Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3351

Search results for: and worldwide governance indicators

3351 Saudi Arabia's Perspective over Worldwide Governance Indicators

Authors: Sultan S. Alsajjan

Abstract:

Understanding the public governance in Middle East's countries is one of the challenging matters for any researcher. The Middle East, for the last century, has been in fluctuated situations. Understating the public governance in Saudi Arabia is an extra challenge because Saudi Arabia has its unique culture and political system. The World Bank had launched 1996 Worldwide Governance Indicators. These indicators assist any country to rank its position in public governance how it is performing in this field. Saudi Arabia had ranked in some worldwide governance indicators at the bottom of indicators' list. For instance, according to the Worldwide Governance indicator (2018), Saudi Arabia had ranked in 192 out of 204 countries in 'Voice and Accountability Indicator'. In this paper, the reader will find in-depth analysis and evaluation of Saudi Arabia's positions in Worldwide Governance Indicators. Saudi Arabia had never considered the concept of public governance and worldwide governance indicators because of its economic situation, political characteristics, and social nature.

Keywords: pubic governance, Middle East, Saudi Arabia, and worldwide governance indicators

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3350 Corporate Governance in Africa: A Review of Literature

Authors: Kisanga Arsene

Abstract:

The abundant literature on corporate governance identifies four main objectives: the configuration of power within firms, control, conflict prevention and the equitable distribution of value created. The persistent dysfunctions in companies in developing countries in general and in African countries, in particular, show that these objectives are generally not achieved, which supports the idea of analyzing corporate governance practices in Africa. Indeed, the objective of this paper is to review the literature on corporate governance in Africa, to outline the specific practices and challenges of corporate governance in Africa and to identify reliable indicators and variables to capture corporate governance in Africa. In light of the existing literature, we argue that corporate governance in Africa can only be studied in the light of African realities and by taking into account the institutional environment. These studies show the existence of a divide between governance practices and the legislative and regulatory texts in force in the African context.

Keywords: institutional environment, transparency, accountability, Africa

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3349 Governance Commitment and Time Differences in Aspects of Sustainability Reporting in Nigerian Banks

Authors: Nwobu Obiamaka, Owolabi Akintola

Abstract:

This study examined the extent of statistical significant difference between the economic, environmental, governance and social aspects of sustainability reporting as a result of board committee on sustainability and time (year) of reporting for business organizations in the Nigerian banking sector. The years of reporting under consideration were 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013. Content analysis methodology was employed through a reporting index used to score the amount of economic, environmental, governance and social indicators of sustainability reporting. The results of this study indicated that business organizations with board committee on sustainability had more indicators of sustainability reporting than those without board committees on sustainability issues. Also, sustainability reporting in 2013 was higher than that of prior years (2012, 2011 and 2010) for the economic, environmental and social indicators. The governance indicators of 2012 was highest compared to the other years (2013, 2011 and 2010) under consideration in this study. The implication of this finding is that business organizations that have board committees on sustainability are monitored by such boards to report more to their stakeholders. On the other hand, business organizations are appreciating the need to engage in sustainability reporting with each passing year. This could be due to the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) Sustainability Reporting framework that business organizations in the banking sector have to adhere to. When sustainability issues are monitored from the board of directors, business organizations are likely to increase and improve on their sustainability reporting.

Keywords: governance, organizations, reporting, sustainability

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3348 Corporate Governance and Accountability: Nigeria Perspective

Authors: Obazee Osariere

Abstract:

Corporate governance has been an emerging subject of worldwide interest in the 21st century following the failure of going concerns that were hitherto thought to be financially stable before their collapse. Nigeria has had its fair share of corporate collapse, which has made it embrace and develop its corporate governance regime. This paper seeks to undertake an overview of corporate governance and accountability: Nigeria's perspective. This paper examines the various ways the concept has been viewed, its various dimensions, and its basic principles as a major instrument of ensuring corporate governance and accountability and confidence in the operations of organisations. The paper, which adopts a qualitative research method, however, provides an essential theoretical framework within which better practice of corporate governance and accountability can be evolved for appreciable corporate results in the Nigerian business environment. Thus, a historical perspective is adopted to understudy the evolution of corporate governance and accountability from its little beginning to the present time. The adoption of these strategies, it is argued, will engender participation by various principles, engender mutual understanding, build social support and ensure accountability and openness. Such strategies would also help in attitude and behavioural change required to instill in the operators of corporate organisations the best practice enshrined in corporate governance and accountability.

