Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 252

Search results for: supplied oil

252 Fabrication and Characterization of Cadmium Sulfide Nanowires on Aluminum Oxide Template

Authors: Malik Imran Afzal


Cadmium supplied nanowires have unique electrical and optical properties and applications. To obtain cadmium supplied nanowires with regular and good aspect ratio, they can be synthesized by template synthesis method. Porous anodized aluminum oxide is the most promising template with regular hexagonal shapes. Their aspect ratio can be controlled by controlling the pores’ depth and diameter which greatly depend on anodization voltage and temperature of the electrolyte. In this research, high purity aluminium was used to prepare nanotemplates at 5-6°C in 1M phosphoric acid and cadmium supplied was deposited electrochemically using a co-solution of thiourea, cadmium acetate and ammonium acetate. pH was maintained at 11 in a heat bath at 75°C with the help of aqueous ammonia solution. Both porous anodized alumina and cadmium supplied nanowires were characterized suing SEM. A good quality Nanowires were obtained in bunches with reasonably high aspect ratio.

Keywords: bunches, electrodeposition, hexagonal, thiourea

Procedia PDF Downloads 245
251 Assessment of Menus in a Selected Social Welfare Home with Regard to Nutritional Recommendations

Authors: E. Grochowska-Niedworok, K. Brukalo, B. Całyniuk, J. Piekorz, M. Kardas


The aim of the study was to assess diets of residents of nursing homes. Provided by social welfare home, 10 day menus were introduced into the computer program Diet 5 and analyzed in respect of protein, fats, carbohydrates, energy, vitamin D and calcium. The resulting mean values of 10-day menus were compared with the existing Nutrition Standards for Polish population. The analysis menus showed that the average amount of energy supplied from food is not sufficient. Carbohydrates in food supply are too high and represent 257% of normal. The average value of fats and proteins supplied with food is adequate 85.2 g/day and 75.2 g/day. The calcium content of the diet is 513.9 mg/day. The amount of vitamin D supplied in the age group 51-65 years is 2.3 µg/day. Dietary errors that have been shown are due to the lack of detailed nutritional guidelines for nursing homes, as well as state-owned care facilities in general.

Keywords: assessment of diet, essential nutrients, social welfare home, nutrition

Procedia PDF Downloads 72
250 The Impact of Macroeconomic Factors on Tehran Stock Exchange Index during Economic and Oil Sanctions between January 2006 and December 2012

Authors: Hamed Movahedizadeh, Annuar Md Nassir, Mehdi Karimimalayer, Navid Samimi Sedeh, Ehsan Bagherpour


The aim of this paper is to evaluate Tehran’s Stock Exchange (TSE) performance regarding with impact of four macroeconomic factors including world crude Oil Price (OP), World Gold Price (GP), Consumer Price Index (CPI) and total Supplied Oil by Iran (SO) from January 2006 to December 2012 that Iran faced with economic and oil sanctions. Iran's exports of crude oil and lease condensate reduced to roughly 1.5 million barrels per day (bbl/d) in 2012, compared to 2.5 million bbl/d in 2011 due to hard sanctions. Monthly data are collected and subjected to a battery of tests through ordinary least square by EViews7. This study found that gold price and oil price are positively correlated with stock returns while total oil supplied and consumer price index have negative relationship with stock index, however, consumer price index tends to become insignificant in stock index. While gold price and consumer price index have short run relationship with TSE index at 10% of significance level this amount for oil price is significant at 5% and there is no significant short run relationship between supplied oil and Tehran stock returns. Moreover, this study found that all macroeconomic factors have long-run relationship with Tehran Stock Exchange Index.

Keywords: consumer price index, gold price, macroeconomic, oil price, sanction, stock market, supplied oil

Procedia PDF Downloads 388
249 Analytical Investigation of Modeling and Simulation of Different Combinations of Sinusoidal Supplied Autotransformer under Linear Loading Conditions

Authors: M. Salih Taci, N. Tayebi, I. Bozkır


This paper investigates the operation of a sinusoidal supplied autotransformer on the different states of magnetic polarity of primary and secondary terminals for four different step-up and step-down analytical conditions. In this paper, a new analytical modeling and equations for dot-marked and polarity-based step-up and step-down autotransformer are presented. These models are validated by the simulation of current and voltage waveforms for each state. PSpice environment was used for simulation.

