects of Religiosity and Spiritual Intelligence on the Performance of Accountants in Ghana

Authors: Wisdom Dordudnu, George M. Y. Owusu, Samuel N. Y. Simpson

Abstract:

The recent failures of many corporate giants have generated intense research interest in the factors that influence accountants’ job performance. Against the backdrop that these factors also create an enabling environment for success at the work place, this study contributes to literature on job performance of accountants by exploring the impact of two psycho-spiritual factors: religiosity and spiritual intelligence on job performance of accountants in Ghana. The study employs a survey approach using questionnaires as the principal means of data collection to elicit responses from accountants working in the 222 certified firms of Institute of Chartered Accountants Ghana (ICAG). A structural equation modeling-based approach is employed to examine the relationship among the study constructs. Results of this study indicate that there is a positive relationship between these factors and accountants’ performance. It is expected that this study provides strong evidence and highlight the need for specific action from managers to look critically at the non-material aspect of accountants in accounting firms.

Keywords: job performance, psycho-spiritual, religiosity, spiritual intelligence

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2899 Relationship-Centred Care in Cross-Linguistic Medical Encounters

Authors: Nami Matsumoto

Abstract:

This study explores the experiences of cross-linguistic medical encounters by patients, and their views of receiving language support therein, with a particular focus on Japanese-English cases. The aim of this study is to investigate the reason for the frequent use of a spouse as a communication mediator from a Japanese perspective, through a comparison with that of English speakers. This study conducts an empirical qualitative analysis of the accounts of informants. A total of 31 informants who have experienced Japanese-English cross-linguistic medical encounters were recruited in Australia and Japan for semi-structured in-depth interviews. A breakdown of informants is 15 English speakers and 16 Japanese speakers. In order to obtain a further insight into collected data, additional interviews were held with 4 Australian doctors who are familiar with using interpreters. This study was approved by the Australian National University Human Research Ethics Committee, and written consent to participate in this study was obtained from all participants. The interviews lasted up to over one hour. They were audio-recorded and subsequently transcribed by the author. Japanese transcriptions were translated into English by the author. An analysis of interview data found that patients value relationship in communication. Particularly, Japanese informants, who have an English-speaking spouse, value trust-based communication interventions by their spouse, regardless of the language proficiency of the spouse. In Australia, health care interpreters are required to abide by the national code of ethics for interpreters. The Code defines the role of an interpreter exclusively to be language rendition and enshrines the tenets of accuracy, confidentiality and professional role boundaries. However, the analysis found that an interpreter who strictly complies with the Code sometimes fails to render the real intentions of the patient and their doctor. Findings from the study suggest that an interpreter should not be detached from the context and should be more engaged in the needs of patients. Their needs are not always communicated by an interpreter when they simply follow a professional code of ethics. The concept of relationship-centred care should be incorporated in the professional practice of health care interpreters.

Keywords: health care, Japanese-English medical encounters, language barriers, trust

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2898 Driven Force of Integrated Reporting in Thailand

Authors: Nuttha Kirdsinsap, Watchaneeporn Setthasakko

Abstract:

This paper aims to gain opinions and perspectives of Certified Public Accountants (CPA) in Thailand regarding the driven force of Integrated Reporting. It employs in-depth interviews with CPA from different big 4 audits firms in Thailand, including PWC, Ernst and Young, Deloitte, and KPMG. It is found that the driven force of Integrated Reporting made CPA in Thailand awaken to the big change that is coming in the future, and it is said to be another big learning and integrating period between certified public accountants and other professionals (for example, engineers, environmentalists and lawyers), which, certified public accountants in Thailand will have to push themselves so hard to catch up.

Keywords: integrated reporting, learning, knowledge, certified public accountants, Thailand

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2897 The Emerging Global Judicial Ethics: Issues and Problems

Authors: Caroline Foulquier-Expert

Abstract:

In many states around the world, actions to improve judicial ethics are developing significantly through the production of professional standards for judges. The quest to improve the ethics of judges is legitimate. However, as this development tends to be very important at the moment, some risks it presents must be highlighted. Indeed, if the objective of improving Judges’ Ethics is legitimate, it can also lead to banalization of justice, reinforcement of criticism against the judiciary and to broach incidentally the question of the limits of judgment, which is most perilous for the independence of the judiciary. This research, based on case studies, interviews with judges and an analysis of the literature on this topic (mainly from the United States of America and European Union Member States), tends to draw attention to the fact that the result of the development of these professional standards is that the ethical requirements of judges become ethical requirements of justice, which is an undesirable effect of which we must be aware, in order to prevent it.

