Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1097

Search results for: heart attack

1097 Mathematical Based Forecasting of Heart Attack

Authors: Razieh Khalafi


Myocardial infarction (MI) or acute myocardial infarction (AMI), commonly known as a heart attack, occurs when blood flow stops to part of the heart causing damage to the heart muscle. An ECG can often show evidence of a previous heart attack or one that's in progress. The patterns on the ECG may indicate which part of your heart has been damaged, as well as the extent of the damage. In chaos theory, the correlation dimension is a measure of the dimensionality of the space occupied by a set of random points, often referred to as a type of fractal dimension. In this research by considering ECG signal as a random walk we work on forecasting the oncoming heart attack by analyzing the ECG signals using the correlation dimension. In order to test the model a set of ECG signals for patients before and after heart attack was used and the strength of model for forecasting the behavior of these signals were checked. Results shows this methodology can forecast the ECG and accordingly heart attack with high accuracy.

Keywords: Forecasting, ECG, heart attack, random walk, correlation dimension

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1096 A New Mathematical Method for Heart Attack Forecasting

Authors: Razi Khalafi


Myocardial Infarction (MI) or acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI), commonly known as a heart attack, occurs when blood flow stops to part of the heart causing damage to the heart muscle. An ECG can often show evidence of a previous heart attack or one that's in progress. The patterns on the ECG may indicate which part of your heart has been damaged, as well as the extent of the damage. In chaos theory, the correlation dimension is a measure of the dimensionality of the space occupied by a set of random points, often referred to as a type of fractal dimension. In this research by considering ECG signal as a random walk we work on forecasting the oncoming heart attack by analysing the ECG signals using the correlation dimension. In order to test the model a set of ECG signals for patients before and after heart attack was used and the strength of model for forecasting the behaviour of these signals were checked. Results show this methodology can forecast the ECG and accordingly heart attack with high accuracy.

Keywords: Forecasting, ECG, heart attack, random walk, correlation dimension

Procedia PDF Downloads 334
1095 Intelligent System for Diagnosis Heart Attack Using Neural Network

Authors: Oluwaponmile David Alao


Misdiagnosis has been the major problem in health sector. Heart attack has been one of diseases that have high level of misdiagnosis recorded on the part of physicians. In this paper, an intelligent system has been developed for diagnosis of heart attack in the health sector. Dataset of heart attack obtained from UCI repository has been used. This dataset is made up of thirteen attributes which are very vital in diagnosis of heart disease. The system is developed on the multilayer perceptron trained with back propagation neural network then simulated with feed forward neural network and a recognition rate of 87% was obtained which is a good result for diagnosis of heart attack in medical field.

Keywords: Diagnosis, Intelligent System, Artificial Neural Network, heart attack

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1094 Intelligent Prediction System for Diagnosis of Heart Attack

Authors: Oluwaponmile David Alao


Due to an increase in the death rate as a result of heart attack. There is need to develop a system that can be useful in the diagnosis of the disease at the medical centre. This system will help in preventing misdiagnosis that may occur from the medical practitioner or the physicians. In this research work, heart disease dataset obtained from UCI repository has been used to develop an intelligent prediction diagnosis system. The system is modeled on a feedforwad neural network and trained with back propagation neural network. A recognition rate of 86% is obtained from the testing of the network.

Keywords: Diagnosis, Heart Disease, Artificial Neural Network, prediction system

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1093 Determination of the Risks of Heart Attack at the First Stage as Well as Their Control and Resource Planning with the Method of Data Mining

Authors: İbrahi̇m Kara, Seher Arslankaya


Frequently preferred in the field of engineering in particular, data mining has now begun to be used in the field of health as well since the data in the health sector have reached great dimensions. With data mining, it is aimed to reveal models from the great amounts of raw data in agreement with the purpose and to search for the rules and relationships which will enable one to make predictions about the future from the large amount of data set. It helps the decision-maker to find the relationships among the data which form at the stage of decision-making. In this study, it is aimed to determine the risk of heart attack at the first stage, to control it, and to make its resource planning with the method of data mining. Through the early and correct diagnosis of heart attacks, it is aimed to reveal the factors which affect the diseases, to protect health and choose the right treatment methods, to reduce the costs in health expenditures, and to shorten the durations of patients’ stay at hospitals. In this way, the diagnosis and treatment costs of a heart attack will be scrutinized, which will be useful to determine the risk of the disease at the first stage, to control it, and to make its resource planning.