Keywords: autotransformer modeling, autotransformer simulation, step-up autotransformer, step-down autotransformer, polarity

Procedia PDF Downloads 211
248 Anatomical Features of Internal Pudendal Artery

Authors: Adel Yasky, Waseem Al-Talalwah, Shorok Al Dorazi, Roger Soames


The internal pudendal artery is a standard branch of the anterior division of the internal iliac artery. The current study includes 41 cadavers to investigate the origin and branches of the internal pudendal artery and its clinical significances. The internal pudendal artery arose directly from the anterior division of the internal iliac artery in 48.3% while it arose indirectly in 48.5%. However, the internal pudendal artery arose from the posterior division of internal iliac artery in 1.6%. Moreover, it arose internal iliac artery bifurcation site in 1.6%. Further, the internal pudendal artery supplied the urinary bladder in 17.1%. Also, the internal pudendal artery supplied the rectum 33.5% respectively. It gave uterine and vaginal arteries in 9.4% and 7.8% respectively. Finally, it supplied the sciatic nerve via giving lateral sacral branch in 1.6%. Internists, surgeons and radiologists have to be aware of the variability to decrease iatrogenic injury. Therefore, unnecessary proximal ligation should be avoided at the site of indirect origin of the internal pudendal artery to prevent sciatic neuropathy. Further, intrapelvic bleeding as result of laceration of internal pudendal branches during hysterectomy, prostatectomy or proctectomy should be expected. Therefore, this study increases the awareness of surgeons leading to minimize iatrogenic faults,

Keywords: internal pudendal artery, inferior gluteal artery, superior gluteal artery, internal iliac artery, impotence, decreased libido

Procedia PDF Downloads 215
247 A Comparative Study between Ionic Wind and Conventional Fan

Authors: J. R. Lee, E. V. Lau


Ionic wind is developed when high voltage is supplied to an anode and a grounded cathode in a gaseous medium. This paper studies the ionic wind profile with different anode configurations, the relationship between electrode gap against the voltage supplied and finally a comparison of the heat transfer coefficient of ionic wind over a horizontal flat plate against a conventional fan experimentally. It is observed that increase in the distance between electrodes decreases at a rate of 1-e-0.0206x as the voltage supply is increased until a distance of 3.1536cm. It is also observed that the wind speed produced by ionic wind is stronger, 2.7ms-1 at 2W compared to conventional fan, 2.5ms-1 at 2W but the wind produced decays at a fast exponential rate and is more localized as compared to conventional fan wind that decays at a slower exponential rate and is less localized. Next, it is found out that the ionic wind profile is the same regardless of the position of the anode relative to the cathode. Lastly, it is discovered that ionic wind produced a heat transfer coefficient that is almost 1.6 times higher compared to a conventional fan with Nusselt number reaching 164 compared to 102 for conventional fan.

Keywords: conventional fan, heat transfer, ionic wind, wind profile

Procedia PDF Downloads 210
246 Energy Consumption in China’s Urban Water Supply System

Authors: Kate Smith, Shuming Liu, Yi Liu, Dragan Savic, Gustaf Olsson, Tian Chang, Xue Wu


In a water supply system, a great deal of care goes into sourcing, treating and delivering water to consumers, but less thought is given to the energy consumed during these processes. This study uses 2011 data to quantify energy use for urban water supply in China and investigates population density as a possible influencing factor. The objective is to provide information that can be used to develop energy-conscious water infrastructure policy, calculate the energy co-benefits of water conservation and compare energy use between China and other countries. The average electrical energy intensity and per capita electrical energy consumption for urban water supply in China in 2011 were 0.29 kWh/m3 and 33.2 kWh/cap•yr, respectively. Comparison between provinces revealed a direct correlation between energy intensity of urban water supply and population served per unit length of pipe. This could imply energy intensity is lower when more densely populated areas are supplied by relatively dense networks of pipes. This study also found that whereas the percentage of energy used for urban water supply tends to increase with the percentage of population served this increase is slower where water supply is more energy efficient and where a larger percentage of population is already supplied.

Keywords: china, electrical energy use, water-energy nexus, water supply

Procedia PDF Downloads 408
245 Mathematical Modeling and Simulation of Convective Heat Transfer System in Adjustable Flat Collector Orientation for Commercial Solar Dryers

Authors: Adeaga Ibiyemi Iyabo, Adeaga Oyetunde Adeoye


Interestingly, mechanical drying methods has played a major role in the commercialization of agricultural and agricultural allied sectors. In the overall, drying enhances the favorable storability and preservation of agricultural produce which in turn promotes its producibility, marketability, salability, and profitability. Recent researches have shown that solar drying is easier, affordable, controllable, and of course, cleaner and purer than other means of drying methods. It is, therefore, needful to persistently appraise solar dryers with a view to improving on the existing advantages. In this paper, mathematical equations were formulated for solar dryer using mass conservation law, material balance law and least cost savings method. Computer codes were written in Visual Basic.Net. The developed computer software, which considered Ibadan, a strategic south-western geographical location in Nigeria, was used to investigate the relationship between variable orientation angle of flat plate collector on solar energy trapped, derived monthly heat load, available energy supplied by solar and fraction supplied by solar energy when 50000 Kg/Month of produce was dried over a year. At variable collector tilt angle of 10°.13°,15°,18°, 20°, the derived monthly heat load, available energy supplied by solar were 1211224.63MJ, 102121.34MJ, 0.111; 3299274.63MJ, 10121.34MJ, 0.132; 5999364.706MJ, 171222.859MJ, 0.286; 4211224.63MJ, 132121.34MJ, 0.121; 2200224.63MJ, 112121.34MJ, 0.104, respectively .These results showed that if optimum collector angle is not reached, those factors needed for efficient and cost reduction drying will be difficult to attain. Therefore, this software has revealed that off - optimum collector angle in commercial solar drying does not worth it, hence the importance of the software in decision making as to the optimum collector angle of orientation.

