Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1605

Search results for: costs

1605 Providing a Practical Model to Reduce Maintenance Costs: A Case Study in GeG Company

Authors: Iman Atighi, Jalal Soleimannejad, Reza Pourjafarabadi, Saeid Moradpour

Abstract:

In the past, we could increase profit by increasing product prices. But in the new decade, a competitive market does not let us to increase profit with increased prices. Therefore, the only way to increase profit will be to reduce costs. A significant percentage of production costs are the maintenance costs, and analysis of these costs could achieve more profit. Most maintenance strategies such as RCM (Reliability-Center-Maintenance), TPM (Total Productivity Maintenance), PM (Preventive Maintenance) and etc., are trying to reduce maintenance costs. In this paper, decreasing the maintenance costs of Concentration Plant of Golgohar Iron Ore Mining & Industrial Company (GeG) was examined by using of MTBF (Mean Time Between Failures) and MTTR (Mean Time To Repair) analyses. These analyses showed that instead of buying new machines and increasing costs in order to promote capacity, the improving of MTBF and MTTR indexes would solve capacity problems in the best way and decrease costs.

Keywords: GeG company, maintainability, maintenance costs, reliability-center-maintenance

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1604 Providing a Practical Model to Reduce Maintenance Costs: A Case Study in Golgohar Company

Authors: Iman Atighi, Jalal Soleimannejad, Ahmad Akbarinasab, Saeid Moradpour

Abstract:

In the past, we could increase profit by increasing product prices. But in the new decade, a competitive market does not let us to increase profit with increase prices. Therefore, the only way to increase profit will be reduce costs. A significant percentage of production costs are the maintenance costs, and analysis of these costs could achieve more profit. Most maintenance strategies such as RCM (Reliability-Center-Maintenance), TPM (Total Productivity Maintenance), PM (Preventive Maintenance) etc., are trying to reduce maintenance costs. In this paper, decreasing the maintenance costs of Concentration Plant of Golgohar Company (GEG) was examined by using of MTBF (Mean Time between Failures) and MTTR (Mean Time to Repair) analyses. These analyses showed that instead of buying new machines and increasing costs in order to promote capacity, the improving of MTBF and MTTR indexes would solve capacity problems in the best way and decrease costs.

Keywords: Golgohar Iron Ore Mining and Industrial Company, maintainability, maintenance costs, reliability-center-maintenance

Procedia PDF Downloads 172
1603 Partners Sharing Resources, Costs, and Risks

Authors: Lee Li

Abstract:

The strategic management literature posits that the major motive of strategic alliances is to share resources, costs and risks. However, the literature also indicates that such sharing leads to transaction costs which are positively correlated with environmental dynamism. As such, it is not clear why firms are willing to cover high transaction costs for sharing resources, costs and risks. This study categorizes resources into firm-specific and general resource; costs into accounting and non-accounting cost; and risks into visible and invisible risks. Using data from 167 Canadian firms in technology industries, we find that sharing firm-specific resources and non-accounting costs are negatively correlated with environmental dynamism but sharing general resources, accounting costs and visible risks are positively correlated with environmental dynamism. Findings suggest that sharing certain resources, costs and risks do not necessarily incur high transaction costs.

Keywords: environmental dynamism, strategic alliances, resource/cost/risk sharing

Procedia PDF Downloads 255
1602 The Impacts of Technology on Operations Costs: The Mediating Role of Operation Flexibility

Authors: Fazli Idris, Jihad Mohammad

Abstract:

The study aims to determine the impact of technology and service operations flexibility, which is divided into external flexibility and internal robustness, on operations costs. A mediation model is proposed that links technology to operations costs via operation flexibility. Drawing on a sample of 475 of operations managers of various service sectors in Malaysia and South Africa, Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was employed to test the relationship using Smart-PLS procedures. It was found that a significant relationship was established between technologies to operations costs via both operations flexibility dimensions. Theoretical and managerial implications are offered to explain the results.

Keywords: Operations flexibility, technology, costs, mediation

Procedia PDF Downloads 510
1601 Time, Uncertainty, and Technological Innovation

Authors: Xavier Everaert

Abstract:

Ever since the publication of “The Problem of Social” cost, Coasean insights on externalities, transaction costs, and the reciprocal nature of harms, have been widely debated. What has been largely neglected however, is the role of technological innovation in the mitigation of negative externalities or transaction costs. Incorporating future uncertainty about negligence standards or expected restitution costs and the profit opportunities these uncertainties reveal to entrepreneurs, allow us to frame problems regarding social costs within the reality of rapid technological evolution.