Keywords: corporate governance, accountability, organisations, Nigeria, perspective

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3347 Artificial Intelligence in Global Healthcare: Need for Robust Governance Frameworks

Authors: Sandeep Reddy, Sonia Allan, Simon Coghlan, Paul Cooper

Abstract:

Artificial Intelligence (AI) and its application in medicine has generated ample interest amongst policymakers and clinicians. Successes with AI in medical imaging interpretation and clinical decision support are paving the way for its incorporation into routine healthcare delivery. While there has been a focus on the development of ethical principles to guide its application in healthcare, challenges of this application go beyond what ethics principles can address thus requiring robust governance frameworks. Also, while ethical challenges of medical artificial intelligence are being discussed, the ethics of deploying AI in lower-income countries receive less attention than in other developed economies. This creates an imperative not only for sound ethical guidelines but also for robust governance frameworks to regulate AI in medicine around the world. In this article, we discuss what components need to be considered in developing these governance frameworks and who should lead this worldwide effort.

Keywords: artificial intelligence, global health, governance, ethics

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3346 Measuring the Full Impact of Culture: Social Indicators and Canadian Cultural Policy

Authors: Steven Wright

Abstract:

This paper argues that there is an opportunity for PCH to further expand its relevance within the Canadian policy context by taking advantage of the growing international trend of using social indicators for public policy evaluation. Within the mandate and vision of PCH, there is an incomplete understanding of the value that the arts and culture provide for Canadians, specifically with regard to four social indicators: community development, civic engagement, life satisfaction, and work-life balance. As will be shown, culture and the arts have a unique role to play in such quality of life indicators, and there is an opportunity for PCH to aid in the development of a comprehensive national framework that includes these indicators. This paper lays out approach to understanding how social indicators may be included in the Canadian context by first illustrating recent trends in policy evaluation on a national and international scale. From there, a theoretical analysis of the connection between cultural policy and social indicators is provided. The second half of the paper is dedicated to explaining the shortcomings of Canadian cultural policy evaluation in terms of its tendency to justify expenditures related to arts and cultural activities in purely economic terms, and surveying how other governments worldwide are leading the charge in this regard.

Keywords: social indicators, evaluation, cultural policy, arts

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3345 Good Governance Complementary to Corruption Abatement: A Cross-Country Analysis

Authors: Kamal Ray, Tapati Bhattacharya

Abstract:

Private use of public office for private gain could be a tentative definition of corruption and most distasteful event of corruption is that it is not there, nor that it is pervasive, but it is socially acknowledged in the global economy, especially in the developing nations. We attempted to assess the interrelationship between the Corruption perception index (CPI) and the principal components of governance indicators as per World Bank like Control of Corruption (CC), rule of law (RL), regulatory quality (RQ) and government effectiveness (GE). Our empirical investigation concentrates upon the degree of reflection of governance indicators upon the CPI in order to single out the most powerful corruption-generating indicator in the selected countries. We have collected time series data on above governance indicators such as CC, RL, RQ and GE of the selected eleven countries from the year of 1996 to 2012 from World Bank data set. The countries are USA, UK, France, Germany, Greece, China, India, Japan, Thailand, Brazil, and South Africa. Corruption Perception Index (CPI) of the countries mentioned above for the period of 1996 to 2012is also collected. Graphical method of simple line diagram against the time series data on CPI is applied for quick view for the relative positions of different trend lines of different nations. The correlation coefficient is enough to assess primarily the degree and direction of association between the variables as we get the numerical data on governance indicators of the selected countries. The tool of Granger Causality Test (1969) is taken into account for investigating causal relationships between the variables, cause and effect to speak of. We do not need to verify stationary test as length of time series is short. Linear regression is taken as a tool for quantification of a change in explained variables due to change in explanatory variable in respect of governance vis a vis corruption. A bilateral positive causal link between CPI and CC is noticed in UK, index-value of CC increases by 1.59 units as CPI increases by one unit and CPI rises by 0.39 units as CC rises by one unit, and hence it has a multiplier effect so far as reduction in corruption is concerned in UK. GE causes strongly to the reduction of corruption in UK. In France, RQ is observed to be a most powerful indicator in reducing corruption whereas it is second most powerful indicator after GE in reducing of corruption in Japan. Governance-indicator like GE plays an important role to push down the corruption in Japan. In China and India, GE is proactive as well as influencing indicator to curb corruption. The inverse relationship between RL and CPI in Thailand indicates that ongoing machineries related to RL is not complementary to the reduction of corruption. The state machineries of CC in S. Africa are highly relevant to reduce the volume of corruption. In Greece, the variations of CPI positively influence the variations of CC and the indicator like GE is effective in controlling corruption as reflected by CPI. All the governance-indicators selected so far have failed to arrest their state level corruptions in USA, Germany and Brazil.

