Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 412

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Civil and Architectural Engineering]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

412 Building Safety through Real-time Design Fire Protection Systems

Authors: Mohsin Ali Shaikh, Song Weiguo, Muhammad Kashan Surahio, Usman Shahid, Rehmat Karim


When the area of a structure that is threatened by a disaster affects personal safety, the effectiveness of disaster prevention, evacuation, and rescue operations can be summarized by three assessment indicators: personal safety, property preservation, and attribution of responsibility. These indicators are applicable regardless of the disaster that affects the building. People need to get out of the hazardous area and to a safe place as soon as possible because there's no other way to respond. The results of the tragedy are thus closely related to how quickly people are advised to evacuate and how quickly they are rescued. This study considers present fire prevention systems to address catastrophes and improve building safety. It proposes the methods of Prevention Level for Deployment in Advance and Spatial Transformation by Human-Machine Collaboration. We present and prototype a real-time fire protection system architecture for building disaster prevention, evacuation, and rescue operations. The design encourages the use of simulations to check the efficacy of evacuation, rescue, and disaster prevention procedures throughout the planning and design phase of the structure.

Keywords: prevention level, building information modeling, quality management system, simulated reality

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411 Examining the Coverage of CO2-Related Indicators in a Sample of Sustainable Rating Systems

Authors: Wesam Rababa, Jamal Al-Qawasmi


The global climate is negatively impacted by CO2 emissions, which are mostly produced by buildings. Several green building rating systems (GBRS) have been proposed to impose low-carbon criteria in order to address this problem. The Green Globes certification is one such system that evaluates a building's sustainability level by assessing different categories of environmental impact and emerging concepts aimed at reducing environmental harm. Therefore, assessment tools at the national level are crucial in the developing world, where specific local conditions require a more precise evaluation. This study analyzed eight sustainable building assessment systems from different regions of the world, comparing a comprehensive list of CO2-related indicators with a various assessment system for conducting coverage analysis. The results show that GBRS includes both direct and indirect indicators in this regard. It reveals deep variation between examined practices, and a lack of consensus not only on the type and the optimal number of indicators used in a system, but also on the depth and breadth of coverage of various sustainable building SB attributes. Generally, the results show that most of the examined systems reflect a low comprehensive coverage, the highest of which is found in materials category. On the other hand, the most of the examined systems reveal a very low representative coverage.

Keywords: Assessment tools, CO2-related indicators, Comparative study, Green Building Rating Systems

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410 Critical Factors Influencing Effective Communication Among Stakeholders on Construction Project Delivery in Jigawa State, Nigeria

Authors: Shazali Abdulahi


Project planning is the first phase in project life cycle which relates to the use of schedules such as Gantt charts to plan and subsequently report the project progress within the project environment. Likewise, project execution is the third phase in project lifecycle, is the phase where the work of the project must get done correctly and it’s the longest phase in the project lifecycle therefore, they must be effectively communicated, now today Communication has become the crucial element of every organization. During construction project delivery, information needs to be accurately and timely communicating among project stakeholders in order to realize the project objective. Effective communication among stakeholders during construction project delivery is one of the major factors that impact construction project delivery. Therefore, the aim of the research work is to examine the critical factors influencing effective communication among stakeholders on construction project delivery from the perspective of construction professionals (Architects, Builders, Quantity surveyors, and Civil engineers). A quantitative approach was adopted. This entailed the used of structured questionnaire to one (108) construction professionals in public and private organization within dutse metropolis. Frequency, mean, ranking and multiple linear regression using SPSS vision 25 software were used to analyses the data. The results show that Leadership, Trust, Communication tools, Communication skills, Stakeholders involvement, Cultural differences, and Communication technology were the most critical factors influencing effective communication among stakeholders on construction project delivery. The hypothesis revealed that, effective communication among stakeholders has significant effects on construction project delivery. This research work will profit the construction stakeholders in construction industry, by providing adequate knowledge regarding the factors influencing effective communication among stakeholders, so that necessary steps to be taken to improve project performance. Also, it will provide knowledge about the appropriate strategies to employ in order to improve communication among stakeholders.

Keywords: effetive communication, ineffective communication, stakeholders, project delivery

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409 Nonlinear Free Vibrations of Functionally Graded Cylindrical Shells

Authors: Alexandra Andrade Brandão Soares, Paulo Batista Gonçalves


Using a modal expansion that satisfies the boundary and continuity conditions and expresses the modal couplings characteristic of cylindrical shells in the nonlinear regime, the equations of motion are discretized using the Galerkin method. The resulting algebraic equations are solved by the Newton-Raphson method, thus obtaining the nonlinear frequency-amplitude relation. Finally, a parametric analysis is conducted to study the influence of the geometry of the shell, the gradient of the functional material and vibration modes on the degree and type of nonlinearity of the cylindrical shell, which is the main contribution of this research work.