Keywords: Data Mining, Decision Support Systems, Health Sector, heart attack

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1092 Applying the Regression Technique for ‎Prediction of the Acute Heart Attack ‎

Authors: Paria Soleimani, Arezoo Neshati


Myocardial infarction is one of the leading causes of ‎death in the world. Some of these deaths occur even before the patient ‎reaches the hospital. Myocardial infarction occurs as a result of ‎impaired blood supply. Because the most of these deaths are due to ‎coronary artery disease, hence the awareness of the warning signs of a ‎heart attack is essential. Some heart attacks are sudden and intense, but ‎most of them start slowly, with mild pain or discomfort, then early ‎detection and successful treatment of these symptoms is vital to save ‎them. Therefore, importance and usefulness of a system designing to ‎assist physicians in the early diagnosis of the acute heart attacks is ‎obvious.‎ The purpose of this study is to determine how well a predictive ‎model would perform based on the only patient-reportable clinical ‎history factors, without using diagnostic tests or physical exams. This ‎type of the prediction model might have application outside of the ‎hospital setting to give accurate advice to patients to influence them to ‎seek care in appropriate situations. For this purpose, the data were ‎collected on 711 heart patients in Iran hospitals. 28 attributes of clinical ‎factors can be reported by patients; were studied. Three logistic ‎regression models were made on the basis of the 28 features to predict ‎the risk of heart attacks. The best logistic regression model in terms of ‎performance had a C-index of 0.955 and with an accuracy of 94.9%. ‎The variables, severe chest pain, back pain, cold sweats, shortness of ‎breath, nausea, and vomiting were selected as the main features.‎

Keywords: coronary heart disease, Logistic Regression, prediction, Acute heart attacks

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1091 Biochemical Characterization of Meat Goat in Algeria

Authors: Hafid Nadia, Meziane Toufik


The aim of this study was the characterization of the goat meat by the determination of quantity and the quality in Batna region. The first part was the evaluation of production and consumption. The investigations show that the goat meat third after mutton and beef, it’s especially consumed by the indigenous population located in the Mountain and steep area. The second part of this review treats nutritional quality of this meat by the quantification of the chemical composition, including fat profile, and establishes a link between animal age and the values of these parameters. Moisture, fat contents, and cholesterol levels varied with age. Because of the decreasing level of cholesterol in the Chevon meat, it is more recommended for consumption to prevent or reduce the incidence of coronary disease and heart attack.

Keywords: cholesterol, biochemical composition, heart attack, goat meat

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1090 Survival Chances and Costs after Heart Attacks: An Instrumental Variable Approach

Authors: Alice Sanwald, Thomas Schober


We analyze mortality and follow-up costs of heart attack patients using administrative data from Austria (2002-2011). As treatment intensity in a hospital largely depends on whether it has a catheterization laboratory, we focus on the effects of patients' initial admission to these specialized hospitals. To account for the nonrandom selection of patients into hospitals, we exploit individuals' place of residence as a source of exogenous variation in an instrumental variable framework. We find that the initial admission to specialized hospitals increases patients' survival chances substantially. The effect on 3-year mortality is -9.5 percentage points. A separation of the sample into subgroups shows the strongest effects in relative terms for patients below the age of 65. We do not find significant effects on longterm inpatient costs and find only marginal increases in outpatient costs.