Keywords: environmental law and economics, entrepreneurship, commons, pollution, wildlife

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1600 Evaluating the Cost of Quality: A Case Study of a South African Foundry Business

Authors: Chipo Mugova, Zuko Mjobo

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to evaluate the cost of quality (COQ) at a local foundry business to identify the contribution of its units and processes to quality costs within the foundry’s operations. The foundry selected for detailed case study is one of major businesses that have been targeted by the government to produce components for building and re-furbishing wagons and trains. The study aimed at identifying areas in the foundry’s processes in which investment needs to be made to reduce quality costs. This is in alignment with government’s vision of promoting local business to support local markets leading to creation of jobs, and hence reduction of unemployment rate in South Africa. The methodology adopted used cost of quality models. Results from the study indicated that internal failure costs were significantly higher than all other cost of quality categories, taking more than 60% of the business’s income.

Keywords: appraisal costs, cost of quality, failure costs, local content, prevention costs

Procedia PDF Downloads 253
1599 The Impact of Transaction Costs on Rebalancing an Investment Portfolio in Portfolio Optimization

Authors: B. Marasović, S. Pivac, S. V. Vukasović

Abstract:

Constructing a portfolio of investments is one of the most significant financial decisions facing individuals and institutions. In accordance with the modern portfolio theory maximization of return at minimal risk should be the investment goal of any successful investor. In addition, the costs incurred when setting up a new portfolio or rebalancing an existing portfolio must be included in any realistic analysis. In this paper rebalancing an investment portfolio in the presence of transaction costs on the Croatian capital market is analyzed. The model applied in the paper is an extension of the standard portfolio mean-variance optimization model in which transaction costs are incurred to rebalance an investment portfolio. This model allows different costs for different securities, and different costs for buying and selling. In order to find efficient portfolio, using this model, first, the solution of quadratic programming problem of similar size to the Markowitz model, and then the solution of a linear programming problem have to be found. Furthermore, in the paper the impact of transaction costs on the efficient frontier is investigated. Moreover, it is shown that global minimum variance portfolio on the efficient frontier always has the same level of the risk regardless of the amount of transaction costs. Although efficient frontier position depends of both transaction costs amount and initial portfolio it can be concluded that extreme right portfolio on the efficient frontier always contains only one stock with the highest expected return and the highest risk.

Keywords: Croatian capital market, Markowitz model, fractional quadratic programming, portfolio optimization, transaction costs

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1598 Final Costs of Civil Claims

Authors: Behnam Habibi Dargah

Abstract:

The economics of cost-benefit theory seeks to monitor claims and determine their final price. The cost of litigation is important because it is a measure of the efficiency of the justice system. From an economic point of view, the cost of litigation is considered to be the point of equilibrium of litigation, whereby litigation is regarded as a high-risk investment and is initiated when the costs are less than the probable and expected benefits. Costs are economically separated into private and social costs. Private cost includes material (direct and indirect) and spiritual costs. The social costs of litigation are also subsidized-centric due to the public and governmental nature of litigation and cover both types of bureaucratic bureaucracy and the costs of judicial misconduct. Macroeconomic policy in the economics of justice is the reverse engineering of controlling the social costs of litigation by employing selective litigation and working on the judicial culture to achieve rationality in the monopoly system. Procedures for controlling and managing court costs are also circumscribed to economic patterns in the field. Rational cost allocation model and cost transfer model. The rational allocation model deals with cost-tolerance systems, and the transfer model also considers three models of transferability, including legal, judicial and contractual transferability, which will be described and explored in the present article in a comparative manner.

Keywords: cost of litigation, economics of litigation, private cost, social cost, cost of litigation

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1597 Bilateral Trade Costs Analysis of Policy Barriers for Growth Oriented Strategies in Exports

Authors: Shabana Noureen, Zafar Mahmood

Abstract:

Economies consistently engage in trade across borders and face tariff, non-tariff barriers and other quotas that constitute trade costs. The trade costs imposed by policy barriers on exports are considered an impediment in the export growth rate. This work aims to measure over-year trends in total and bilateral trade costs and their trends in relevance to policy barriers (tariff and non-tariff). The analysis through the micro-founded theoretically based gravity model showed that the total trade costs have a general decreasing trend in the world while in the case of developing countries, the rate by which these trends decline is very low. Bilateral trade cost estimates associated with the policy barriers represent that the non-tariff barriers in a developing country have a major role in sustaining the high trade costs as compared to the tariff barriers. This ultimately leads to a low net declining rate. This work emphasizes that for developing countries the non-tariff barriers are a major factor that renders their exports and to be uncompetitive in the world market.