Keywords: cylindrical shells, dynamics, functionally graded material, nonlinear vibrations

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408 Bridging the Educational Gap: A Curriculum Framework for Mass Timber Construction Education and Comparative Analysis of Physical vs. Virtual Prototypes in Construction Management

Authors: Farnaz Jafari


The surge in mass timber construction represents a pivotal moment in sustainable building practices, yet the lack of comprehensive education in construction management poses a challenge in harnessing this innovation effectively. This research endeavors to bridge this gap by developing a curriculum framework integrating mass timber construction into undergraduate and industry certificate programs. To optimize learning outcomes, the study explores the impact of two prototype formats -Virtual Reality (VR) simulations and physical mock-ups- on students' understanding and skill development. The curriculum framework aims to equip future construction managers with a holistic understanding of mass timber, covering its unique properties, construction methods, building codes, and sustainable advantages. The study adopts a mixed-methods approach, commencing with a systematic literature review and leveraging surveys and interviews with educators and industry professionals to identify existing educational gaps. The iterative development process involves incorporating stakeholder feedback into the curriculum. The evaluation of prototype impact employs pre- and post-tests administered to participants engaged in pilot programs. Through qualitative content analysis and quantitative statistical methods, the study seeks to compare the effectiveness of VR simulations and physical mock-ups in conveying knowledge and skills related to mass timber construction. The anticipated findings will illuminate the strengths and weaknesses of each approach, providing insights for future curriculum development. The curriculum's expected contribution to sustainable construction education lies in its emphasis on practical application, bridging the gap between theoretical knowledge and hands-on skills. The research also seeks to establish a standard for mass timber construction education, contributing to the field through a unique comparative analysis of VR simulations and physical mock-ups. The study's significance extends to the development of best practices and evidence-based recommendations for integrating technology and hands-on experiences in construction education. By addressing current educational gaps and offering a comparative analysis, this research aims to enrich the construction management education experience and pave the way for broader adoption of sustainable practices in the industry. The envisioned curriculum framework is designed for versatile integration, catering to undergraduate programs and industry training modules, thereby enhancing the educational landscape for aspiring construction professionals. Ultimately, this study underscores the importance of proactive educational strategies in preparing industry professionals for the evolving demands of the construction landscape, facilitating a seamless transition towards sustainable building practices.

Keywords: curriculum framework, mass timber construction, physical vs. virtual prototypes, sustainable building practices

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407 Labor Productivity Loss in Residential Construction Projects: Case of Jordan

Authors: Ghaleb Y. Abbasi, Sabal Al Husban


This study examined labor productivity loss in the in the Jordanian construction sector residential projects and the several factors affecting labor productivity. It identified these factors and ranked them according to their impact degree. After going through previous studies, 67 factors were categorized and labeled under ten main groups: management, labor, technology, material and equipment, external, delay, site conditions, financial, weather, and project. A quantitative survey via a structured questionnaire to study and analyze conducted with a study population comprised of consultants and contractors’ employees for the first and second grade Jordanian companies, covering 130 contractors and 59 consultants. The research revealed that delay is the most important group, with the financial group second, equipment and material third, while the project group ranked last.

Keywords: labor productivity loss, residential, construction, Jordan

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406 Modeling Sediment Yield of Jido River in the Rift Vally

Authors: Dawit Hailekrios Hailu


The main objective of this study is to predict the sediment yield of the Jido River Watershed. Jido River is the largest tributary and covers around 50% of the total catchment area of Lake Shala. This research is undertaken to analyze the sediment yield of the catchments, transport capacity of the streams and sediment deposition rates of Jido River, which is located in the Sub-basin of Shala Lake, Rift Valley Basin of Ethiopia. The input data were Meteorological, Hydrological, land use/land cover maps and soil maps collected from concerned government offices. The sediment yield of Jido River and sediment change of the streams discharging into the Shala Lake were modeled.

Keywords: sediment yield, watershed, simulation, calibration

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405 Impact Load Response of Light Rail Train Rail Guard

Authors: Eyob Hundessa Gose


Nowadays, it is obviously known that the construction of different infrastructures is one measurement of the development of a country; infrastructures like buildings, bridges, roads, and railways are among them. In the capital city of Ethiopia, the so-called Addis Ababa, the Light Rail Train (LRT), was built Four years ago to satisfy the demand for transportation among the people in the city. The lane of the Train and vehicle separation Media was built with a curb and rail guard installation system to show the right-of-way and for protection of vehicles entering the Train Lane, but this Rail guard fails easily when impacted by vehicles and found that the impact load response of the Rail guard is weak and the Rail guard cannot withstand impact load. This study investigates the effect of variation of parameters such as vehicle speed and different mass effects and assesses the failure mode FRP and Steel reinforcement bar rail guards of deflection and damage state.