Keywords: Mortality, acute myocardial infarction, costs, instrumental variables, heart attack

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1089 A Reasoning Method of Cyber-Attack Attribution Based on Threat Intelligence

Authors: Li Qiang, Yang Ze-Ming, Liu Bao-Xu, Jiang Zheng-Wei


With the increasing complexity of cyberspace security, the cyber-attack attribution has become an important challenge of the security protection systems. The difficult points of cyber-attack attribution were forced on the problems of huge data handling and key data missing. According to this situation, this paper presented a reasoning method of cyber-attack attribution based on threat intelligence. The method utilizes the intrusion kill chain model and Bayesian network to build attack chain and evidence chain of cyber-attack on threat intelligence platform through data calculation, analysis and reasoning. Then, we used a number of cyber-attack events which we have observed and analyzed to test the reasoning method and demo system, the result of testing indicates that the reasoning method can provide certain help in cyber-attack attribution.

Keywords: Reasoning, Bayesian networks, Threat Intelligence, cyber-attack attribution, Kill Chain

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1088 Heart Murmurs and Heart Sounds Extraction Using an Algorithm Process Separation

Authors: Fatima Mokeddem


The phonocardiogram signal (PCG) is a physiological signal that reflects heart mechanical activity, is a promising tool for curious researchers in this field because it is full of indications and useful information for medical diagnosis. PCG segmentation is a basic step to benefit from this signal. Therefore, this paper presents an algorithm that serves the separation of heart sounds and heart murmurs in case they exist in order to use them in several applications and heart sounds analysis. The separation process presents here is founded on three essential steps filtering, envelope detection, and heart sounds segmentation. The algorithm separates the PCG signal into S1 and S2 and extract cardiac murmurs.

Keywords: Detection, Filtering, envelope, heart sounds, phonocardiogram signal, murmurs

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1087 Reliable and Energy-Aware Data Forwarding under Sink-Hole Attack in Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Ebrahim Alrashed


Wireless sensor networks are vulnerable to attacks from adversaries attempting to disrupt their operations. Sink-hole attacks are a type of attack where an adversary node drops data forwarded through it and hence affecting the reliability and accuracy of the network. Since sensor nodes have limited battery power, it is essential that any solution to the sinkhole attack problem be very energy-aware. In this paper, we present a reliable and energy efficient scheme to forward data from source nodes to the base station while under sink-hole attack. The scheme also detects sink-hole attack nodes and avoid paths that includes them.

Keywords: Reliability, WSN, energy-aware routing, sink-hole attack

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1086 Development of Sleep Quality Index Using Heart Rate

Authors: Dongjoo Kim, Chang-Sik Son, Won-Seok Kang


Adequate sleep affects various parts of one’s overall physical and mental life. As one of the methods in determining the appropriate amount of sleep, this research presents a heart rate based sleep quality index. In order to evaluate sleep quality using the heart rate, sleep data from 280 subjects taken over one month are used. Their sleep data are categorized by a three-part heart rate range. After categorizing, some features are extracted, and the statistical significances are verified for these features. The results show that some features of this sleep quality index model have statistical significance. Thus, this heart rate based sleep quality index may be a useful discriminator of sleep.

Keywords: Statistical Analysis, Sleep, Heart Rate, Sleep Quality

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1085 An Attack on the Lucas Based El-Gamal Cryptosystem in the Elliptic Curve Group Over Finite Field Using Greater Common Divisor

Authors: Lee Feng Koo, Tze Jin Wong, Pang Hung Yiu, Nik Mohd Asri Nik Long


Greater common divisor (GCD) attack is an attack that relies on the polynomial structure of the cryptosystem. This attack required two plaintexts differ from a fixed number and encrypted under same modulus. This paper reports a security reaction of Lucas Based El-Gamal Cryptosystem in the Elliptic Curve group over finite field under GCD attack. Lucas Based El-Gamal Cryptosystem in the Elliptic Curve group over finite field was exposed mathematically to the GCD attack using GCD and Dickson polynomial. The result shows that the cryptanalyst is able to get the plaintext without decryption by using GCD attack. Thus, the study concluded that it is highly perilous when two plaintexts have a slight difference from a fixed number in the same Elliptic curve group over finite field.