Keywords: trade costs, policy barriers, tariff barriers, non-tariff barriers, trade policies, export growth

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1596 A Memetic Algorithm for an Energy-Costs-Aware Flexible Job-Shop Scheduling Problem

Authors: Christian Böning, Henrik Prinzhorn, Eric C. Hund, Malte Stonis

Abstract:

In this article, the flexible job-shop scheduling problem is extended by consideration of energy costs which arise owing to the power peak, and further decision variables such as work in process and throughput time are incorporated into the objective function. This enables a production plan to be simultaneously optimized in respect of the real arising energy and logistics costs. The energy-costs-aware flexible job-shop scheduling problem (EFJSP) which arises is described mathematically, and a memetic algorithm (MA) is presented as a solution. In the MA, the evolutionary process is supplemented with a local search. Furthermore, repair procedures are used in order to rectify any infeasible solutions that have arisen in the evolutionary process. The potential for lowering the real arising costs of a production plan through consideration of energy consumption levels is highlighted.

Keywords: energy costs, flexible job-shop scheduling, memetic algorithm, power peak

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1595 A Study of the Costs and Benefits of Smart City Projects Including the Scenario of Public-Private Partnerships

Authors: Patrick T. I. Lam, Wenjing Yang

Abstract:

A smart city project embraces benefits and costs which can be classified under direct and indirect categories. Externalities come into the picture, but they are often difficult to quantify. Despite this barrier, policy makers need to carry out cost-benefit analysis to justify the huge investments needed to make a city smart. The recent trend is towards the engagement of the private sector to utilize their resources and expertise, especially in the Information and Communication Technology (ICT) areas, where innovations blossom. This study focuses on the identification of costs (on a life cycle basis) and benefits associated with smart city project developments based on a comprehensive literature review and case studies, where public-private partnerships would warrant consideration, the related costs and benefits are highlighted. The findings will be useful for policy makers of cities.

Keywords: smart city projects, costs and benefits, identification, public-private partnerships

Procedia PDF Downloads 235
1594 The Impact of Quality Cost on Revenue Sharing in Supply Chain Management

Authors: Fayza M. Obied-Allah

Abstract:

Customer’ needs, quality, and value creation while reducing costs through supply chain management provides challenges and opportunities for companies and researchers. In the light of these challenges, modern ideas must contribute to counter these challenges and exploit opportunities. Perhaps this paper will be one of these contributions. This paper discusses the impact of the quality cost on revenue sharing as a most important incentive to configure business networks. No doubt that the costs directly affect the size of income generated by a business network, so this paper investigates the impact of quality costs on business networks revenue, and their impact on the decision to participate the revenue among the companies in the supply chain. This paper develops the quality cost approach to align with the modern era, the developed model includes five categories besides the well-known four categories (namely prevention costs, appraisal costs, internal failure costs, and external failure costs), a new category has been developed in this research as a new vision of the relationship between quality costs and innovations of industry. This new category is Recycle Cost. This paper is organized into six sections, Section I shows quality costs overview in the supply chain. Section II discusses revenue sharing between the parties in supply chain. Section III investigates the impact of quality costs in revenue sharing decision between partners in supply chain. The fourth section includes survey study and presents statistical results. Section V discusses the results and shows future opportunities for research. Finally, Section VI summarizes the theoretical and practical results of this paper.

Keywords: quality cost, recycle cost, revenue sharing, supply chain management

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1593 Out of Pocket Costs for Patients with Tuberculosis in Colombia: Evidence from Three Metropolitan Areas

Authors: Jose Hernandez, Lina Martínez, Gustavo Gonzalez, Carlos Lázaro, Diana Castrillon, Jonathan Cardona, Laura Mejía, Yina Sanchez, Luisa Ochoa, Evert Jimenez

Abstract:

Objectives: Economic analyses of tuberculosis control interventions are usually focused on the payer’s perspective. To assess the overall economic impact of the disease, out-of-pocket and indirect costs are also required. This research is aimed to estimate overall economic impact under DOTS-strategy (Directly Observed Therapy Short Course). Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 91 adult tuberculosis patients in treatment for at least two months was conducted from the society perspective. A standardized questionnaire was used in three different cities of Colombia: Medellin (poverty is 17.7%), Monteria (poverty is 36.9%) and Quibdó (poverty is 51.2%). Costs were converted to 2013 USD and categorized into two periods: diagnostics phase and treatment. Results: The median cost during diagnostics was 13$ (±SD 9.5). The median monthly patient out-of-pocket costs during treatment were 32$ (±SD 6.8), equivalent to 17% of patient’s median monthly income, estimated in 186$ (±SD 23). Costs recorded in Medellin were 47$ in Monteria was 18$ and in Quibdó was 13$. Conclusion: Patient costs under DOTS strategy are high even when services are provided free of charge. The creation or strengthening of community-based treatment supervisors could greatly impact costs of tuberculosis and lower drop-outs.

Keywords: tuberculosis, costs and cost analysis, health promotion, Colombia

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1592 Survival Chances and Costs after Heart Attacks: An Instrumental Variable Approach

Authors: Alice Sanwald, Thomas Schober

Abstract:

We analyze mortality and follow-up costs of heart attack patients using administrative data from Austria (2002-2011). As treatment intensity in a hospital largely depends on whether it has a catheterization laboratory, we focus on the effects of patients' initial admission to these specialized hospitals. To account for the nonrandom selection of patients into hospitals, we exploit individuals' place of residence as a source of exogenous variation in an instrumental variable framework. We find that the initial admission to specialized hospitals increases patients' survival chances substantially. The effect on 3-year mortality is -9.5 percentage points. A separation of the sample into subgroups shows the strongest effects in relative terms for patients below the age of 65. We do not find significant effects on longterm inpatient costs and find only marginal increases in outpatient costs.

Keywords: acute myocardial infarction, mortality, costs, instrumental variables, heart attack

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1591 Controlling Cocoa Pod Borer, Conopomorpha cramerella (Snell.) and Cost Analysis Production at Cacao Plantation

Authors: Alam Anshary, Flora Pasaru, Shahabuddin

Abstract:

The Cocoa Pod Borer (CPB), Conopomorpha cramerella (Snell.) is present on most of the larger cocoa producing islands in Indonesia. Various control measures CPB has been carried out by the farmers, but the results have not been effective. This study aims to determine the effect of application of Beauveria bassiana treatments and pruning technique to the control of CPB in the cocoa plantation people. Research using completely randomized design with 4 treatments and 3 replications, treatment consists of B.bassiana, Pruning, B. bassiana+pruning (Bb + Pr), as well as the control. The results showed that the percentage of PBK attack on cocoa pods in treatment (Bb + Pr) 3.50% the lowest compared to other treatments. CPB attack percentage in treatment B.bassiana 6.15%; pruning 8.75%, and 15.20% control. Results of the analysis of production estimates, the known treatments (Bb + Pr) have the highest production (1.95 tonnes / ha). The model results estimated production is Y= 0,20999 + 0,53968X1 + 0,34298X2+ 0,31410X3 + 0,35629X4 + 0,08345X5 + 0,29732X6. Farm production costs consist of fixed costs and variable costs, fixed costs are costs incurred by the farmer that the size does not affect the results, such as taxes and depreciation of production equipment. Variable costs are costs incurred by farmers who used up in one year cocoa farming activities. The cost of production in farming cocoa without integrated techniques control of CPB is Rp. 9.205.550 million/ha, while the cost of production with integrated techniques control is Rp. 6.666.050 million/ha.

Keywords: cacao, cocoa pod borer, pruning, Beauveria bassiana, production costs

Procedia PDF Downloads 194
1590 Modeling Sustainable Truck Rental Operations Using Closed-Loop Supply Chain Network

Authors: Khaled S. Abdallah, Abdel-Aziz M. Mohamed

Abstract:

Moving industries consume numerous resources and dispose masses of used packaging materials. Proper sorting, recycling and disposing the packaging materials is necessary to avoid a sever pollution disaster. This research paper presents a conceptual model to propose sustainable truck rental operations instead of the regular one. An optimization model was developed to select the locations of truck rental centers, collection sites, maintenance and repair sites, and identify the rental fees to be charged for all routes that maximize the total closed supply chain profits. Fixed costs of vehicle purchasing, costs of constructing collection centers and repair centers, as well as the fixed costs paid to use disposal and recycling centers are considered. Operating costs include the truck maintenance, repair costs as well as the cost of recycling and disposing the packing materials, and the costs of relocating the truck are presented in the model. A mixed integer model is developed followed by a simulation model to examine the factors affecting the operation of the model.