Keywords: energy, ibadan, heat - load,

Procedia PDF Downloads 320
244 Modular Harmonic Cancellation in a Multiplier High Voltage Direct Current Generator

Authors: Ahmad Zahran, Ahmed Herzallah, Ahmad Ahmad, Mahran Quraan


Generation of high DC voltages is necessary for testing the insulation material of high voltage AC transmission lines with long lengths. The harmonic and ripple contents of the output DC voltage supplied by high voltage DC circuits require the use of costly capacitors to smooth the output voltage after rectification. This paper proposes a new modular multiplier high voltage DC generator with embedded Cockcroft-Walton circuits that achieve a negligible harmonic and ripple contents of the output DC voltage without the need for costly filters to produce a nearly constant output voltage. In this new topology, Cockcroft-Walton modules are connected in series to produce a high DC output voltage. The modules are supplied by low input AC voltage sources that have the same magnitude and frequency and shifted from each other by a certain angle to eliminate the harmonics from the output voltage. The small ripple factor is provided by the smoothing column capacitors and the phase shifted input voltages of the cascaded modules. The constituent harmonics within each module are determined using Fourier analysis. The viability of the proposed DC generator for testing purposes and the effectiveness of the cascaded connection are confirmed by numerical simulations using MATLAB/Simulink.

Keywords: Cockcroft-Walton circuit, harmonics, ripple factor, HVDC generator

Procedia PDF Downloads 233
243 Problems of Water Resources : Vulnerability to Climate Change, Modeling with Software WEAP 21 (Upper and Middle Cheliff)

Authors: Mehaiguene Madjid, Meddi Mohamed


The results of applying the model WEAP 21 or 'Water Evaluation and Planning System' in Upper and Middle Cheliff are presented in cartographic and graphic forms by considering two scenarios: -Reference scenario 1961-1990, -Climate change scenarios (low and high) for 2020 and 2050. These scenarios are presented together in the results and compared them to know the impact on aquatic systems and water resources. For the low scenario for 2050, a decrease in the rate of runoff / infiltration will be 81.4 to 3.7 Hm3 between 2010 and 2050. While for the high scenario for 2050, the reduction will be 87.2 to 78.9 Hm3 between 2010 and 2050. Comparing the two scenarios, shows that the water supplied will increase by 216.7 Hm3 to 596 Hm3 up to 2050 if we do not take account of climate change. Whereas, if climate change will decrease step by step: from 2010 to 2026: for the climate change scenario (high scenario) by 2050, water supplied from 346 Hm3 to 361 Hm3. That of the reference scenario (1961-1990) will increase to 379.7 Hm3 in 2050. This is caused by the increased demand (increased population, irrigated area, etc ). The balance water management basin is positive for the different Horizons and different situations. If we do not take account of climate change will be the outflow of 5881.4 Hm3. This excess at the basin can be used as part of a transfer for example.

Keywords: balance water, management basin, climate change scenario, Upper and Middle Cheliff

Procedia PDF Downloads 233
242 Biological Organic or Inorganic Sulfur Sources Feeding Effects on Intake and Some Blood Metabolites of Close-Up Holstein Cows

Authors: Mehdi Kazemi-Bonchenari, Esmaeil Manidari, Vahid Keshavarz


This study was carried out to investigate the effects of increased level of sulfur by supplementing magnesium sulfate with or without biologically organic source in dairy cow close-up diets on dry matter intake (DMI) and some blood metabolites. The 24 multiparous close-up Holstein cows averaging body weight 687.94 kg and days until expected calving date 21.89 d were allocated in three different treatments (8 cows per each) in a completely randomized design. The first treatment (T1) has contained 0.21% sulfur (DM basis), the second treatment (T2) has contained 0.41% sulfur which entirely supplied through magnesium sulfate and the third treatment (T3) has contained 0.41% sulfur which supplied through combination of magnesium sulfate and an organic source of sulfur. All the cows were fed same diet after parturition until 21 d. The DMI for both pre-calving (P < 0.001) and post-calving was affected by treatments (P < 0.004) and T2 showed the lowest DMI among treatments. Among the blood metabolites, glucose, calcium, and copper were decreased in T2 (P < 0.05). However, blood concentrations of BHBA, NEFA, urea, CPK, and AST were increased in T2 (P < 0.05). The results of the present study indicate that although magnesium sulfate has negative effect on dairy cow health and performance, a combination of magnesium sulfate and biological organic source of sulfur in close-up diets could have positive effects on DMI and performance of Holstein dairy cows.