Keywords: Encryption, decryption, elliptic curve, greater common divisor

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1084 Cross Site Scripting (XSS) Attack and Automatic Detection Technology Research

Authors: Tao Feng, Wei-Wei Zhang, Chang-Ming Ding


Cross-site scripting (XSS) is one of the most popular WEB Attacking methods at present, and also one of the most risky web attacks. Because of the population of JavaScript, the scene of the cross site scripting attack is also gradually expanded. However, since the web application developers tend to only focus on functional testing and lack the awareness of the XSS, which has made the on-line web projects exist many XSS vulnerabilities. In this paper, different various techniques of XSS attack are analyzed, and a method automatically to detect it is proposed. It is easy to check the results of vulnerability detection when running it as a plug-in.

Keywords: XSS, no target attack platform, automatic detection,XSS detection

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1083 Cryptographic Attack on Lucas Based Cryptosystems Using Chinese Remainder Theorem

Authors: Tze Jin Wong, Lee Feng Koo, Pang Hung Yiu


Lenstra’s attack uses Chinese remainder theorem as a tool and requires a faulty signature to be successful. This paper reports on the security responses of fourth and sixth order Lucas based (LUC4,6) cryptosystem under the Lenstra’s attack as compared to the other two Lucas based cryptosystems such as LUC and LUC3 cryptosystems. All the Lucas based cryptosystems were exposed mathematically to the Lenstra’s attack using Chinese Remainder Theorem and Dickson polynomial. Result shows that the possibility for successful Lenstra’s attack is less against LUC4,6 cryptosystem than LUC3 and LUC cryptosystems. Current study concludes that LUC4,6 cryptosystem is more secure than LUC and LUC3 cryptosystems in sustaining against Lenstra’s attack.

Keywords: congruence, Lucas sequence, Dickson polynomial, faulty signature, corresponding signature

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1082 Use of Hierarchical Temporal Memory Algorithm in Heart Attack Detection

Authors: Tesnim Charrad, Kaouther Nouira, Ahmed Ferchichi


In order to reduce the number of deaths due to heart problems, we propose the use of Hierarchical Temporal Memory Algorithm (HTM) which is a real time anomaly detection algorithm. HTM is a cortical learning algorithm based on neocortex used for anomaly detection. In other words, it is based on a conceptual theory of how the human brain can work. It is powerful in predicting unusual patterns, anomaly detection and classification. In this paper, HTM have been implemented and tested on ECG datasets in order to detect cardiac anomalies. Experiments showed good performance in terms of specificity, sensitivity and execution time.

Keywords: ECG, HTM, cardiac anomalies, real time anomaly detection

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1081 A Game of Information in Defense/Attack Strategies: Case of Poisson Attacks

Authors: Asma Ben Yaghlane, Mohamed Naceur Azaiez


In this paper, we briefly introduce the concept of Poisson attacks in the case of defense/attack strategies where attacks are assumed to be continuous. We suggest a game model in which the attacker will combine both criteria of a sufficient confidence level of a successful attack and a reasonably small size of the estimation error in order to launch an attack. Here, estimation error arises from assessing the system failure upon attack using aggregate data at the system level. The corresponding error is referred to as aggregation error. On the other hand, the defender will attempt to deter attack by making one or both criteria inapplicable. The defender will build his/her strategy by both strengthening the targeted system and increasing the size of error. We will formulate the defender problem based on appropriate optimization models. The attacker will opt for a Bayesian updating in assessing the impact on the improvement made by the defender. Then, the attacker will evaluate the feasibility of the attack before making the decision of whether or not to launch it. We will provide illustrations to better explain the process.

Keywords: Information, Game theory, attacker, defender

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1080 11-Round Impossible Differential Attack on Midori64

Authors: Zhan Chen, Wenquan Bi


This paper focuses on examining the strength of Midori against impossible differential attack. The Midori family of light weight block cipher orienting to energy-efficiency is proposed in ASIACRYPT2015. Using a 6-round property, the authors implement an 11-round impossible differential attack on Midori64 by extending two rounds on the top and three rounds on the bottom. There is enough key space to consider pre-whitening keys in this attack. An impossible differential path that minimises the key bits involved is used to reduce computational complexity. Several additional observations such as partial abort technique are used to further reduce data and time complexities. This attack has data complexity of 2 ⁶⁹·² chosen plaintexts, requires 2 ¹⁴·⁵⁸ blocks of memory and 2 ⁹⁴·⁷ 11- round Midori64 encryptions.