Keywords: judicial ethics, codes of conduct, independence, limits of judgment

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2896 The Level of Adoption of IFRS by SMEs in Developing Countries: Case Study Uganda

Authors: Ssempijja Mark

Abstract:

The adoption of the use of IFRSis very paramount in quality financial reporting for SMEs, both internationally and locally. The adoption of IFRS helps to guide SMEs in better treatment of transactions which in the long run improves the financial performance of an entity. Despite the presence of professional training and regulatory bodies such as ICPAU that prescribe and regulate accounting and financial reporting practices in relation to IFRS in the country, key information regarding the level of adoption of IFRS by SMEs in Uganda has inadequately been available. This formed the main purpose of the study in order to bridge the information gap. This study assessed the extent of adoption of IFRS by SMEs, the influencers for the adoption level, both impeders, and enablers. The study employed a documentary research model. The collected data was from different sources such as; related research studies, journals, and related articles. The written studies greatly revealed that there was a low level of adoption of IFRS by SMEs in Uganda. It was also revealed that full adoption of IFRS was greatly hampered by hindrances such as; quality of Accountants, low level of knowledge by the individuals in accounting positions for SMEs.Furthermore, there was a strong correlation between adoption and impedersof IFRS for SMEson the adoption level. It was also found that there was a correlation effect between adoption hindrances and the level of adoption. It should be noted and several efforts should be made in the different capacities of the major players so as to curb the impeders affecting the level of adoption of IFRS’s in SMEs. This can include recruitment of professional Accountants, Continuous Professional Trainings to the Accountants, and putting up stringent measures by the policy makers so as to ensure SMEs adhere to reporting in reference to IFRS. The adoption of IFRS by SMEs will help to improve on better accounting purposes which will attract more investors, accessing credit facilities from financial institutions, improved tax planning, and profitability maximization of SME businesses.

Keywords: adoption, IFRS, Influencers, SMEs

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2895 Auditor with the Javanese Characters: Revealing the Relationship towards Its Client

Authors: Krisna Damayanti

Abstract:

Negative issue about the relationship between auditors and clients often heard. It arises in view of the rise of a variety of phenomena resulting from the audit practice of greed and do not appreciate the independence of the audit profession and professional code of ethics. It is a logical consequence of the practice of capitalism in accounting. The purpose of this paper would like to uncover the existing auditing practices in Indonesia, especially Java, which is associated with a strong influence of Javanese culture with reluctant/"shy", politely, "legowo", "ngemong" friendly, "not mentholo", "tepo seliro", "ngajeni", "acquiescent". The method used by interpretive approach that emphasizes the role of language, interpret and understand and see social reality as something other than a label, name or concept. Auditing practices in each country has a culture that will affect the standard set by those regulatory standards although there has been an adaptation of IAS. In Indonesia the majority of parties dominated by Javanesse racial regulators, so Java culture is embedded in every audit practices thus conditions in Java requires auditors to behave like that, sometimes interfere with standard Java code of conduct that must be executed by an auditor. Auditors who live in Java have the characters of Javanese culture that is hard to avoid in the audit practice. However, in practice, the auditor still are relevant in their profession.

Keywords: auditors, java, character, profession, code of ethics, client

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2894 Readiness Analysis of Indonesian Accountants

Authors: Lisa Listiana

Abstract:

ASEAN leader agreed to accelerate ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) implementation by 2015. The AEC Blueprint has set up obligations for its members to follow which include the establishment of (a) free trade in goods, according to ASEAN Free Trade Area: AFTA, (b) free trade in services, according to ASEAN Framework Agreement on Services: AFAS, (c) free trade in investment, according to ASEAN Comprehensive Investment Agreement: ACIA, (d) free capital flow, and (e) free flow of skilled labors. Consequently, these obligations bring both challenges and opportunities for its members. As accountant is included in the coverage of 8 skilled labors, the readiness of accounting profession to embrace AEC 2015 is pivotal. If Indonesian accountants do not accelerate their learning effort, the knowledge gap between Indonesian accountants and their international colleagues will only be worsened. This paper aims to analyze the current progress of AEC preparation and its challenges and opportunities for Indonesian accountants, and also to propose recommendation as necessary.

Keywords: AEC, ASEAN, readiness, Indonesian accountants

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2893 Accountant Strategists Challenge the Dominant Business Model: A Strategy-as-Practice Perspective

Authors: Lindie Grebe

Abstract:

This paper reports on a study that explored the strategizing practices of professional accountants in the mining industry, based on Jarratt and Stiles’ dominant strategizing practice models framework. Drawing on a strategy-as-practice perspective, the paper recognises qualified professional accountants in strategic management such as Chief Executive Officers, as strategy practitioners that perform their strategizing practices and praxis within a specific context. The main findings of this paper were produced through semi-structured individual interviews with accountants that perform strategy on a business level in the South African mining industry. Qualitative data were analysed through conversation analysis over two coding-cycles. Findings describe accountant strategists as practitioners who challenge the dominant business model when a disconnect seems to exist between international corporate level strategy and business level strategy in the South African mining industry. Accountant strategy practitioners described their dominant strategizing practice model as incremental change during strategic planning and as a lived experience during strategy implementation. Findings portrayed these strategists as taking initiative as strategy leaders in a dynamic and volatile environment to combine their accounting background with strategic management and challenge the dominant business model. Understanding how accountant strategists perform strategizing offers insight into the social practice of strategic management. This understanding contributes to the body of knowledge on strategizing in the South African mining industry. In addition, knowledge on the transformation of accountants as strategists could provide valuable practice relevant insights for accounting educators and the accounting profession alike.