Keywords: modeling, truck rental, supply chains management.

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1589 Processing Design of Miniature Casting Incorporating Stereolithography Technologies

Authors: Pei-Hsing Huang, Wei-Ju Huang

Abstract:

Investment casting is commonly used in the production of metallic components with complex shapes, due to its high dimensional precision, good surface finish, and low cost. However, the process is cumbersome, and the period between trial casting and final production can be very long, thereby limiting business opportunities and competitiveness. In this study, we replaced conventional wax injection with stereolithography (SLA) 3D printing to speed up the trial process and reduce costs. We also used silicone molds to further reduce costs to avoid the high costs imposed by photosensitive resin.

Keywords: investment casting, stereolithography, wax molding, 3D printing

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1588 Implicit Transaction Costs and the Fundamental Theorems of Asset Pricing

Authors: Erindi Allaj

Abstract:

This paper studies arbitrage pricing theory in financial markets with transaction costs. We extend the existing theory to include the more realistic possibility that the price at which the investors trade is dependent on the traded volume. The investors in the market always buy at the ask and sell at the bid price. Transaction costs are composed of two terms, one is able to capture the implicit transaction costs and the other the price impact. Moreover, a new definition of a self-financing portfolio is obtained. The self-financing condition suggests that continuous trading is possible, but is restricted to predictable trading strategies which have left and right limit and finite quadratic variation. That is, predictable trading strategies of infinite variation and of finite quadratic variation are allowed in our setting. Within this framework, the existence of an equivalent probability measure is equivalent to the absence of arbitrage opportunities, so that the first fundamental theorem of asset pricing (FFTAP) holds. It is also proved that, when this probability measure is unique, any contingent claim in the market is hedgeable in an L2-sense. The price of any contingent claim is equal to the risk-neutral price. To better understand how to apply the theory proposed we provide an example with linear transaction costs.

Keywords: arbitrage pricing theory, transaction costs, fundamental theorems of arbitrage, financial markets

Procedia PDF Downloads 248
1587 A Real-World Evidence Analysis of Associations between Costs, Quality of Life and Disease-Severity Indicators of Alzheimer’s Disease in Thailand

Authors: Khachen Kongpakwattana, Charungthai Dejthevaporn, Orapitchaya Krairit, Piyameth Dilokthornsakul, Devi Mohan, Nathorn Chaiyakunapruk

Abstract:

Background: Although an increase in the burden of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is evident worldwide, knowledge of costs and health-related quality of life (HR-QoL) associated with AD in Low- and Middle-Income Countries (LMICs) is still lacking. We, therefore, aimed to collect real-world cost and HR-QoL data, and investigate their associations with multiple disease-severity indicators among AD patients in Thailand. Methods: We recruited AD patients aged ≥ 60 years accompanied by their caregivers at a university-affiliated tertiary hospital. A one-time structured interview was conducted to collect disease-severity indicators, HR-QoL and caregiving information using standardized tools. The hospital’s database was used to retrieve healthcare resource utilization occurred over 6 months preceding the interview date. Costs were annualized and stratified based on cognitive status. Generalized linear models were employed to evaluate determinants of costs and HR-QoL. Results: Among 148 community-dwelling patients, average annual total societal costs of AD care were 8,014 US$ [95% Confidence Interval (95% CI): 7,295 US$ - 8,844 US$] per patient. Total costs of patients with severe stage (9,860 US$; 95% CI: 8,785 US$ - 11,328 US$) were almost twice as high as those of mild stage (5,524 US$; 95% CI: 4,649 US$ - 6,593 US$). The major cost driver was direct medical costs, particularly those incurred by AD prescriptions. Functional status was the strongest determinant for both total costs and patient’s HR-QoL (p-value < 0.001). Conclusions: Our real-world findings suggest the distinct major cost driver which results from expensive AD treatment, emphasizing the demand for country-specific cost evidence. Increases in cognitive and functional status are significantly associated with decreases in total costs of AD care and improvement on patient’s HR-QoL.