Keywords: organic sulfur, dairy cow, intake, blood metabolites

Procedia PDF Downloads 232
241 Arundo Donax (Giant Reed) Phytoremediation Function of Chromium (Cr) Removal

Authors: Sadeg Abdurahman, Claudio Stockle, James Harsh, Marc Beutel, Usama Zaher


Pollution of the environment is a phenomenon which has taken a big part of importance of the world governments since the second half of the last century, this takes dangerous environmental, economic and social ranges dimensions especially after industrial advancement in industrialized country and good industrial expansion supported with modern technology and as chromium is known to be used in tannery factories. Chromium is considered a harm element to the environment due to its danger and transference through food, air, and water to the plants, animals and people. In this study the capacity of Arundo donax against chromium pollution was conducted. A. donax plants were grown-up under greenhouse conditions in pots contain nursery soil and feeding by Cr synthetic wastewater (0, 0.1, 1.0 and 2.0 mg L-1 ) for four weeks. Leaves, roots and stems dry matter production, color degree values, chlorophyll, growth parameters, and morphological characters were measured. The high Cr concentration was in roots was 1.15 mg kg-1 . Similarly, Cr concentration in stem was 0.469 mg kg-1 at 2.0 mg L-1 supplied Cr. In case of leaves, the maximum Cr concentration was 0.345 mg kg-1 at 2.0 g L-1 supplied Cr. The bioaccumulation and translocation factors was calculated. The macrophyte A. donax L. may be considered to be the most promising plant species in remediation of Cr-contaminated soil and wastewater due to its deeper root system as well as has higher efficiency to absorb chromium and other heavy metals as well.

Keywords: Arundo donax, Chromium pollution, heavy metals, phytoremediation, wastewater

Procedia PDF Downloads 576
240 Impact of Mid-Day Meal on Nutritional Status of Primary School Children in Haryana, India

Authors: Vinti Davar


India is one among the many countries where child malnutrition is severe and also a major underlying cause of child mortality. The Mid Day Meal (MDM) program was launched to improve the nutritional status of children, attendance, and retention in schools. It was based on one meal provided to the children, who are attending elementary school (primary school). The objective of present study was to evaluate the impact of mid-day meal on the nutritional status of primary school children in Haryana, India. The present work was carried out on 1200 children between 6-11years of age, studying in primary schools in Haryana, India. Out of these 960 students as, the experimental group was selected from schools where mid-day meal is supplied by the government, and 240 students as control group where mid-day meal is not supplied. The mean height, weight, and BMI of children of both the groups were found to be significantly low as compared to NCHS standards. Stunting was found in 56.40% MDMB (Mid-day meal beneficiaries) and 62.50 % NMDMC (non- mid-day meal children).The weight of almost all subjects were low according to age indicating thinness. Anemia was more prevalent in MDMB as compared to NMDMC may be because school meals did not include vegetables. The consumption of energy, proteins, fat, calcium, iron, vitamins was significantly low (P ≤ .01) in both groups especially in girls of NMDM. The consumption of various food groups except vegetables was better in MDMB compared to NMDMC. It is concluded that with certain improvements, mid-meal can be beneficial in meeting everyday requirements of school going children.

Keywords: foods, meals, nutritional status, school going children

Procedia PDF Downloads 242
239 Seasonal and Monthly Field Soil Respiration Rate and Litter Fall Amounts of Kasuga-Yama Hill Primeval Forest

Authors: Ayuko Itsuki, Sachiyo Aburatani


The seasonal (January, April, July and October) and monthly soil respiration rate and the monthly litter fall amounts were examined in the laurel-leaved (B_B-1) and Cryptomeria japonica (B_B-2 and PW) forests in the Kasugayama Hill Primeval Forest (Nara, Japan). The change of the seasonal soil respiration rate corresponded to that of the soil temperature. The soil respiration rate was higher in October when fresh organic matter was supplied in the forest floor than in April in spite of the same temperature. The seasonal soil respiration rate of B_B-1 was higher than that of B_B-2, which corresponded to more numbers of bacteria and fungi counted by the dilution plate method and by the direct count method by microscopy in B_B-1 than that of B_B-2. The seasonal soil respiration rate of B_B-2 was higher than that of PW, which corresponded to more microbial biomass by the direct count method by microscopy in B_B-2 than that of PW. The correlation coefficient with the seasonal soil respiration and the soil temperature was higher than that of the monthly soil respiration. The soil respiration carbon was more than the litter fall carbon. It was suggested that the soil respiration included in the carbon dioxide which was emitted by the plant root and soil animal, or that the litter fall supplied to the forest floor included in animal and plant litter.