Keywords: corruption perception index, governance indicators, granger causality test, regression

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3344 Place and Role of Corporate Governance in Japan

Authors: Feddaoui Amina

Abstract:

In a broad sense, corporate governance covers the organization of the control and management. The term is also used in a narrower sense, to refer to the relationship between shareholders, and the company’s board. There are a lot of discussions devoted to the understanding of the corporate governance role and its principles. In this paper, we are going to describe the definition of corporate governance as a control system and its principles, and find the role of corporate governance and its pillars. Finally, we are going to drop the theoretical study on the case of Japan.

Keywords: corporate governance, place, role, Japan

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3343 Health and Safety Practices of Midsayapenos in Relation to The Governance of the Local Government Unit of Midsayap in Responding to the COVID-19 Pandemic

Authors: Jolai R. Garca, Sergio Mahinay Jr., Fathma Dubpaleg, Rhea Jaberina, Jovanne Mabit II

Abstract:

The COVID-19 pandemic has still been going on for almost two years now, but because of the health and safety practices of the citizens, together with the action of the Local Government Unit, it has slowly dissipated. This study investigated the relationship between the health and safety protocols as well as the status of governance of the Local Government Unit of Midsayap using the evidence-based key indicators of Good Governance aggregated from the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). A quantitative research design was employed to determine the relationship of the variables under study. Findings showed that the residents of Midsayap often practice the necessary health and safety measures against COVID-19 and that the Local Government Unit of Midsayap is effective in responding to the pandemic.

Keywords: governance, health and safety practices, covid-19, local government unit

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3342 The Effects of the Corporate Governance on the Level of Internet Financial Reporting: Evidence from Turkish Companies

Authors: Raif Parlakkaya, Umran Kahraman, Huseyin Cetin

Abstract:

Internet financial reporting and corporate governance issues are in the focus of academic and professional studies due to their attributed importance by stakeholders of corporations. Major aim of this study is to reveal the relationship between internet financial reporting which is held as dependent variable and some indicators of corporate governance such as the ratio of managerial ownership, blockholder ownership, number of independent members in the board of directors, frequency of meetings by audit committee and education level of audit committee members which are held as independent variables. Main purpose is to reveal the effect of corporate governance on the voluntary efforts of Internet Financial reporting. The scope of the research is limited to the Turkish Corporations listed in Borsa Istanbul (Istanbul Stock Exchange) and findings which are generated by means of SPSS software are revealed in results section and interpreted in conclusions.

Keywords: audit committee, corporate governance, internet financial reporting, managerial ownership

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3341 The Impact of Governance on Happiness: Evidence from Quantile Regressions

Authors: Chiung-Ju Huang

Abstract:

This study utilizes the quantile regression analysis to examine the impact of governance (including democratic quality and technical quality) on happiness in 101 countries worldwide, classified as “developed countries” and “developing countries”. The empirical results show that the impact of democratic quality and technical quality on happiness is significantly positive for “developed countries”, while is insignificant for “developing countries”. The results suggest that the authorities in developed countries can enhance the level of individual happiness by means of improving the democracy quality and technical quality. However, for developing countries, promoting the quality of governance in order to enhance the level of happiness may not be effective. Policy makers in developed countries may pay more attention on increasing real GDP per capita instead of promoting the quality of governance to enhance individual happiness.

Keywords: governance, happiness, multiple regression, quantile regression

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3340 Good Environmental Governance Realization among the Three King Mongkut's Institutes of Technology in Bangkok, Thailand

Authors: Pastraporn Thipayasothorn, Vipawan Tadapratheep, Jintana Nokyoo

Abstract:

A physical realization of good environmental governance about an environmental principle, educational psychology and architecture in the three King Mongkut's Institutes of Technology, is generated for researching physical environmental factors which related to the good environmental governance, communication between the good environmental governance and a physical environmental, and a physical environmental design policy. Moreover, we collected data by a survey, observation and questionnaire that participants are students of the three King Mongkut's Institutes of Technology, and analyzed a relationship between a building utilization and the good environmental governance awareness. We found that, from the data analysis, a balance and creativity participation which played as the project users and communities of the good governance environmental promotion in the institutes helps the good governance and environmental development in the future.