Keywords: impact load, fiber reinforced polymer, rail guard, LS-DYNA

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404 Investigation the Effect of Partial Replacement of Fine Aggregates with Ceramic

Authors: Yared Assefa Demessie


This study may help to establish the appropriateness of ceramic waste aggregate for concrete production since it is obviously understood that the rising from continuous urbanization and industrialization development leads depletion of natural construction resource and the disposal of waste material. It can be used as base to conduct a study on the alternative readily available materials like ceramic industrial waste aggregates can lead to environmental concrete. The study assessed the fresh and hardened properties of the concrete produced by replacing part of the natural fine aggregate with an aggregate produced from ceramic industrial waste. In the study, experimental investigation was employed which involved two major tasks: material specifications and experimental evaluation of concrete were done in the laboratory. Experimental investigations such that workability, unit weight, compressive strength test, tensile strength test and flexural strength test for C-25 concrete mixes with different percentages of ceramic industrial waste aggregate after a curing period of 7 and 28 days has done and interpreted the result statically using mean, standard deviation and coefficient of variance.

Keywords: ceramic industrial waste, fresh concrete, hardened concrete, fine aggregate

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403 Hydraulic Analysis of Irrigation Approach Channel Using HEC-RAS Model

Authors: Muluegziabher Semagne Mekonnen


This study was intended to show the irrigation water requirements and evaluation of canal hydraulics steady state conditions to improve on scheme performance of the Meki-Ziway irrigation project. The methodology used was the CROPWAT 8.0 model to estimate the irrigation water requirements of five major crops irrigated in the study area. The results showed that for the whole existing and potential irrigation development area of 2000 ha and 2599 ha, crop water requirements were 3,339,200 and 4,339,090.4 m³, respectively. Hydraulic simulation models are fundamental tools for understanding the hydraulic flow characteristics of irrigation systems. Hydraulic simulation models are fundamental tools for understanding the hydraulic flow characteristics of irrigation systems. In this study Hydraulic Analysis of Irrigation Canals Using HEC-RAS Model was conducted in Meki-Ziway Irrigation Scheme. The HEC-RAS model was tested in terms of error estimation and used to determine canal capacity potential.

Keywords: HEC-RAS, irrigation, hydraulic. canal reach, capacity

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402 Numerical Investigation of Seismic Behaviour of Building

Authors: Tinebeb Tefera Ashene


Glass facade systems have gained popularity in recent times. During an earthquake, building frames suffer large inter-story drifts, causing racking of building facade systems. A facade system is highly vulnerable and fails more frequently than a building with significant devastating effects. The usage of Metallic yield damper connections (Added Damping Stiffness) is proposed in this study to mitigate the aforementioned problems. Results showed as compared to control, usage of Metallic yield damper connections (Added-Damping-And-Stiffness) exhibited a reduction of connection deformation and axial force; differential displacement between frame and facade; and facade distortion by 44.35%, 43.33%, and 51.45% respectively. Also, employing proposed energy-absorbing connections reduced inter-story link joint drift by 71.11% and mitigated detrimental seismic effects on the entire building facade system.

Keywords: damper, energy dissipation, metallic yield, facades

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401 Artificial Neural Network and Statistical Method

Authors: Tomas Berhanu Bekele


Traffic congestion is one of the main problems related to transportation in developed as well as developing countries. Traffic control systems are based on the idea of avoiding traffic instabilities and homogenizing traffic flow in such a way that the risk of accidents is minimized and traffic flow is maximized. Lately, Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) has become an important area of research to solve such road traffic-related issues for making smart decisions. It links people, roads and vehicles together using communication technologies to increase safety and mobility. Moreover, accurate prediction of road traffic is important to manage traffic congestion. The aim of this study is to develop an ANN model for the prediction of traffic flow and to compare the ANN model with the linear regression model of traffic flow predictions. Data extraction was carried out in intervals of 15 minutes from the video player. Video of mixed traffic flow was taken and then counted during office work in order to determine the traffic volume. Vehicles were classified into six categories, namely Car, Motorcycle, Minibus, mid-bus, Bus, and Truck vehicles. The average time taken by each vehicle type to travel the trap length was measured by time displayed on a video screen.