Keywords: field soil respiration rate, forest soil, litter fall, mineralization rate

Procedia PDF Downloads 207
238 Thermal and Mechanical Properties of Polycaprolactone-Soy Lecithin Modified Bentonite Nanocomposites

Authors: Danila Merino, Leandro N. Ludueña, Vera A. Alvarez


Clays are commonly used to reinforce polymeric materials. In order to modify them, long-chain quaternary-alkylammonium salts have been widely employed. However, the application of these clays in biological fields is limited by the toxicity and poor biocompatibility presented by these modifiers. Meanwhile, soy lecithin, acts as a natural biosurfactant and environment-friendly biomodifier. In this report, we analyse the effect of content of soy lecithin-modified bentonite on the properties of polycaprolactone (PCL) nanocomposites. Commercial grade PCL (CAPA FB 100) was supplied by Perstorp, with Mw = 100000 g/mol. Minarmco S.A. and Melar S.A supplied bentonite and soy lecithin, respectively. Clays with 18, 30 and 45 wt% of organic content were prepared by exchanging 4 g of Na-Bent with 1, 2 and 4 g of soy lecithin aqueous and acid solution (pH=1, with HCl) at 75ºC for 2 h. Then, they were washed and lyophilized for 72 h. Samples were labeled A, B and C. Nanocomposites with 1 and 2 wt.% of each clay were prepared by melt-intercalation followed by compression-moulding. An intensive Brabender type mixer with two counter-rotating roller rotors was used. Mixing temperature was 100 ºC; speed of rotation was 100 rpm. and mixing time was 10 min. Compression moulding was carried out in a hydraulic press under 75 Kg/mm2 for 10 minutes at 100 ºC. The thickness of the samples was about 1 mm. Thermal and mechanical properties were analysed. PCL nanocomposites with 1 and 2% of B presented the best mechanical properties. It was observed that an excessive organic content produced an increment on the rigidity of PCL, but caused a detrimental effect on the tensile strength and elongation at break of the nanocomposites. Thermogravimetrical analyses suggest that all reinforced samples have higher resistance to degradation than neat PCL.

Keywords: chemical modification, clay, nanocomposite, characterization

Procedia PDF Downloads 123
237 Intelligent Indoor Localization Using WLAN Fingerprinting

Authors: Gideon C. Joseph


The ability to localize mobile devices is quite important, as some applications may require location information of these devices to operate or deliver better services to the users. Although there are several ways of acquiring location data of mobile devices, the WLAN fingerprinting approach has been considered in this work. This approach uses the Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) measurement as a function of the position of the mobile device. RSSI is a quantitative technique of describing the radio frequency power carried by a signal. RSSI may be used to determine RF link quality and is very useful in dense traffic scenarios where interference is of major concern, for example, indoor environments. This research aims to design a system that can predict the location of a mobile device, when supplied with the mobile’s RSSIs. The developed system takes as input the RSSIs relating to the mobile device, and outputs parameters that describe the location of the device such as the longitude, latitude, floor, and building. The relationship between the Received Signal Strengths (RSSs) of mobile devices and their corresponding locations is meant to be modelled; hence, subsequent locations of mobile devices can be predicted using the developed model. It is obvious that describing mathematical relationships between the RSSIs measurements and localization parameters is one option to modelling the problem, but the complexity of such an approach is a serious turn-off. In contrast, we propose an intelligent system that can learn the mapping of such RSSIs measurements to the localization parameters to be predicted. The system is capable of upgrading its performance as more experiential knowledge is acquired. The most appealing consideration to using such a system for this task is that complicated mathematical analysis and theoretical frameworks are excluded or not needed; the intelligent system on its own learns the underlying relationship in the supplied data (RSSI levels) that corresponds to the localization parameters. These localization parameters to be predicted are of two different tasks: Longitude and latitude of mobile devices are real values (regression problem), while the floor and building of the mobile devices are of integer values or categorical (classification problem). This research work presents artificial neural network based intelligent systems to model the relationship between the RSSIs predictors and the mobile device localization parameters. The designed systems were trained and validated on the collected WLAN fingerprint database. The trained networks were then tested with another supplied database to obtain the performance of trained systems on achieved Mean Absolute Error (MAE) and error rates for the regression and classification tasks involved therein.

Keywords: indoor localization, WLAN fingerprinting, neural networks, classification, regression

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236 Protective Effect of Vitamin D on Cardiac Apoptosis in Obese Rats