Keywords: built environment, good governance, environmental governance, physical environmental

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3339 Social Network Analysis in Water Governance

Authors: Faribaebrahimi, Mehdi Ghorbani, Mohsen Mohsenisaravi

Abstract:

Ecosystem management is complex because of natural and human issues. To cope with this complexity water governance is recommended since it involves all stakeholders including people, governmental and non-governmental organization who related to environmental systems. Water governance emphasizes on water co-management through consideration of all the stakeholders in the form of social and organizational network. In this research, to illustrate indicators of water governance in Dorood watershed, in Shemiranat region of Iran, social network analysis had been applied. The results revealed that social cohesion among pastoralists in Dorood is medium because of trust links, while link sustainability is weak to medium. According to the results, some pastoralists have high social power and therefore are key actors in the utilization network, regarding to centrality index and trust links. The results also demonstrated that Agricultural Development Office and (Shemshak-Darbandsar Islamic) Council are key actors in rangeland co-management, based on centrality index in rangeland institutional network at regional scale in Shemiranat district.

Keywords: social network analysis, water governance, organizational network, water co-management

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3338 Governance vs Diaspora Remittances for Sustainable Development: A Case of Rwanda and Kenya

Authors: Albert Maake, Ifunanya Isama

Abstract:

International remittances to developing countries reached US$ 485 billion in 2018. By 2015, the East African region had surpassed US$3.5 mark. Considering this, there is no argument as to the contribution of Diaspora remittances as an alternative source of funds in the development process of the developing countries. Nevertheless, this paper seeks to argue that good governance in areas such as policy design, implementation and monitoring play a critical role in the sustainable development process of a nation as opposed to Diaspora remittances in general. Therefore this study intends at analyzing the contribution of Governance as opposed to that of Diaspora remittances for nation development. Employing documentary analysis technique, the secondary data with respect to the countries under study on Diaspora remittances will be collected. Selected indicators for Governance-HDI, Debt-to-GDP Ratio and Corruption Index, will be sourced from the World Bank Data for the purpose of consistency and where applicable the Central Statistical Agencies of the Nations under study. By means of descriptive statistics and content analysis the data will be comparatively analyzed to highlight the unique experiences in Rwanda and Kenya. The findings and interpretations from the study will affirm and promote capacity building for best practices in good governance for the countries under study.

Keywords: diaspora remittance, governance, Kenya, Rwanda, sustainable development

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3337 Getting What You Paid For: Using Mutual Fund Governance to Predict the Activeness of Mutual Funds

Authors: Matthew Morey, Aron Gottesman

Abstract:

This paper examines the relationship between mutual fund governance and the activeness of equity mutual funds. Using a fund’s corporate culture as a proxy for its governance and controlling for other variables, we find that funds with the better governance are significantly more active than other funds. Further, we find the probability of finding a highly active fund increases significantly as the governance of the fund improves. We also find some evidence that the probability of finding a closet index fund increases as the governance of the fund declines. These results demonstrate that mutual fund governance should be considered carefully when making mutual fund investment decisions.

Keywords: active, share, mutual funds, economics

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3336 Managing the Blue Economy and Responding to the Environmental Dimensions of a Transnational Governance Challenge

Authors: Ivy Chen XQ

Abstract:

This research places a much-needed focus on the conservation of the Blue Economy (BE) by focusing on the design and development of monitoring systems to track critical indicators on the status of the BE. In this process, local experiences provide an insight into important community issues, as well as the necessity to cooperate and collaborate in order to achieve sustainable options. Researchers worldwide and industry initiatives over the last decade show that the exploitation of marine resources has resulted in a significant decrease in the share of total allowable catch (TAC). The result has been strengthening law enforcement, yet the results have shown that problems were related to poor policies, a lack of understanding of over-exploitation, biological uncertainty and political pressures. This reality and other statistics that show a significant negative impact on the attainment of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), warrant an emphasis on the development of national M&E systems, in order to provide evidence-based information, on the nature and scale of especially transnational fisheries crime and under-sea marine resources in the BE. In particular, a need exists to establish a compendium of relevant BE indicators to assess such impact against the SDGs by using selected SDG indicators for this purpose. The research methodology consists of ATLAS.ti qualitative approach and a case study will be developed of Illegal, unregulated and unreported (IUU) poaching and Illegal Wildlife Trade (IWT) as component of the BE as it relates to the case of abalone in southern Africa and Far East. This research project will make an original contribution through the analysis and comparative assessment of available indicators, in the design process of M&E systems and developing indicators and monitoring frameworks in order to track critical trends and tendencies on the status of the BE, to ensure specific objectives to be aligned with the indicators of the SDGs framework. The research will provide a set of recommendations to governments and stakeholders involved in such projects on lessons learned, as well as priorities for future research. The research findings will enable scholars, civil society institutions, donors and public servants, to understand the capability of the M&E systems, the importance of showing multi-level governance, in the coordination of information management, together with knowledge management (KM) and M&E at the international, regional, national and local levels. This coordination should focus on a sustainable development management approach, based on addressing socio-economic challenges to the potential and sustainability of BE, with an emphasis on ecosystem resilience, social equity and resource efficiency. This research and study focus are timely as the opportunities of the post-Covid-19 crisis recovery package will be grasped to set the economy on a path to sustainable development in line with the UN 2030 Agenda. The pandemic raises more awareness for the world to eliminate IUU poaching and illegal wildlife trade (IWT).

Keywords: Blue Economy (BE), transnational governance, Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E), Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).

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3335 Causal Relationship between Corporate Governance and Financial Information Transparency: A Simultaneous Equations Approach

Authors: Maali Kachouri, Anis Jarboui

Abstract:

We focus on the causal relationship between governance and information transparency as well as interrelation among the various governance mechanisms. This paper employs a simultaneous equations approach to show this relationship in the Tunisian context. Based on an 8-year dataset, our sample covers 28 listed companies over 2006-2013. Our findings suggest that internal and external governance mechanisms are interdependent. Moreover, in order to analyze the causal effect between information transparency and governance mechanisms, we found evidence that information transparency tends to increase good corporate governance practices.

Keywords: simultaneous equations approach, transparency, causal relationship, corporate governance

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3334 Governance Structure of Islamic Philanthropic Institution: Analysis of Corporate WAQF in Malaysia

Authors: Nathasa Mazna Ramli, Nurul Husna Mohd Salleh, Nurul Aini Muhamed

Abstract:

This study focuses on the governance of an Islamic philanthropic institution in Malaysia. Specifically, the internal governance structure of corporate Islamic endowment, or waqf, is being analysed. The purposes of waqf are to provide continuous charity that could generate perpetual income flow for the needy. This study is based on the principle of MCCG 2012, Shariah Governance Framework and charity governance. This study utilises publicly available data to examine the internal governance structure of a corporate waqf. This study finds that the Islamic philanthropic Institution practices, to some extent, have a sound governance structure to discharge their transparency and accountability. Furthermore, findings also showed that though governance structure is in place, most of the structures are not disclosed in the annual reports of the company. Findings from the study could extend the knowledge in these areas and stimulate further research on the governance of Islamic philanthropic institutions, particularly for corporate waqf.

Keywords: accountability, governance, Islamic philanthropic, corporate waqf

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3333 Governance Disclosure Quality and Cooperative Performance in Malaysia

Authors: Intan Waheedah Othman, Maslinawati Mohamad, Azizah Abdullah

Abstract:

Few discussions were made on cooperative governance reforms despite the fact that cooperative movements operate and compete in an identical business environment as the private as well as the public corporations. Due to the scarcity of research examining the issue of governance among cooperatives, this paper is motivated to examine the extent of governance compliance and disclosure among cooperatives, hence the relationship between cooperative governance and its firm performance. Results from the study provide empirical evidence that disclosure on ownership structure and exercise of control rights was found to have significant negative relationship with cooperative firm performance.

Keywords: cooperative, governance, firm performance, Malaysia

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3332 The Effect of TQM Implementation on Bahrain Industrial Performance

Authors: Bader Al-Mannai, Saad Sulieman, Yaser Al-Alawi

Abstract:

Research studies worldwide undoubtedly demonstrated that the implementation of Total Quality Management (TQM) program can improve organizations competitive abilities and provide strategic quality advances. However, limited empirical studies and research are directed to measure the effectiveness of TQM implementation on the industrial and manufacturing organizations performance. Accordingly, this paper is aimed at discussing “the degree of TQM implementation in Bahrain industries and its effect on their performance”. The paper will present the measurement indicators and success factors that were used to assess the degree of TQM implementation in Bahrain industry, and the main performance indicators that were affected by TQM implementation. The adopted research methodology in this study was a survey that was based on self-completion questionnaire. The sample population represented the industrial and manufacturing organizations in Bahrain. The study led to the identification of the operational and strategic measurement indicators and success factors that assist organizations in realizing successful TQM implementation and performance improvement. Furthermore, the research analysis confirmed a positive and significant relationship between the examined performance indicators in Bahrain industry and TQM implementation. In conclusion the investigation of the relationship revealed that the implementation of TQM program has resulted into remarkable improvements on workforce, sales performance, and quality performance indicators in Bahrain industry.