Keywords: intelligent transport system (ITS), traffic flow prediction, artificial neural network (ANN), linear regression

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400 Modeling of Traffic Turning Movement

Authors: Michael Tilahun Mulugeta


Pedestrians are the most vulnerable road users as they are more exposed to the risk of collusion. Pedestrian safety at road intersections still remains the most vital and yet unsolved issue in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. One of the critical points in pedestrian safety is the occurrence of conflict between turning vehicle and pedestrians at un-signalized intersection. However, a better understanding of the factors that affect the likelihood of the conflicts would help provide direction for countermeasures aimed at reducing the number of crashes. This paper has sorted to explore a model to describe the relation between traffic conflicts and influencing factors using Multiple Linear regression methodology. In this research the main focus is to study the interaction of turning (left & right) vehicle with pedestrian at unsignalized intersections. The specific objectives also to determine factors that affect the number of potential conflicts and develop a model of potential conflict.

Keywords: potential, regression analysis, pedestrian, conflicts

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399 Utilization of Nipa Palm Fibers (Nypa fruticans) and Asian Green Mussels Shells (Perna viridis) as an Additive Material in Making a Fiber-Reinforced Concrete

Authors: Billy Angel B. Bayot, Hubert Clyde Z. Guillermo, Daniela Eve Margaret S. Olano, Lian Angeli Kaye E. Suarez


A utilization of Nipa palm fibers (Nypa fruticans) and Asian green mussel shells (Perna viridis) as additive materials in making fiber-reinforced concrete was carried out. The researchers collected Asian green mussel shells and Nipa palm fibers as additive materials in the production of fiber-reinforced concrete and were used to make 3 Setups containing 20g, 15g, and 10g of Nipa palm fiber varying to 10g, 20g, 30g of Asian green mussel shell powder and a traditional concrete with respect to curing period 7, 14, and 28 days. The concrete blocks were delivered to the UP Institute of Building Materials and Structures Laboratory (CoMSLab) following each curing test in order to evaluate their compressive strength. Researchers employed a Two-Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and determined that curing days, concrete mixture, and the combined curing days with concrete have an effect on the compressive strength of concrete. ANOVA results indicating significant differences had been subjected to post hoc analysis using Tukey's HSD. These results then yielded the comparison of each curing time and different concrete mixtures with traditional concrete, which comes to the conclusion that a longer curing period leads to a higher compressive strength and Setup 3 (30g Asian green mussel shell with 10g Nipa palm fiber) has the larger mean compressive strength, making it the best proportion among the fiber-reinforced concrete mixtures and the only proportion that has significant effect to traditional one. As a result, the study concludes that certain curing times and concrete mix proportions of Asian green mussel shell and Nipa palm fiber are critical determinants in determining concrete compressive strength.

Keywords: Asian green mussel shells (Perna viridis), Nipa palm fibers (Nypa fruticans), additives, fiber-reinforced concrete

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398 Relearning to Learn: Approaching Sustainability by Incorporating Inuit Vernacular and Biomimicry Architecture Principles

Authors: Hakim Herbane


Efforts to achieve sustainability in architecture must prove their effectiveness despite various methods attempted. Biomimicry, which looks to successful natural models to promote sustainability and innovation, faces obstacles in implementing sustainability despite its restorative approach to the relationship between humans and nature. In Nunavik, Inuit communities are exploring a sustainable production system that aligns with their aspirations and meets their demands of human, technological, technical, economic, and ecological factors. Biomimicry holds promise in line with Inuit philosophy, but its failure to implement sustainability requires further investigations to remedy its deficiencies. Our literature review underscores the importance of involving the community in defining sustainability and determining the best methods for its implementation. Additionally, vernacular architecture shows valuable orientations for achieving sustainability. Moreover, reintegrating Inuit communities and their traditional architectural practices, which have successfully balanced their built environment's diverse needs and constraints, could pave the way for a sustainable Inuit-built environment in Nunavik and advance architectural biomimicry principles simultaneously. This research aims at establishing a sustainability monitoring tool for Nordic architectural process by analyzing Inuit vernacular and biomimetic architecture, in addition to the input of stakeholders involved in Inuit architecture production in Nunavik, especially Inuit. The goal is to create a practical tool (an index) to aid in designing sustainable architecture, taking into account environmental, social, and economic perspectives. Furthermore, the study seeks to authenticate strong, sustainable design principles of vernacular and biomimetic architectures. The literature review uncovered challenges and identified new opportunities. The forthcoming discourse will focus on the careful and considerate incorporation of Inuit communities’ perceptions and indigenous building practices into our methodology and the latest findings of our research.