Authors: Kadeejah Alsolami, Zainab Alrefay, Husaam Awad


Obesity and vitamin D deficiency have both been related to cardiovascular disease. The present work aimed to investigate the possible protective effect of vitamin D on cardiac apoptosis in a rat model of dietary-induced obesity. Methods: 30 male Wistar rats included in this study. They were allocated into 4 groups: Control (n=5), animal were fed standard diet for 3 months: Control + vitamin D (VD) (n=5),animals were fed a standard diet with 400IU VD/kg for 3 months: hypercaloric diets group (n=10), animals were fed a high fat diet for 3 months: hypercaloric diet with VD group (n=10), animals were fed a high fat diet with 400IU VD/kg for 3 months. At the beginning of the experiment, the weight and length were measured to assess body mass index (BMI) and repeated every 45 days. Food intake and body weight were monitored throughout the study period. Then rats were sacrificed and heart tissues collected for Quantitative Real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). qRT-PCR used to detect different genetic markers of apoptosis (anti-apoptotic gene (BCL2), a pro-apoptotic gene(BAX), pro-apoptotic genes (FAS, FAS-L), tumour necrosis factor (TNF), mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK). Results: FAS and FAS-L gene expression were significantly upregulated in rats fed with high fat diet. And FAS-L gene expression was significantly upregulated in all groups on comparison with control. Whereas Bax gene expression was significantly downregulated in rats fed with high-fat diet supplied with vitamin D. TNF was significantly upregulated in rats fed with high-fat diet treated with vitamin D. MAPK was significantly upregulated in rats fed with high fat diet group, and in rats fed with high-fat diet supplied with vitamin D. Conclusion: The cardiac apoptotic pathways were more activated in rats fed with high-fat than lean rats. And vitamin D protect the heart from the cardiac mitochondrial-dependent apoptotic pathway.

Keywords: apoptosis, heart, obesity, Vitamin D

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235 Opportunities of Clean Development Mechanism through Hydropower in Nepal

Authors: Usha Khatiwada


Nepal’s overall energy baseline: It has been proposed that hydropower projects for domestic consumption can earn CDM revenue in Nepal if a new methodology is established that takes into account not only consumption in Nepal of grid electricity but also other fuels such as kerosene, diesel, and firewood, used by a vast majority of the population for their lighting and other needs. However, this would mean that we would be trying to combine grid electricity supply and consumers not supplied from the grid into one methodology. Such a sweeping baseline may have a very small chance of success with the CDM Executive Board.

Keywords: environment, clean development mechanism, hydropower, Nepal

Procedia PDF Downloads 313
234 Genotypic Characterization of Gram-Positive Bacteria Isolated on Ornamental Animals Feed

Authors: C. Miranda, R. Soares, S. Cunha, L. Ferreira, G. Igrejas, P. Poeta


Different animal species, including ornamental animals, are reported as potential reservoirs of antibiotic resistance genes. Consequently, these resistances can be disseminated in the environment and transferred to humans. Moreover, multidrug-resistant bacteria reduce the efficacy of antibiotics, as the case of vancomycin-resistant enterococci. Enterococcus faecalis and E. faecium are described as the main nosocomial pathogens. In this line, the aim of this study was to characterize resistance and virulence genes of enterococci species isolated from samples of food supplied to ornamental animals during 2020. The 29 enterococci isolates (10 E. faecalis and 19 E. faecium) were tested for the presence of the resistance genes for the following antibiotics: erythromicyn (ermA, ermB and ermC), tetracycline (tetL, tetM, tetK and tetO), quinupristin/dalfopristin (vatD and vatE), gentamicin (aac(6’)-aph(2’’)-Ia), chloramphenicol (catA), streptomycin (ant(6)-Ia) and vancomycin (vanA and vanB). The same isolates were also tested for 10 virulence factors genes (esp, ace, gelE, agg, fsr, cpd, cylA, cylB, cylM and cylLL). The resistance and virulence genes were performed by PCR, using specific primers and conditions. Negative and positive controls were used in all PCR assays. The most prevalent resistance genes detected in both enterococci species were ermB (n=15, 52%), ermC (n=7, 24%), tetK (n=8, 28%) and vatE (n=4, 14%). Resistance genes for vancomycin were found in ten (34%) E. faecalis and ten (34%) E. faecium isolates. Only E. faecium isolates showed the presence of ermA (n=2, 7%), tetL (n=13, 45%) and ant(6)-Ia gene (n=4, 14%). A total of nine (31%) enterococci isolates were classified as multidrug-resistant bacteria (3 E. faecalis and 6 E. faecium). In three E. faecalis and one E. faecium were not detected resistance genes. The virulence genes detected in both species were agg (n=6, 21%) and cylLL (n=11, 38%). In general, each isolate showed only one of these virulence genes. Five E. faecalis and eleven E. faecium isolates were negative for all analyzed virulence genes. These preliminary results showed the presence of multidrug-resistant enterococci in food supplied to ornamental animals, in particular vancomycin-resistant enterococci. This genotypic characterization reinforces the relevance to public health in the control of antibiotic-resistant bacteria.