Keywords: performance indicators, success factors, TQM implementation, Bahrain

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3331 Improving Public Service Delivery by E-Governance

Authors: Aneri Mehta, Neeti Chaudhary

Abstract:

Governments of the countries around the world have started utilizing the potential of technology to deliver online information and services to their citizens. Using ICT in the form of e-governance could yield great benefits in the reform and modernization of the public sector. The experience of e-governance in a number of developed and developing countries has shown that ICT can be a tool for greater service delivery with the goal of improving service quality. E-governance can also promote ‘good governance’, greater civic engagement can increase opportunities for direct representation and voice, and support for increased democracy. This paper discusses and presents the survey findings that seek to test the role of e-governance in improving service delivery by altering the principal-agent relationship. It further seeks to elucidate the quality aspects of public service. Strong leadership is required to implement e-governance to capture and internalize the benefits of quality services and satisfied citizens.

Keywords: public service, service delivery, e-governance, good governance

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3330 Corporate Governance Attributes and Financial Performance in Malaysian Listed Companies

Authors: Idris Adamu Alhaji, Wan Fauziahbt Wan Yusoff

Abstract:

This study was conducted to identify the relationship between Corporate Governance attributes and Firm Performance, various studies, had been carried out mostly in developed countries, in order to identify the relationship between corporate governance attributes and firm performance. Since, the value creation of corporate governance can be measured through the firm performance, corporate governance act as a mechanism to align management's goals with the stakeholders especially to increase firm performance. Despite extensive study of corporate governance there is still an inconsistence relationship between corporate governance attributes and firm performance. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to identify the relationship between corporate governance attributes and firm performance. Five corporate governance element were used as independent variables which include: Independent director, board size, audit committee, leadership structure and board meeting. Meanwhile, the dependent variables are two firm performance measurements; return on equity (ROE) and earning per share (EPS). This study uses quantitative approaches whereby data were gathered from secondary source data were collected from Annual Reports of the companies, online journals etc. This study revealed that, there is a significant relationship between corporate governance attributes and firm performance. Therefore, the results show that good corporate governance practice influence firm performance. Finally, it's hoped that this study provides current corporate governance scenario in Malaysia that can be used to enhance the development of corporate governance of the country.

Keywords: corporate governance, return on equity, earning per share, financial performance

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3329 MegaProjects and the Governing Processes That Lead to Success and Failure: A Literature Review

Authors: Fangwei Zhu, Wei Tian, Linzhuo Wang, Miao Yu

Abstract:

Megaproject has long been a critical issue in project governance, for its low success rate and large impact on society. Although the extant literature on megaproject governance is vast, to our best knowledge, the lacking of a thorough literature review makes it hard for us to gain a holistic view on current scenario of megaproject governance. The study conducts a systematic literature review process to analyze the existing literatures on megaproject governance. The finding indicates that mega project governance needs to be handled at network level and forming a network level governance provides a holistic framework for governing megaproject towards sustainable development of the projects. Theoretical and practical implications, as well as future studies and limitations, were discussed.

Keywords: megaproject, governance, literature review, network

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3328 Monitoring of Key Indicators of Sustainable Tourism in the Jalapão State Park/Tocantins: A Case Study of Environmental Indicators

Authors: Veruska C. Dutra, Afonso R. Aquino

Abstract:

Since the 1980s, global tourism activity has consolidated worldwide to become an important economic contributor, and consequently, the sociocultural and environmental impacts are starting to become evidenced. This raises the need of discussing about actions for sustainable tourism that should be linked not only to the economy, but also to the environment and social aspects. The work that is going to be presented is part of a doctoral research project in Sciences undertaken at the Sao Paulo University, Brazil. It aims to analyze whether the monitoring of the tourism sector with a focus on sustainability is applicable or not, through those indicators, put in a case study in the Jalapão State Park (JSP) conservation unit, in the state of Tocantins, Brazil. This is a study of an interdisciplinary nature that had the deductive method as its guide. We concluded that the key points of the sustainable tourism, when analyzed with the focal point in environmental indicators, are an important evaluation and quantification tool of that activity in the study locus. It displayed itself as an adequate tool for monitoring, thus decoding, the main environmental impacts that occur in tourism regions and their intensity, which is made possible through analysis, and has the objective to trace ways to prevent and correct the presented impacts.