Keywords: Alzheimer's disease, associations, costs, disease-severity indicators, health-related quality of life

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1586 Logistics Information and Customer Service

Authors: Š. Čemerková, M. Wilczková

Abstract:

The paper deals with the importance of information flow for providing of defined level of customer service in the firms. Setting of the criteria for the selection and implementation of logistics information system is a prerequisite for ensuring of the flow of information in firms. The decision on the selection and implementation of logistics information system is linked to the investment costs and operating costs, which are included in the total logistics costs. The article also deals with the conclusions of the research focused on the logistics information system selection in companies in the Czech Republic.

Keywords: customer service, information system, logistics, research

Procedia PDF Downloads 246
1585 Analysis of the Impact and Effectiveness of Government Funded Small-Scale Biogas Projects in Giyani Municipality, Limpopo

Authors: Lindiwe Ngcobo

Abstract:

The aim of the study is to describe and understand the benefits and costs of having biogas digesters at both household and society level. On a household level, the purpose is to understand how rural households benefit from the biogas digesters, for example, by converting animal and human waste through biogas digesters, and at what costs the benefits are realized. At a societal level, the purpose is to understand the costs and benefits of biogas digesters relative to the situation of rural communities who do not have flush toilets and have no appropriate waste disposal services while they incur electricity costs. Multiple regression analysis was used to determine the effect of biogas digesters on electricity availability and waste management. The results showed that beneficiaries spent less on electricity using household waste, and also waste disposal costs were eliminated from household expenses. A move to biogas energy production can be beneficial to rural households. It is economically and environmentally friendly. Small-scale farmers need to be introduced to agricultural innovations that can assist them in producing nutritious crops at a low cost. This can be a good opportunity to start an agribusiness that focuses on organic crops. Extensions and training institutions have to play a part in supporting households to develop entrepreneurial skills. Cost-benefit analysis showed that the benefits of biogas exceed the costs of the biogas projects. This implies that this technology should be promoted in rural households. Government financial incentives must be put in place to motivate a generation of organic Agri-prenuers.

Keywords: Agri-prenuers, biogas digester, biogas energy, disposal costs

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1584 The Evaluation of Costs and Greenhouse Gas Reduction by Using Technologies for Energy from Sewage Sludge

Authors: Futoshi Kakuta, Takashi Ishida

Abstract:

Sewage sludge is a biomass resource that can create a solid fuel and electricity. Utilizing sewage sludge as a renewable energy can contribute to the reduction of greenhouse gasses. In Japan, 'The National Plan for the Promotion of Biomass Utilization' and 'The Priority Plan for Social Infrastructure Development' were approved at cabinet meetings in December 2010 and August 2012, respectively, to promote the energy utilization of sewage sludge. This study investigated costs and greenhouse gas emission in different sewage sludge treatments with technologies for energy from sewage sludge. Costs were estimated on capital costs and O&M costs including energy consumption of solid fuel plants and biogas power generation plants for sewage sludge. Results showed that cost of sludge digestion treatment with solid fuel technologies was 8% lower than landfill disposal. Greenhouse gas emission of sludge digestion treatment with solid fuel technologies was also 6,390t as CO2 smaller than landfill disposal. Biogas power generation reduced the electricity of a wastewater treatment plant by 30% and the cost by 5%.

Keywords: global warming countermeasure, energy technology, solid fuel production, biogas

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1583 Family Treatment Drug Court Cost Analysis: An In-depth Look At The Cost And Savings Of A Southeastern Family Treatment Drug Court

Authors: Ashley R. Logsdon, Becky F. Antle, Cynthia M. Kamer

Abstract:

This study examines the cost and benefits of a family treatment drug court in an urban county in a southeastern state. Additionally, this cost analysis will provide a detailed description of the type and cost of activities to produce the services provided to child welfare families. This study utilized return-on-investment analysis, which uses child welfare practices, disaggregates them into separate activities and estimates costs for these activities including child-level placement data for total cost of care for the child. Direct and indirect costs were considered as well as saving calculations what costs would be associated with child welfare outcomes both short and long term. The costs included were general program costs (salaries, drug screens, transportation, childcare, parent education, program evaluation, visitation, incentives) or personnel costs for other team members (judges, court administrators, child welfare workers, child welfare supervisors, and community mental health provider). The savings that were used in the study were length of time in out of home care, Medicaid costs, substance exposed births, emergency room utilization and jail/probation costs. This study documents an overall savings of between $168,993.30 and $837,993.30. The total savings per family divided by the 40 families who have participated in the program was between $4,224.83 to $20,949.83 per family. The results of this cost benefit analysis are consistent with prior research documenting savings associated with out of home care and jail/probation; however, there are also unique contributions of this study to the literature on cost effectiveness of family treatment drug courts. We will present recommendations for further utilization of family treatment drug courts and how to expand the current model.