Keywords: antibiotic resistance, enterococci, feed, ornamental animals

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233 Exergetic Optimization on Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Systems

Authors: George N. Prodromidis, Frank A. Coutelieris


Biogas can be currently considered as an alternative option for electricity production, mainly due to its high energy content (hydrocarbon-rich source), its renewable status and its relatively low utilization cost. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) stacks convert fuel’s chemical energy to electricity with high efficiencies and reveal significant advantages on fuel flexibility combined with lower emissions rate, especially when utilize biogas. Electricity production by biogas constitutes a composite problem which incorporates an extensive parametric analysis on numerous dynamic variables. The main scope of the presented study is to propose a detailed thermodynamic model on the optimization of SOFC-based power plants’ operation based on fundamental thermodynamics, energy and exergy balances. This model named THERMAS (THERmodynamic MAthematical Simulation model) incorporates each individual process, during electricity production, mathematically simulated for different case studies that represent real life operational conditions. Also, THERMAS offers the opportunity to choose a great variety of different values for each operational parameter individually, thus allowing for studies within unexplored and experimentally impossible operational ranges. Finally, THERMAS innovatively incorporates a specific criterion concluded by the extensive energy analysis to identify the most optimal scenario per simulated system in exergy terms. Therefore, several dynamical parameters as well as several biogas mixture compositions have been taken into account, to cover all the possible incidents. Towards the optimization process in terms of an innovative OPF (OPtimization Factor), presented here, this research study reveals that systems supplied by low methane fuels can be comparable to these supplied by pure methane. To conclude, such an innovative simulation model indicates a perspective on the optimal design of a SOFC stack based system, in the direction of the commercialization of systems utilizing biogas.

Keywords: biogas, exergy, efficiency, optimization

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232 Numerical Simulation of a Solar Photovoltaic Panel Cooled by a Forced Air System

Authors: Djamila Nebbali, Rezki Nebbali, Ahmed Ouibrahim


This study focuses on the cooling of a photovoltaic panel (PV). Indeed, the cooling improves the conversion capacity of this one and maintains, under extreme conditions of air temperature, the panel temperature at an appreciable level which avoids the altering. To do this, a fan provides forced circulation of air. Because the fan is supplied by the panel, it is necessary to determine the optimum operating point that unites efficiency of the PV with the consumption of the fan. For this matter, numerical simulations are performed at varying mass flow rates of air, under two extreme air temperatures (50°C, 25°C) and a fixed solar radiation (1000 W.m2) in a case of no wind.

Keywords: energy conversion, efficiency, balance energy, solar cell

Procedia PDF Downloads 335
231 On the Optimization of a Decentralized Photovoltaic System

Authors: Zaouche Khelil, Talha Abdelaziz, Berkouk El Madjid


In this paper, we present a grid-tied photovoltaic system. The studied topology is structured around a seven-level inverter, supplying a non-linear load. A three-stage step-up DC/DC converter ensures DC-link balancing. The presented system allows the extraction of all the available photovoltaic power. This extracted energy feeds the local load; the surplus energy is injected into the electrical network. During poor weather conditions, where the photovoltaic panels cannot meet the energy needs of the load, the missing power is supplied by the electrical network. At the common connexion point, the network current shows excellent spectral performances.

Keywords: seven-level inverter, multi-level DC/DC converter, photovoltaic, non-linear load

Procedia PDF Downloads 13
230 Applying Different Working Fluids in a Combined Power and Ejector Refrigeration Cycle with Low Temperature Heat Sources

Authors: Samad Jafarmadar, Amin Habibzadeh


A power and cooling cycle, which combines the organic Rankine cycle and the ejector refrigeration cycle supplied by waste heat energy sources, is discussed in this paper. 13 working fluids including wet, dry, and isentropic fluids are studied in order to find their performances on the combined cycle. Various operating conditions’ effects on the proposed cycle are examined by fixing power/refrigeration ratio. According to the results, dry and isentropic fluids have better performance compared with wet fluids.

Keywords: combined power and refrigeration cycle, low temperature heat sources, organic rankine cycle, working fluids

Procedia PDF Downloads 167
229 A Study on the Life Prediction Performance Degradation Analysis of the Hydraulic Breaker

Authors: Jong Won, Park, Sung Hyun, Kim


The kinetic energy to pass subjected to shock and chisel reciprocating piston hydraulic power supplied by the excavator using for the purpose of crushing the rock, and roads, buildings, etc., hydraulic breakers blow. Impact frequency, efficiency measurement of the impact energy, hydraulic breakers, to demonstrate the ability of hydraulic breaker manufacturers and users to a very important item. And difficult in order to confirm the initial performance degradation in the life of the hydraulic breaker has been thought to be a problem.In this study, we measure the efficiency of hydraulic breaker, Impact energy and Impact frequency, the degradation analysis of research to predict the life.

Keywords: impact energy, impact frequency, hydraulic breaker, life prediction

Procedia PDF Downloads 347
228 Conversion of HVAC Lines into HVDC in Transmission Expansion Planning

Authors: Juan P. Novoa, Mario A. Rios


This paper presents a transmission planning methodology that considers the conversion of HVAC transmission lines to HVDC as an alternative of expansion of power systems, as a consequence of restrictions for the construction of new lines. The transmission expansion planning problem formulates an optimization problem that minimizes the total cost that includes the investment cost to convert lines from HVAC to HVDC and possible required reinforcements of the power system prior to the conversion. The costs analysis assesses the impact of the conversion on the reliability because transmission lines are out of service during the conversion work. The presented methodology is applied to a test system considering a planning a horizon of 10 years.