Keywords: accountant strategists, dominant strategizing practice models framework, mining industry, strategy-as-practice

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2892 Integrating Programming Ethics into the Classroom: Case Study

Authors: Ruba Alkhasawneh

Abstract:

In Science, Technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) disciplines understanding ethical responsibilities and knowing the social impacts are as important as learning the core concepts throughout the engineering curriculum. As technology advances, the responsibilities of engineers and software developers increase to deliver high-quality products to their communities and globally. Integrating new technology without understanding its impact on society could have negative consequences. Thus, developing ethical skills is essential for computer and engineering students during college to prepare them for real-life ethical issues and how to solve them. In an object-oriented programming class at Applied Science Private University (ASU) in Jordan, real-life software-related case studies were presented to students, followed by a discussion to develop a basic understanding of ethical impacts on society. In addition, teach students the role programmers can play to prevent similar cases. The case studies were selected to cover part of the ACM code of ethics and professional conduct. Besides the ethical skills students are expected to gain, they are expected to develop an ability to think as professional programmers in critical situations and focus on the quality of their tasks and how they will impact their society and the world.

Keywords: STEM education, engineering ethics, awareness, programming

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2891 The Connection between the Schwartz Theory of Basic Values and Ethical Principles in Clinical Psychology

Authors: Matej Stritesky

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The research deals with the connection between the Schwartz Theory of Basic Values and the ethical principles in psychology, on which the meta-code of ethics the European Federation of Psychological Associations is based. The research focuses on ethically problematic situations in clinical psychology in the Czech Republic. Based on the analysis of papers that identified ethically problematic situations faced by clinical psychologists, a questionnaire of ethically problematic situations in clinical psychology (EPSCP) was created for the purposes of the research. The questionnaire was created to represent situations that correspond to the 4 principles on which the meta-code of ethics the European Federation of Psychological Associations is based. The questionnaire EPSCP consists of descriptions of 32 situations that respondents evaluate on a scale from 1 (psychologist's behaviour is ethically perfectly fine) to 10 (psychologist's behaviour is ethically completely unacceptable). The EPSCP questionnaire, together with Schwartz's PVQ questionnaire, will be presented to 60 psychology students. The relationship between principles in clinical psychology and the values on Schwartz´s value continuum will be described using multidimensional scaling. A positive correlation is assumed between the higher-order value of openness to change and problematic ethical situations related to the principle of integrity; a positive correlation between the value of the higher order of self-transcendence and the principle of respect and responsibility; a positive correlation between the value of the higher order of conservation and the principle of competence; and negative correlation between the value of the higher order of ego strengthening and sensitivity to ethically problematic situations. The research also includes an experimental part. The first half of the students are presented with the code of ethics of the Czech Association of Clinical Psychologists before completing the questionnaires, and to the second half of the students is the code of ethics presented after completing the questionnaires. In addition to reading the code of ethics, students describe the three rules of the code of ethics that they consider most important and state why they chose these rules. The output of the experimental part will be to determine whether the presentation of the code of ethics leads to greater sensitivity to ethically problematic situations.

Keywords: clinical psychology, ethically problematic situations in clinical psychology, ethical principles in psychology, Schwartz theory of basic values

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2890 Ethics in the Production of Chinese Reality TV

Authors: Tianyu Zhang

Abstract:

China has become one of the markets with the biggest potential for UK exporters, but it remains difficult for outsiders to explore Chinese media’s inner workings due to a lack of access. Having worked in Chinese media, the author conducted six month’s participant-observation in China Central Television (CCTV) and three independent production companies. This paper mainly explores how TV production ethics were implemented in the casting process of three Chinese reality shows that are well-known within the country. The three production teams had issues in common: unorganised management, subjective casting standards and lack of production ethics. Casting directors, who were multitasking, could only rely on their professional experience and ad-hoc demands from the management. More concerning phenomena such as borderline corruption, passive-aggressiveness, and blame cultures were prevalent during the entire production, especially during casting. The casting process also often involved the celebrity status of the many ‘ordinary’ participants who were not that ‘ordinary’ as they claimed. Many of these participants were professional talents who were not famous enough but worked as many other well-known celebrities who had their own employees. On the other hand, as comprehensive production and ethics guidelines were missing, junior television practitioners struggled between their ideal professional standards and real-life events that fell into grey areas – telling white lies, bribery, shifting blame, and lack of employee training. Although facing challenges, many practitioners came up with self-management solutions and worked with positivity.