Keywords: sustainability, biomimicry, vernacular architecture, community involvement

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397 Prediction of Damage to Cutting Tools in an Earth Pressure Balance Tunnel Boring Machine EPB TBM: A Case Study L3 Guadalajara Metro Line (Mexico)

Authors: Silvia Arrate, Waldo Salud, Eloy París


The wear of cutting tools is one of the most decisive elements when planning tunneling works, programming the maintenance stops and saving the optimum stock of spare parts during the evolution of the excavation. Being able to predict the behavior of cutting tools can give a very competitive advantage in terms of costs and excavation performance, optimized to the needs of the TBM itself. The incredible evolution of data science in recent years gives the option to implement it at the time of analyzing the key and most critical parameters related to machinery with the purpose of knowing how the cutting head is performing in front of the excavated ground. Taking this as a case study, Metro Line 3 of Guadalajara in Mexico will develop the feasibility of using Specific Energy versus data science applied over parameters of Torque, Penetration, and Contact Force, among others, to predict the behavior and status of cutting tools. The results obtained through both techniques are analyzed and verified in the function of the wear and the field situations observed in the excavation in order to determine its effectiveness regarding its predictive capacity. In conclusion, the possibilities and improvements offered by the application of digital tools and the programming of calculation algorithms for the analysis of wear of cutting head elements compared to purely empirical methods allow early detection of possible damage to cutting tools, which is reflected in optimization of excavation performance and a significant improvement in costs and deadlines.

Keywords: cutting tools, data science, prediction, TBM, wear

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396 Evaluation of the Impact of Infill Wall Layout in Plan and/or Elevation on the Seismic Behavior of 3D Reinforced Concrete Structures

Authors: Salah Guettala, nesreddine.djafarhenni, Akram Khelaifia, Rachid Chebili


This study assesses the impact of infill walls' layout in both plan and elevation on the seismic behavior of a 3D reinforced concrete structure situated in a high seismic zone. A pushover analysis is conducted to evaluate the structure's seismic performance with various infill wall layouts, considering capacity curves, absorbed energy, inter-story drift, and performance levels. Additionally, torsional effects on the structure are examined through linear dynamic analysis. Fiber-section-based macro-modeling is utilized to simulate the behavior of infill walls. The findings indicate that the presence of infill walls enhances lateral stiffness and alters structural behavior. Moreover, the study highlights the importance of considering the effects of infill wall layout, as non-uniform layouts can degrade building performance post-earthquake, increasing inter-story drift and risk of damage or collapse. To mitigate such risks, buildings should adopt a uniform infill wall layout. Furthermore, asymmetrical placement of masonry infill walls introduces additional torsional forces, particularly when there's a lack of such walls on the first story, potentially leading to irregular stiffness and soft-story phenomena.

Keywords: RC structures, infll walls’ layout, pushover analysis, macro-model, fiber plastic hinge, torsion

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395 Activity-Based Safety Assessment of Real Estate Projects in Western India

Authors: Patel Parul, Harsh Ganvit


The construction industry is the second highest industry after agriculture provides employment in India. In developing countries like India, many construction projects are coming up to meet the demand. On the one hand, construction projects are increasing; on the other hand still, construction companies are struggling with many problems. One of the major problems is to ensure safe working conditions at the construction site. Due to a lack of safety awareness and ignorance of safety aspects, many fatal accidents are very common at the construction site in India. One of the key success factors for construction projects is “Accident-Free Construction Projects”. The construction projects can be divided into various categories like Infrastructure projects, industrial construction and real estate construction. Real estate projects are mainly comprised of commercial and residential projects. In the construction industry, private sectors play a huge role in urban and rural development and also contribute significantly to the growth of the nation. Infrastructure and Industrial projects are mainly executed by well-qualified construction contractors. For such projects, ensuring safety at construction projects is inevitable and probably one of the major clauses of contract documents as well. These projects are monitored from time to time by national agencies and researchers, too. However, Real estate projects are rarely monitored for safety aspects. No systematic contract system is followed for these projects. Safety is the most neglected aspect of these projects. In the current research projects, an attempt is made to carry out safety auditing for about 75 real estate projects. The objective of this work is to collect the activity-based safety survey of real estate projects in western India. The analysis of activity-based safety implementation for real estate projects is discussed in the present work. The activities are divided into three categories based on the data collected. The findings of this work will help local monitoring authorities to implement a safety management plan for real estate projects.