Keywords: Cryptanalysis, impossible differential, light weight block cipher, Midori

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1079 External Sulphate Attack: Advanced Testing and Performance Specifications

Authors: G. Massaad, E. Roziere, A. Loukili, L. Izoret


Based on the monitoring of mass, hydrostatic weighing, and the amount of leached OH- we deduced the nature of leached and precipitated minerals, the amount of lost aggregates and the evolution of porosity and cracking during the sulphate attack. Using these information, we are able to draw the volume / mass changes brought by mineralogical variations and cracking of the cement matrix. Then we defined a new performance indicator, the averaged density, capable to resume along the test of sulphate attack the occurred physicochemical variation occurred in the cementitious matrix and then highlight.

Keywords: sulphate attack, monitoring strategy, performance indicator, mechanism of degradation

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1078 A Survey on Countermeasures of Cache-Timing Attack on AES Systems

Authors: Settana M. Abdulh, Naila A. Sadalla, Yaseen H. Taha, Howaida Elshoush


Side channel attacks are based on side channel information, which is information that is leaked from encryption systems. This includes timing information, power consumption as well as electromagnetic or even sound leaking which can exploited by an attacker. Implementing side channel attacks are possible if and only if an attacker has access to a cryptosystem. In this case, the attacker can exploit bad implementation in software or hardware which is not controlled by encryption implementer. Thus, he/she will represent a real threat to the security system. Several countermeasures have been proposed to eliminate side channel information vulnerability.Cache timing attack is a special type of side channel attack. Here, timing information is collected and analyzed by an attacker to guess sensitive information such as encryption key or plaintext. This paper reviews the technique applied in this attack and surveys the countermeasures against it, evaluating the feasibility and usability of each. Based on this evaluation, finally we pose several recommendations about using these countermeasures.

Keywords: AES algorithm, side channel attack, cache timing attack, cache timing countermeasure

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1077 Simulation of Human Heart Activation Based on Diffusion Tensor Imaging

Authors: Ihab Elaff


Simulating the heart’s electrical stimulation is essential in modeling and evaluating the electrophysiology behavior of the heart. For achieving that, there are two structures in concern: the ventricles’ Myocardium, and the ventricles’ Conduction Network. Ventricles’ Myocardium has been modeled as anisotropic material from Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) scan, and the Conduction Network has been extracted from DTI as a case-based structure based on the biological properties of the heart tissues and the working methodology of the Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scanner. Results of the produced activation were much similar to real measurements of the reference model that was presented in the literature.

Keywords: heart, diffusion tensor, DTI, conduction network, excitation propagation

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1076 Achieving Better Security by Using Nonlinear Cellular Automata as a Cryptographic Primitive

Authors: Swapan Maiti, Dipanwita Roy Chowdhury


Nonlinear functions are essential in different cryptoprimitives as they play an important role on the security of the cipher designs. Rule 30 was identified as a powerful nonlinear function for cryptographic applications. However, an attack (MS attack) was mounted against Rule 30 Cellular Automata (CA). Nonlinear rules as well as maximum period CA increase randomness property. In this work, nonlinear rules of maximum period nonlinear hybrid CA (M-NHCA) are studied and it is shown to be a better crypto-primitive than Rule 30 CA. It has also been analysed that the M-NHCA with single nonlinearity injection proposed in the literature is vulnerable against MS attack, whereas M-NHCA with multiple nonlinearity injections provide maximum length cycle as well as better cryptographic primitives and they are also secure against MS attack.

Keywords: cellular automata, maximum period nonlinear CA, Meier and Staffelbach attack, nonlinear functions

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1075 Slovenia in the Heart of Europe

Authors: M. Žibert, T. Špindler, S. Uhan, A. Lisec


We can find Slovenia in the heart of Europe and has really good geographical location. With same slogan are promoted Switzerland, Montenegro, Greece and probably many others. However, from anatomic point of view, injustice is being made to someone because the heart is placed only in left part of chest cavity and there we can`t find place for the entire territory from Switzerland to the south of Balkan.