Keywords: production studies, ethics, television production, ethnography, reality TV, Chinese TV

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2889 Code-Switching and Code Mixing among Ogba-English Bilingual Conversations

Authors: Ben-Fred Ohia

Abstract:

Code-switching and code-mixing are linguistic behaviours that arise in a bilingual situation. They limit speakers in a conversation to decide which code they should use to utter particular phrases or words in the course of carrying out their utterance. Every human society is characterized by the existence of diverse linguistic varieties. The speakers of these varieties at some points have various degrees of contact with the non-speakers of their variety, which one of the outcomes of the linguistic contact is code-switching or code-mixing. The work discusses the nature of code-switching and code-mixing in Ogba-English bilinguals’ speeches. It provides a detailed explanation of the concept of code-switching and code-mixing and explains the typology of code-switching and code-mixing and their manifestation in Ogba-English bilingual speakers’ speeches. The findings reveal that code-switching and code-mixing are functionally motivated and being triggered by various conversational contexts.

Keywords: bilinguals, code-mixing, code-switching, Ogba

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2888 Corporate Codes of Ethics and Earnings Discretion: International Evidence

Authors: Chu Chen, Giorgio Gotti, Tony Kang, Michael Wolfe

Abstract:

This study examines the role of codes of ethics in reducing the extent to which managers’ act opportunistically in reporting earnings. Corporate codes of ethics, by clarifying the boundaries of ethical corporate behaviors and making relevant social norms more salient, have the potential to deter managers from engaging in opportunistic financial reporting practices. In a sample of international companies, we find that the quality of corporate codes of ethics is associated with higher earnings quality, i.e., lower discretionary accruals. Our results are confirmed for a subsample of firms more likely to be engaging in opportunistic reporting behavior, i.e., firms that just meet or beat analysts’ forecasts. Further, codes of ethics play a greater role in reducing earnings management for firms in countries with weaker investor protection mechanisms. Our results suggest that corporate codes of ethics can be a viable alternative to country-level investor protection mechanisms in curbing aggressive reporting behaviors.

Keywords: corporate ethics policy, code of ethics, business ethics, earnings discretion, accruals

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2887 Public Administrators, Code of Conduct and the Nigerian Society

Authors: Mahmud Adam, Inuwa Abdu Ibrahim

Abstract:

The issue of ethics and values of public office holders in Nigerian has been and still is a matter of great mystery. Their behaviours in the discharge of their official responsibility remain unsatisfactory. The paper looks at the code of conduct and the societal values with which the Nigerian Administrators function today. Secondary sources of data were used. In conclusion, a change in attitude, reorientation, harsh and enforceable laws is required to reverse the trend.

Keywords: society, administrators, code of conduct, Nigeria

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2886 The History of Chartered Certified Accountants: The Case of Tunisia

Authors: Mariam Dammak, Yosra Makni Fourati, Rania Mnejja

Abstract:

This paper aims to highlight the conditions and the context of the birth and the implementation of the Chartered Certified Accountants in Tunisian universities. For this purpose, we present an historical overview of the establishment of institutions that started the courses of Chartered accounting, including the Institute of Higher Commercial Studies (IHEC) of Carthage, the Higher Institute of Management (ISG) of Tunis, the Faculty of Economics and Management (FSEG) of Sfax and later the Higher Institute of Accounting and Administration of Enterprises (ISCAE) of Tunis. Then, it would be relevant to examine the changes, carried out by the Tunisian government, of the regulations in force relating to this academic path, from its birth during the 1970s until nowadays. We conducted a documentary study (archival documents, official documents, etc.) accompanied by semi-structured interviews with key actors (accountants, academics, officials of the Ministry of Higher Education) who marked the history of the studies of Tunisian charted accounting. Addressing this research question in Tunisia may contribute to the literature in three ways. First, previous researches dealing with the history of charted accounting-education are scared. Second, this paper allows us to understand the circumstances and context of the birth and teaching of accounting in Tunisia. Eventually, it helps to position the accounting curriculum in relation to international requirements. In fact, the training of accountants is closely related to the practice of the profession, regulated by the Order of Chartered Accountants in Tunisia (OECT). This Order is a member of the International Federation of Accountants (IFAC), since its creation in the 80s, has obligations to align with international requirements, particularly those relating to higher education, set up in 2005 and updated in 2015 (International Standard Education: IES).

Keywords: accounting history, chartered certified accountants, higher accounting education, Tunisian context

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