Keywords: construction safety, safety assessment, activity-based safety, real estate projects

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394 Application of Building Information Modelling In Analysing IGBC® Ratings (Sustainability Analyses)

Authors: Lokesh Harshe


The building construction sector is using 36% of global energy consumption with 39% of CO₂ emission. Professionals in the Built Environment Sector have long been aware of the industry’s contribution towards CO₂ emissions and are now moving towards more sustainable practices. As a result of this, many organizations have introduced rating systems to address the issue of global warming in the construction sector by ranking construction projects based on sustainability parameters. The pre-construction phase of any building project is the most essential time to make decisions for addressing the sustainability aspects. Traditionally, it is very difficult to collect data from different stakeholders and bring it together to form a decision based on factual data to perform sustainability analyses in the pre-construction phase. Building Information Modelling (BIM) is the solution where one single model is the result of the collaborative approach of BIM processes where all the information is shared, extracted, communicated, and stored on a single platform that everyone can access and make decisions based on real-time data. The focus of this research is on the Indian Green Rating System IGBC® with the objective of understanding IGBC® requirements and developing a framework to create the relationship between the rating processes and BIM. A Hypothetical (Architectural) model of a hostel building is developed using AutoCAD 2019 & Revit Arch. 2019, where the framework is applied to generate results on sustainability analysis using Green Building Studio (GBS) and Revit Add-ins. The results of any sustainability analysis are generated within a fraction of a minute, which is very quick in comparison with traditional sustainability analysis. This may save a considerable amount of time as well as cost. The future scope is to integrate Architectural, Structural, and MEP Models to perform accurate sustainability analyses with inputs from industry professionals working on real-life Green BIM projects.

Keywords: sustainability analyses, BIM, green rating systems, IGBC®, LEED

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393 A Lightweight Interlock Block from Foamed Concrete with Construction and Agriculture Waste in Malaysia

Authors: Nor Azian Binti Aziz, Muhammad Afiq Bin Tambichik, Zamri Bin Hashim


The rapid development of the construction industry has contributed to increased construction waste, with concrete waste being among the most abundant. This waste is generated from ready-mix batching plants after the concrete cube testing process is completed and disposed of in landfills, leading to increased solid waste management costs. This study aims to evaluate the engineering characteristics of foamed concrete with waste mixtures construction and agricultural waste to determine the usability of recycled materials in the construction of non-load-bearing walls. This study involves the collection of construction wastes, such as recycled aggregates (RCA) obtained from the remains of finished concrete cubes, which are then tested in the laboratory. Additionally, agricultural waste, such as rice husk ash, is mixed into foamed concrete interlock blocks to enhance their strength. The optimal density of foamed concrete for this study was determined by mixing mortar and foam-backed agents to achieve the minimum targeted compressive strength required for non-load-bearing walls. The tests conducted in this study involved two phases. In Phase 1, elemental analysis using an X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (XRF) was conducted on the materials used in the production of interlock blocks such as sand, recycled aggregate/recycled concrete aggregate (RCA), and husk ash paddy/rice husk ash (RHA), Phase 2 involved physical and thermal tests, such as compressive strength test, heat conductivity test, and fire resistance test, on foamed concrete mixtures. The results showed that foamed concrete can produce lightweight interlock blocks. X-ray fluorescence spectrometry plays a crucial role in the characterization, quality control, and optimization of foamed concrete mixes containing construction and agriculture waste. The unique composition mixer of foamed concrete and the resulting chemical and physical properties, as well as the nature of replacement (either as cement or fine aggregate replacement), the waste contributes differently to the performance of foamed concrete. Interlocking blocks made from foamed concrete can be advantageous due to their reduced weight, which makes them easier to handle and transport compared to traditional concrete blocks. Additionally, foamed concrete typically offers good thermal and acoustic insulation properties, making it suitable for a variety of building projects. Using foamed concrete to produce lightweight interlock blocks could contribute to more efficient and sustainable construction practices. Additionally, RCA derived from concrete cube waste can serve as a substitute for sand in producing lightweight interlock blocks.

Keywords: construction waste, recycled aggregates (RCA), sustainable concrete, structure material

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392 Appraising the Evolution of Architecture as the Representation of Material Culture: The Nigerian Digest

Authors: Ikenna Emmanuel Idoko


Evolution and evolutionary processes are phenomena that have come to stay in the fabrics of the universal living, hence expressions such as universal evolution. These evolutions in the universe cut across all facets of human accomplishments, which architecture is a part of. There is a notion in political sciences that politics and the act of politicking are local, meaning that politics and political processes are unique and peculiar to a people, all dependent on their sociocultural makeup. The notion is also applicable in architecture because the architecture of a people is mostly dependent on several factors such as climatic conditions, material availability, socio-cultural beliefs and religious inclinations. Stemming from the cultural dimension, it is of course common knowledge that every society is driven by its own unique culture. The fusion of architecture and culture creates the actual uniqueness which underlines the “archi-cultural” representation of a people’s material culture. This paper is aimed at appraising architectural evolution as it affects the representation of the material culture of a people. For effective systemization of the aim, various spectacular kinds of literature were reviewed, coupled with the visitation and study of existing buildings in Nigeria to properly understand the live peculiarity in the architecture of the selected area. Since architecture needs a lot of pictorial pieces of evidence, pictures and graphical representations were extensively utilized, and channelled to aid a better understanding of the study. Amongst all, an important part of this paper is that it adds to the body of existing knowledge in the Arts and Humanities by speaking extensively to the tenets of cultural representation on buildings. Similarly, the field of architecture, specifically, traditional architecture, would be gaining some extra knowledge owing to the study of some important almost-neglected or forgotten architectural elements of various traditional buildings.