Keywords: indicators, tourism, sustainability, Jalapão

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3327 An Index to Measure Transportation Sustainable Performance in Construction Projects

Authors: Sareh Rajabi, Taha Anjamrooz, Salwa Bheiry

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The continuous increase in the world population, resource shortage and the warning of climate change cause various environmental and social issues to the world. Thus, sustainability concept is much needed nowadays. Organizations are progressively falling under strong worldwide pressure to integrate sustainability practices into their project decision-making development. Construction projects in the industry are amongst the most significant, since it is one of the biggest divisions and of main significance for the national economy and hence has a massive effect on the environment and society. So, it is important to discover approaches to incorporate sustainability into the management of those projects. This study presents a combined sustainability index of projects with sustainable transportation which has been formed as per a comprehensive literature review and survey study. Transportation systems enable the movement of goods and services worldwide, and it is leading to economic growth and creating jobs while creating negative impacts on the environment and society. This research is study to quantify the sustainability indicators, through 1) identifying the importance of sustainable transportation indicators that are based on the sustainable practices used for the construction projects and 2) measure the effectiveness of practices through these indicators on the three sustainable pillars. A total 26 sustainability indicators have been selected and grouped under each related sustainability pillars. A survey was used to collect the opinion about the sustainability indicators by a scoring system. A combined sustainability index considering three sustainable pillars can be helpful in evaluating the transportation sustainable practices of a project and making decisions regarding project selection. In addition to focus on the issue of financial resource allocation in a project selection, the decision-maker could take into account the sustainability as an important key in addition to the project’s return and risk. The purpose of this study is to measure the performance of transportation sustainability which allow companies to assess multiple projects selection. This is useful to decision makers to rank and focus more on future sustainable projects.

Keywords: sustainable transportation, transportation performances, sustainable indicators, sustainable construction practice, sustainability

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3326 Promoting Effective Institutional Governance in Cameroon Higher Education: A Governance Equalizer Perspective

Authors: Jean Patrick Mve

Abstract:

The increasing quest for efficiency, accountability, and transparency has led to the implementation of massive governance reforms among higher education systems worldwide. This is causing many changes in the governance of higher education institutions. Governments over the world are trying to adopt business-like organizational strategies to enhance the performance of higher education institutions. This study explores the changes that have taken place in the Cameroonian higher education sector. It also attempts to draw a picture of the likely future of higher education governance and the actions to be taken for the promotion of institutional effectiveness among higher education institutions. The “governance equalizer” is used as an analytical tool to this end. It covers the five dimensions of the New Public Management (NPM), namely: state regulation, stakeholder guidance, academic self-governance, managerial self-governance, and competition. Qualitative data are used, including semi-structured interviews with key informants at the organizational level and other academic stakeholders, documents and archival data from the university and from the ministry of higher education. It has been found that state regulation among higher education institutions in Cameroon is excessively high, causing the institutional autonomy to be very low, especially at the level of financial management, staffing and promotion, and other internal administrative affairs; at the level of stakeholder guidance there is a higher degree of stakeholders consideration in the academic and research activities among universities, though the government’s interest to keep its hands in most management activities is still high; academic self-governance is also very weak as the assignment of academics is done more on the basis of political considerations than competence; there is no real managerial self-governance among higher education institutions due to the lack of institutional capacity and insufficient autonomy at the level of decision making; there is a plan to promote competition among universities but a real competitive environment is not yet put into place. The study concludes that the government’s policy should make state control more relaxed and concentrate on steering and supervision. As well, real institutional autonomy, professional competence building for top management and stakeholder participation should be considered to guarantee competition and institutional effectiveness.