Keywords: child welfare, cost analysis, family drug court, family treatment drug court

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1582 Evaluation of External Costs of Traffic Accident in Slovak Republic

Authors: Anna Dolinayova, Jozef Danis, Juraj Camaj

Abstract:

The report deals with comparison of traffic accidents in Slovak republic in road and rail transport since year 2009 until 2014, with evaluation of external costs and consequently with the possibilities of their internalization. The results of road traffic accidents analysis are realized in line with after-effects they have caused; in line with main cause, place of origin (within or out of town) and in accordance to age of people they were killed or hard, eventually easy injured in traffic accidents. Evaluation of individual after-effects is carried in terms of probability of traffic accidents occurrence.

Keywords: external costs, traffic accident, rail transport, road transport

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1581 A Simulative Approach for JIT Parts-Feeding Policies

Authors: Zhou BingHai, Fradet Victor

Abstract:

Lean philosophy follows the simple principle of “creating more value with fewer resources”. In accordance with this policy, material handling can be managed by the mean of Kanban which by triggering every feeding tour only when needed regulates the flow of material in one of the most efficient way. This paper focuses on Kanban Supermarket’s parameters and their optimization on a purely cost-based point of view. Number and size of forklifts, as well as size of the containers they carry, will be variables of the cost function which includes handling costs, inventory costs but also shortage costs. With an innovative computational approach encoded into industrial engineering software Tecnomatix and reproducing real-life conditions, a fictive assembly line is established and produces a random list of orders. Multi-scenarios are then run to study the impact of each change of parameter and the variation of costs it implies. Lastly, best-case scenarios financially speaking are selected.

Keywords: Kanban, supermarket, parts-feeding policies, multi-scenario simulation, assembly line

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1580 Optimal Hedging of a Portfolio of European Options in an Extended Binomial Model under Proportional Transaction Costs

Authors: Norm Josephy, Lucy Kimball, Victoria Steblovskaya

Abstract:

Hedging of a portfolio of European options under proportional transaction costs is considered. Our discrete time financial market model extends the binomial market model with transaction costs to the case where the underlying stock price ratios are distributed over a bounded interval rather than over a two-point set. An optimal hedging strategy is chosen from a set of admissible non-self-financing hedging strategies. Our approach to optimal hedging of a portfolio of options is based on theoretical foundation that includes determination of a no-arbitrage option price interval as well as on properties of the non-self-financing strategies and their residuals. A computational algorithm for optimizing an investor relevant criterion over the set of admissible non-self-financing hedging strategies is developed. Applicability of our approach is demonstrated using both simulated data and real market data.

Keywords: extended binomial model, non-self-financing hedging, optimization, proportional transaction costs

Procedia PDF Downloads 118
1579 Analysis of the Production Time in a Pharmaceutical Company

Authors: Hanen Khanchel, Karim Ben Kahla

Abstract:

Pharmaceutical companies are facing competition. Indeed, the price differences between competing products can be such that it becomes difficult to compensate them by differences in value added. The conditions of competition are no longer homogeneous for the players involved. The price of a product is a given that puts a company and its customer face to face. However, price fixing obliges the company to consider internal factors relating to production costs and external factors such as customer attitudes, the existence of regulations and the structure of the market on which the firm evolved. In setting the selling price, the company must first take into account internal factors relating to its costs: costs of production fall into two categories, fixed costs and variable costs that depend on the quantities produced. The company cannot consider selling below what it costs the product. It, therefore, calculates the unit cost of production to which it adds the unit cost of distribution, enabling it to know the unit cost of production of the product. The company adds its margin and thus determines its selling price. The margin is used to remunerate the capital providers and to finance the activity of the company and its investments. Production costs are related to the quantities produced: large-scale production generally reduces the unit cost of production, which is an asset for companies with mass production markets. This shows that small and medium-sized companies with limited market segments need to make greater efforts to ensure their profit margins. As a result, and faced with high and low market prices for raw materials and increasing staff costs, the company must seek to optimize its production time in order to reduce loads and eliminate waste. Then, the customer pays only value added. Thus, and based on this principle we decided to create a project that deals with the problem of waste in our company, and having as objectives the reduction of production costs and improvement of performance indicators. This paper presents the implementation of the Value Stream Mapping (VSM) project in a pharmaceutical company. It is structured as follows: 1) determination of the family of products, 2) drawing of the current state, 3) drawing of the future state, 4) action plan and implementation.