Keywords: evolution, architecture, material, culture

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391 Exploring Artificial Intelligence as a Transformative Tool for Urban Management

Authors: R. R. Govind


In the digital age, artificial intelligence (AI) is having a significant impact on the rapid changes that cities are experiencing. This study explores the profound impact of AI on urban morphology, especially with regard to promoting friendly design choices. It addresses a significant research gap by examining the real-world effects of integrating AI into urban design and management. The main objective is to outline a framework for integrating AI to transform urban settings. The study employs an urban design framework to effectively navigate complicated urban environments, emphasize the need for urban management, and provide efficient planning and design strategies. Taking Gangtok's informal settlements as a focal point, the study employs AI methodologies such as machine learning, predictive analytics, and generative AI to tackle issues of 'urban informality'. The insights garnered not only offer valuable perspectives but also unveil AI's transformative potential in addressing contemporary urban challenges.

Keywords: urban design, artificial intelligence, urban challenges, machine learning, urban informality

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390 Optimization of Reinforced Concrete Buildings According to the Algerian Seismic Code

Authors: Nesreddine Djafar Henni, Nassim Djedoui, Rachid Chebili


Recent decades have witnessed significant efforts being made to optimize different types of structures and components. The concept of cost optimization in reinforced concrete structures, which aims at minimizing financial resources while ensuring maximum building safety, comprises multiple materials, and the objective function for their optimal design is derived from the construction cost of the steel as well as concrete that significantly contribute to the overall weight of reinforced concrete (RC) structures. To achieve this objective, this work has been devoted to optimizing the structural design of 3D RC frame buildings which integrates, for the first time, the Algerian regulations. Three different test examples were investigated to assess the efficiency of our work in optimizing RC frame buildings. The hybrid GWOPSO algorithm is used, and 30000 generations are made. The cost of the building is reduced by iteration each time. Concrete and reinforcement bars are used in the building cost. As a result, the cost of a reinforced concrete structure is reduced by 30% compared with the initial design. This result means that the 3D cost-design optimization of the framed structure is successfully achieved.

Keywords: optimization, automation, API, Malab, RC structures

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389 Strategic Shear Wall Arrangement in Buildings under Seismic Loads

Authors: Akram Khelaifia, Salah Guettala, Nesreddine Djafar Henni, Rachid Chebili


Reinforced concrete shear walls are pivotal in protecting buildings from seismic forces by providing strength and stiffness. This study highlights the importance of strategically placing shear walls and optimizing the shear wall-to-floor area ratio in building design. Nonlinear analyses were conducted on an eight-story building situated in a high seismic zone, exploring various scenarios of shear wall positioning and ratios to floor area. Employing the performance-based seismic design (PBSD) approach, the study aims to meet acceptance criteria such as inter-story drift ratio and damage levels. The results indicate that concentrating shear walls in the middle of the structure during the design phase yields superior performance compared to peripheral distributions. Utilizing shear walls that fully infill the frame and adopting compound shapes (e.g., Box, U, and L) enhances reliability in terms of inter-story drift. Conversely, the absence of complete shear walls within the frame leads to decreased stiffness and degradation of shorter beams. Increasing the shear wall-to-floor area ratio in building design enhances structural rigidity and reliability regarding inter-story drift, facilitating the attainment of desired performance levels. The study suggests that a shear wall ratio of 1.0% is necessary to meet validation criteria for inter-story drift and structural damage, as exceeding this percentage leads to excessive performance levels, proving uneconomical as structural elements operate near the elastic range.