Keywords: Cameroon higher education, effective institutional governance, governance equalizer, institutional autonomy, institutional effectiveness

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3325 Good Governance and Human Development: Case of Rwanda

Authors: Hatun Korkmaz

Abstract:

Todays, the developing countries of the world widely face challenges of economic growth, political, social and human development. One of the ways to achieve economic, political and human development is good governance. Without an improvement in good governance, the objectives of human development cannot be achieved. The good governance has become a key issue over preceding two decades and it is the very important component of good economic growth and human development. This paper argues that good governance impacts positively human development with the case of Rwanda. Rwanda is a good example of this subject. In this paper, firstly we explained that what is good governance and human development and how we measure them. Then we researched the relationship between good governance and human development in case of Rwanda with the indexes of many international institutions which are researching in this topics. Rwanda has recorded the 'best progress' since the year 2000, making it the ‘most successful' about governance. Rwanda is seen as one of the top ten countries in the region in terms of relative peace, political stability and economic progress. Part of the reason for Rwanda's success is accountability, which comprises access to information, elimination of corruption and bureaucracy and transparency in public service, which variables cumulatively earned it 72.1 percent. According to this research If countries want batter growth and human development then good reforms of good governance is needed.

Keywords: human development, Rwanda, good governance, governance, development

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3324 Corporate Governance and Firm Performance in the UAE

Authors: Bakr Ali Al-Gamrh, Ku Nor Izah B. Ku Ismail

Abstract:

We investigate the relationship between corporate governance, leverage, risk, and firm performance. We use a firm level panel that spans the period 2008 to 2012 of all listed firms on Abu Dhabi Stock Exchange and Dubai Financial Market. After constructing an index of corporate governance strength, we find a negative effect of corporate governance on firm performance. We, however, discover that corporate governance strength indirectly improves the negative influence of leverage on firm performance in normal times. On the contrary, the results completely reversed when there is a black swan event. Corporate governance strength plays a significantly negative role in moderating the relationship between leverage and firm performance during the financial crisis. We also reveal that corporate governance strength increases firms’ risk and deteriorates performance during crisis. Results provide evidence that corporate governance indirectly plays a completely different role in different time periods.

Keywords: corporate governance, firm performance, risk, leverage, the UAE

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3323 A Study of Management Principles Incorporating Corporate Governance and Advocating Ethics to Reduce Fraud at a South African Bank

Authors: Roshan Jelal, Charles Mbohwa

Abstract:

In today’s world, internal fraud remains one of the most challenging problems within companies worldwide and despite investment in controls and attention given to the problem, the instances of internal fraud has not abated. To the contrary it appears that internal fraud is on the rise especially in the wake of the economic downturn. Leadership within companies believes that the more sophisticated the controls employed the less likely it would be for employees to pilfer. This is a very antiquated view as investment in controls may not be enough to curtail internal fraud; however, ensuring that a company drives the correct culture and behaviour within the organisation is likely to yield desired results. This research aims to understand how creating a strong ethical culture and embedding the principle of good corporate governance impacts on levels of internal fraud with an organization (a South African Bank).

Keywords: internal fraud, corporate governance, ethics, reserve bank, the King Code

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3322 Governance Factors of Sustainable Stormwater Management: A Comparative Study of Case Cities in China and Sweden

Authors: Xiujuan Qiao

Abstract:

Cities worldwide are increasingly adopting sustainable stormwater solutions such as using green infrastructure to mitigate challenges related to stormwater, e.g., pluvial flooding, and stormwater pollution. Barriers caused by governance factors have been identified as the main reason for the slow pace of sustainable stormwater management implementation. In this study, we examined governance factors influencing local implementation in four case cities: Lund and Malmö, Sweden, and Xi’xian New Area and Zhenjiang, China. Based on systems thinking of interrelations between previously identified influencing governance factors in sustainable stormwater management (SSM), we developed a causal loop diagram (SSM-CLD) and used it to analyze 23 semi-structured interviews with local government officers in the four case cities. Based on the results, we created one SSM-CLD for each country and analyzed the main differences between these four SSM-CLDs. The results revealed that differences in governance structures can lead to differences in the influencing governance factors. In top-down political systems, e.g., China, the role of national policy in setting local leaders’ priorities is significant for SSM implementation. In political systems with more power devolved to local governments, e.g., Sweden, public awareness and local government politicians’ priorities are important for SSM implementation. Acquiring funding for long-term maintenance was identified as a challenge in all four cities studied. These results are relevant for policymakers, local government departments, consultancy companies, and researchers seeking a better understanding of how governance factors influence sustainable stormwater management.

Keywords: sustainable stormwater management, causal loop diagram, governance structures, local government priorities, public awareness, maintenance

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