Keywords: Logistics, Tourism, Slovenia, Ljubljana

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1074 Determination of Myocardial Function Using Heart Accumulated Radiopharmaceuticals

Authors: C. C .D. Kulathilake, M. Jayatilake, T. Takahashi


The myocardium is composed of specialized muscle which relies mainly on fatty acid and sugar metabolism and it is widely contribute to the heart functioning. The changes of the cardiac energy-producing system during heart failure have been proved using autoradiography techniques. This study focused on evaluating sugar and fatty acid metabolism in myocardium as cardiac energy getting system using heart-accumulated radiopharmaceuticals. Two sets of autoradiographs of heart cross sections of Lewis male rats were analyzed and the time- accumulation curve obtained with use of the MATLAB image processing software to evaluate fatty acid and sugar metabolic functions.

Keywords: Radiopharmaceuticals, Sugar, fatty acid, autoradiographs

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1073 Design of Demand Pacemaker Using an Embedded Controller

Authors: C. Bala Prashanth Reddy, B. Abhinay, C. Sreekar, D. V. Shobhana Priscilla


The project aims in designing an emergency pacemaker which is capable of giving shocks to a human heart which has stopped working suddenly. A pacemaker is a machine commonly used by cardiologists. This machine is used in order to shock a human’s heart back into usage. The way the heart works is that there are small cells called pacemakers sending electrical pulses to cardiac muscles that tell the heart when to pump blood. When these electrical pulses stop, the heart stops beating. When this happens, a pacemaker is used to shock the heart muscles and the pacemakers back into action. The way this is achieved is by rubbing the two panels of the pacemaker together to create an adequate electrical current, and then the heart gets back to the normal state. The project aims in designing a system which is capable of continuously displaying the heart beat and blood pressure of a person on LCD. The concerned doctor gets the heart beat and also the blood pressure details continuously through the GSM Modem in the form of SMS alerts. In case of abnormal condition, the doctor sends message format regarding the amount of electric shock needed. Automatically the microcontroller gives the input to the pacemaker which in turn gives the shock to the patient. Heart beat monitor and display system is a portable and a best replacement for the old model stethoscope which is less efficient. The heart beat rate is calculated manually using stethoscope where the probability of error is high because the heart beat rate lies in the range of 70 to 90 per minute whose occurrence is less than 1 sec, so this device can be considered as a very good alternative instead of a stethoscope.

Keywords: heart, PWM, missing R wave, demand pacemaker

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1072 A Dynamic Solution Approach for Heart Disease Prediction

Authors: Walid Moudani


The healthcare environment is generally perceived as being information rich yet knowledge poor. However, there is a lack of effective analysis tools to discover hidden relationships and trends in data. In fact, valuable knowledge can be discovered from application of data mining techniques in healthcare system. In this study, a proficient methodology for the extraction of significant patterns from the coronary heart disease warehouses for heart attack prediction, which unfortunately continues to be a leading cause of mortality in the whole world, has been presented. For this purpose, we propose to enumerate dynamically the optimal subsets of the reduced features of high interest by using rough sets technique associated to dynamic programming. Therefore, we propose to validate the classification using Random Forest (RF) decision tree to identify the risky heart disease cases. This work is based on a large amount of data collected from several clinical institutions based on the medical profile of patient. Moreover, the experts’ knowledge in this field has been taken into consideration in order to define the disease, its risk factors, and to establish significant knowledge relationships among the medical factors. A computer-aided system is developed for this purpose based on a population of 525 adults. The performance of the proposed model is analyzed and evaluated based on set of benchmark techniques applied in this classification problem.