Keywords: VSM, waste, production time, kaizen, cartography, improvement

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1578 A Study on the Impact of Perceived Benefits and Switching Costs of Consumers When Shifting from Brick and Mortar Store to Online Shopping of Apparels

Authors: Havisha Banda

Abstract:

Recent advancements in technology have facilitated commerce around the globe. The online medium of commerce has provided and will continue to provide great opportunities for consumers and businesses. Advancements in technology enable apparel stores, for instance, to improve their online services by using personalized virtual models allowing consumers to visualize the product on the model to determine correct sizing and fit. In addition to many advantages in online shopping the consumers will also have to undergo many types of switching costs in this process of buying apparel online. This study is to identify such switching costs and switching benefits from traditional shopping to online shopping and to understand what the consumers value the most. The scope of this study is to understand the types of switching costs and the factors that actually allow the consumers to shift from brick and mortar to online shopping and also to understand why a certain set of customers consider to purchase offline. Hence this study helps to understand the perceived cost and perceived benefit relation that the consumer draws in purchasing the garments online. This will help the upcoming e-commerce sites and brick and mortar store to understand the various factors and formulate new policies and implement strategies in their own ways to attract the customers and to retain them. A sample of 35 is considered for the process of laddered interviews. In the era of e-commerce there are people who feel comfortable to shop in a retail store rather than online purchase. Few respondents who shop online do not prefer to shop apparel online. Few respondents said that they shop online only for apparels. Most of the variables match in terms of switching costs and also in regard to benefits.

Keywords: e-commerce, switching costs, switching benefits, apparel shopping

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1577 Expert System for Road Bridge Constructions

Authors: Michael Dimmer, Holger Flederer

Abstract:

The basis of realizing a construction project is a technically flawless concept which satisfies conditions regarding environment and costs, as well as static-constructional terms. The presented software system actively supports civil engineers during the setup of optimal designs, by giving advice regarding durability, life-cycle costs, sustainability and much more. A major part of the surrounding conditions of a design process is gathered and assimilated by experienced engineers subconsciously. It is a question about eligible building techniques and their practicability by considering emerging costs. Planning engineers have acquired many of this experience during their professional life and use them for their daily work. Occasionally, the planning engineer should disassociate himself from his experience to be open for new and better solutions which meet the functional demands, as well. The developed expert system gives planning engineers recommendations for preferred design options of new constructions as well as for existing bridge constructions. It is possible to analyze construction elements and techniques regarding sustainability and life-cycle costs. This way the software provides recommendations for future constructions. Furthermore, there is an option to design existing road bridges especially for heavy duty transport. This implies a route planning tool to get quick and reliable information as to whether the bridge support structures of a transport route have been measured sufficiently for a certain heavy duty transport. The use of this expert system in bridge planning companies and building authorities will save costs massively for new and existent bridge constructions. This is achieved by consequently considering parameters like life-cycle costs and sustainability for its planning recommendations.

Keywords: expert system, planning process, road bridges, software system

Procedia PDF Downloads 193
1576 Evaluating the Total Costs of a Ransomware-Resilient Architecture for Healthcare Systems

Authors: Sreejith Gopinath, Aspen Olmsted

Abstract:

This paper is based on our previous work that proposed a risk-transference-based architecture for healthcare systems to store sensitive data outside the system boundary, rendering the system unattractive to would-be bad actors. This architecture also allows a compromised system to be abandoned and a new system instance spun up in place to ensure business continuity without paying a ransom or engaging with a bad actor. This paper delves into the details of various attacks we simulated against the prototype system. In the paper, we discuss at length the time and computational costs associated with storing and retrieving data in the prototype system, abandoning a compromised system, and setting up a new instance with existing data. Lastly, we simulate some analytical workloads over the data stored in our specialized data storage system and discuss the time and computational costs associated with running analytics over data in a specialized storage system outside the system boundary. In summary, this paper discusses the total costs of data storage, access, and analytics incurred with the proposed architecture.

Keywords: cybersecurity, healthcare, ransomware, resilience, risk transference

Procedia PDF Downloads 13