Keywords: transmission expansion planning, HVDC, cost optimization, energy non-supplied

Procedia PDF Downloads 266
227 High Productivity Fed-Batch Process for Biosurfactant Production for Enhanced Oil Recovery Applications

Authors: G. A. Amin, A. D. Al-Talhi


The bacterium B. subtilis produced surfactin in conventional batch culture as a growth associated product and a growth rate (0.4 h-1). A fed-batch process was developed and the fermentative substrate and other nutrients were fed on hourly basis and according to the growth rate of the bacterium. Conversion of different quantities of Maldex-15 into surfactin was investigated in five different fermentation runs. In all runs, most of Maldex-15 was consumed and converted into surfactin and cell biomass with appreciable efficiencies. The best results were obtained with fermentation run supplied with 200 g Maldex-15. Up to 35.4 g.l-1 of surfactin and cell biomass of 30.2 g.l-1 were achieved in 12 hrs. Also, markedly substrate yield of 0.269 g/g and volumetric reactor productivity of 2.61 g.1-1.h-1 were obtained confirming the establishment of a cost effective commercial surfactin production.

Keywords: Bacillus subtilis, biosurfactant, exponentially fed-batch fermentation, surfactin

Procedia PDF Downloads 453
226 Production and Mechanical Characterization of Ballistic Thermoplastic Composite Materials

Authors: D. Korsacilar, C. Atas


In this study, first thermoplastic composite materials/plates that have high ballistic impact resistance were produced. For this purpose, the thermoplastic prepreg and the vacuum bagging technique were used to produce a composite material. Thermoplastic prepregs (resin-impregnated fiber) that are supplied ready to be used, namely high-density polyethylene (HDPE) was chosen as matrix and unidirectional glass fiber was used as reinforcement. In order to compare the fiber configuration effect on mechanical properties, unidirectional and biaxial prepregs were used. Then the microstructural properties of the composites were investigated with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. Impact properties of the composites were examined by Charpy impact test and tensile mechanical tests and then the effects of ultraviolet irradiation were investigated on mechanical performance.

Keywords: ballistic, composite, thermoplastic, prepreg

Procedia PDF Downloads 337
225 Aeration of Fish Pond Aquaculture Using Wind Power

Authors: Fatima Hassan Mohamed Ahmed


This study discusses the possibility techniques of using wind energy to operate the aeration devices which are used in the intensive fish farm for Nile Tilapia. The main objective is to show at what expense this renewable energy source can increase the production. The study was done for the oxygen consumption by 1 kg fishes of tilapia put in 1 m3. The theoretical study shows that the fishes consume around 0.5 gO2/hour when using paddle wheels with average oxygen transfer rate 2.6 kgO2/kW.h comparing this with dissolved oxygen consumed by fishes it was found that 1 kW will aerate 5200 m3 and the same power will aerate 1800 m3 when using air diffuser system with average oxygen transfer rate 0.9 kgO2/kW.h, this power can be supplied by the wind turbine with dimension with a tower 6 m high and diameter 2.7 m.

Keywords: aeration, fish pond, wind, power

Procedia PDF Downloads 546
224 A Study Regarding Nanotechnologies as a Vector of New European Business Model

Authors: Adriana Radan Ungureanu


The industrial landscape is changing due to the financial crises, poor availability of raw materials, new discoveries and interdisciplinary collaborations. New ideas shape the change through technologies and bring responses for a better life. The process of change is leaded by big players like states and companies, but they cannot keep their places on the market without the help of the small ones. The main tool of change is technology and the entire developed world dedicated efforts for decades in this direction. Even the expectations are not yet met, the research for finding adequate solutions is far from to be stopped. A relevant example is nanotechnology where most of discoveries still remain into laboratory and could not succeed to find the right way to the market. In front of this situation the right question could be: ”Is it worth investing in nanotechnology in the name of an uncertain future but with very little impact on present?” This paper tries to find a positive answer from a three-dimensional approach using a descriptive analyse based on available database supplied by the European case studies, reports, and literature.

Keywords: Europe, KET’s, nanotechnology, technology

Procedia PDF Downloads 334
223 Economic and Technical Study for Hybrid (PV/Wind) Power System in the North East of Algeria

Authors: Nabila Louai, Fouad Khaldi, Houria Benharchache


In this paper, the case of meeting a household’s electrical energy demand with hybrid systems has been examined. The objective is to study technological feasibility and economic viability of the electrification project by a hybrid system (PV/ wind) of a residential home located in Batna-Algeria and to reduce the emissions from traditional power by using renewable energy. An autonomous hybrid wind/photovoltaic (PV)/battery power system and a PV/Wind grid connected system, has been carried out using Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewable (HOMER) simulation software. As a result, it has been found that electricity from the grid can be supplied at a lower price than electricity from renewable energy at this moment.

Keywords: batna, household, hybrid system, renewable energy, techno-economy

Procedia PDF Downloads 482