Keywords: Rough Sets, Dynamic Programming, multi-classifier decisions tree, features reduction

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1071 Modeling Intelligent Threats: Case of Continuous Attacks on a Specific Target

Authors: Asma Ben Yaghlane, Mohamed Naceur Azaiez


In this paper, we treat a model that falls in the area of protecting targeted systems from intelligent threats including terrorism. We introduce the concept of system survivability, in the context of continuous attacks, as the probability that a system under attack will continue operation up to some fixed time t. We define a constant attack rate (CAR) process as an attack on a targeted system that follows an exponential distribution. We consider the superposition of several CAR processes. From the attacker side, we determine the optimal attack strategy that minimizes the system survivability. We also determine the optimal strengthening strategy that maximizes the system survivability under limited defensive resources. We use operations research techniques to identify optimal strategies of each antagonist. Our results may be used as interesting starting points to develop realistic protection strategies against intentional attacks.

Keywords: survivability, defense/attack strategies, CAR processes, exponential failure

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1070 Poincare Plot for Heart Rate Variability

Authors: Mazhar B. Tayel, Eslam I. AlSaba


The heart is the most important part in any body organisms. It effects and affected by any factor in the body. Therefore, it is a good detector of any matter in the body. When the heart signal is non-stationary signal, therefore, it should be study its variability. So, the Heart Rate Variability (HRV) has attracted considerable attention in psychology, medicine and have become important dependent measure in psychophysiology and behavioral medicine. Quantification and interpretation of heart rate variability. However, remain complex issues are fraught with pitfalls. This paper presents one of the non-linear techniques to analyze HRV. It discusses 'What Poincare plot is?', 'How it is work?', 'its usage benefits especially in HRV', 'the limitation of Poincare cause of standard deviation SD1, SD2', and 'How overcome this limitation by using complex correlation measure (CCM)'. The CCM is most sensitive to changes in temporal structure of the Poincaré plot as compared to SD1 and SD2.

Keywords: heart rate variability, chaotic system, standard deviation, variance, poincare, complex correlation measure

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1069 Effect of Waste Foundry Slag and Alccofine on Durability Properties of High Strength Concrete

Authors: Devinder Sharma, Sanjay Sharma, Ajay Goyal, Ashish Kapoor


The present research paper discussed the durability properties of high strength concrete (HSC) using Foundry Slag(FD) as partial substitute for fine aggregates (FA) and Alccofine (AF) in addition to portland pozzolana (PPC) cement. Specimens of Concrete M100 grade with water/binder ratio 0.239, with Foundry Slag (FD) varying from 0 to 50% and with optimum quantity of AF(15%) were casted and tested for durability properties such as Water absorption, water permeability, resistance to sulphate attack, alkali attack and nitrate attack of HSC at the age of 7, 14, 28, 56 and 90 days. Substitution of fine aggregates (FA) with up to 45% of foundry slag(FD) content and cement with 15% substitution and addition of alccofine showed an excellent resistance against durability properties at all ages but showed a decrease in these properties with 50% of FD contents. Loss of weight in concrete samples due to sulphate attack, alkali attack and nitrate attack of HSC at the age of 365 days was compared with loss in compressive strength. Correlation between loss in weight and loss in compressive strength in all the tests was found to be excellent.

Keywords: high strength concrete, water permeability, water absorption, alccofine, alkali attack, foundry slag, nitrate attack

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1068 Experimental Studies on the Corrosion Effects of the Concrete Made with Tannery Effluent

Authors: K. Nirmalkumar


An acute water scarcity is prevailing in the dry season in and around Perundurai (Erode district, Tamil Nadu, India) where there are more number of tannery units. Hence an attempt was made to use the effluent from the tannery industry for construction purpose. The mechanical properties such as compressive strength, tensile strength, flexural strength and the special properties such as chloride attack, sulphate attack and chemical attack were studied by casting various concrete specimens in form of cube, cylinders and beams, etc. It was observed that the concrete had some reduction in strength while subjected to chloride attack, sulphate attack and chemical attack. So admixtures were selected and optimized in suitable proportion to counter act the adverse effects and the results were found to be satisfactory. In this research study the corrosion results of specimens prepared by using treated and untreated tannery effluent were compared with the concrete specimens prepared by using potable water. It was observed that by the addition of admixtures, the adverse effects due to the usage of the treated and untreated tannery effluent are counteracted.

Keywords: Concrete, Corrosion, fly ash, calcium nitrite

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