Keywords: nonlinear analyses, pushover analysis, shear wall, plastic hinge, performance level

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388 The Impact of Bim Technology on the Whole Process Cost Management of Civil Engineering Projects in Kenya

Authors: Nsimbe Allan


The study examines the impact of Building Information Modeling (BIM) on the cost management of engineering projects, focusing specifically on the Mombasa Port Area Development Project. The objective of this research venture is to determine the mechanisms through which Building Information Modeling (BIM) facilitates stakeholder collaboration, reduces construction-related expenses, and enhances the precision of cost estimation. Furthermore, the study investigates barriers to execution, assesses the impact on the project's transparency, and suggests approaches to maximize resource utilization. The study, selected for its practical significance and intricate nature, conducted a Systematic Literature Review (SLR) using credible databases, including ScienceDirect and IEEE Xplore. To constitute the diverse sample, 69 individuals, including project managers, cost estimators, and BIM administrators, were selected via stratified random sampling. The data were obtained using a mixed-methods approach, which prioritized ethical considerations. SPSS and Microsoft Excel were applied to the analysis. The research emphasizes the crucial role that project managers, architects, and engineers play in the decision-making process (47% of respondents). Furthermore, a significant improvement in cost estimation accuracy was reported by 70% of the participants. It was found that the implementation of BIM resulted in enhanced project visibility, which in turn optimized resource allocation and facilitated the process of budgeting. In brief, the study highlights the positive impacts of Building Information Modeling (BIM) on collaborative decision-making and cost estimation, addresses challenges related to implementation, and provides solutions for the efficient assimilation and understanding of BIM principles.

Keywords: cost management, resource utilization, stakeholder collaboration, project transparency

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387 The Influence of Shear Wall Position on Seismic Performance in Buildings

Authors: Akram Khelaifia, Nesreddine Djafar Henni


Reinforced concrete shear walls are essential components in protecting buildings from seismic forces by providing both strength and stiffness. This study focuses on optimizing the placement of shear walls in a high seismic zone. Through nonlinear analyses conducted on an eight-story building, various scenarios of shear wall positions are investigated to evaluate their impact on seismic performance. Employing a performance-based seismic design (PBSD) approach, the study aims to meet acceptance criteria related to inter-story drift ratio and damage levels. The findings emphasize the importance of concentrating shear walls in the central area of the building during the design phase. This strategic placement proves more effective compared to peripheral distributions, resulting in reduced inter-story drift and mitigated potential damage during seismic events. Additionally, the research explores the use of shear walls that completely infill the frame, forming compound shapes like Box configurations. It is discovered that incorporating such complete shear walls significantly enhances the structure's reliability concerning inter-story drift. Conversely, the absence of complete shear walls within the frame leads to reduced stiffness and the potential deterioration of short beams.

Keywords: performance level, pushover analysis, shear wall, plastic hinge, nonlinear analyses

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386 Optimizing Recycling and Reuse Strategies for Circular Construction Materials with Life Cycle Assessment

Authors: Zhongnan Ye, Xiaoyi Liu, Shu-Chien Hsu


Rapid urbanization has led to a significant increase in construction and demolition waste (C&D waste), underscoring the need for sustainable waste management strategies in the construction industry. Aiming to enhance the sustainability of urban construction practices, this study develops an optimization model to effectively suggest the optimal recycling and reuse strategies for C&D waste, including concrete and steel. By employing Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), the model evaluates the environmental impacts of adopted construction materials throughout their lifecycle. The model optimizes the quantity of materials to recycle or reuse, the selection of specific recycling and reuse processes, and logistics decisions related to the transportation and storage of recycled materials with the objective of minimizing the overall environmental impact, quantified in terms of carbon emissions, energy consumption, and associated costs, while adhering to a range of constraints. These constraints include capacity limitations, quality standards for recycled materials, compliance with environmental regulations, budgetary limits, and temporal considerations such as project deadlines and material availability. The strategies are expected to be both cost-effective and environmentally beneficial, promoting a circular economy within the construction sector, aligning with global sustainability goals, and providing a scalable framework for managing construction waste in densely populated urban environments. The model is helpful in reducing the carbon footprint of construction projects, conserving valuable resources, and supporting the industry’s transition towards a more sustainable future.

Keywords: circular construction, construction and demolition waste, life cycle assessment, material recycling

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385 Risk Variables and Implications in Nigeria of Publicly Funded Construction Works Cessation

Authors: Nnadi Ezekiel Oluwaseun Ejiofor


The foundation of this study is the identification of risk variables and their implications on abandoned construction projects in Nigeria. The study's particular goals are to pinpoint the risk factors that lead to the abandonment of public building projects in Nigeria. This study used a hybrid research design that included case studies and descriptive survey research methods. Professionals who work directly in the built environment and are employed by Ministries and Departmental Agencies (MDAs), the public sector, or the private sector are the study's target demographic. This study used a descriptive survey and case study research design to gather data. Nigeria is experiencing a high rate of project abandonment due to housing deficit issues. Factors contributing to this include The study reveals factors contributing to public project abandonment in Abuja FCT include poor cashflow 4.96, inconsistent government policies 4.89, lack of accountability, high corruption, incompetent contractors, non-availability of building materials, lack of utilities, wrong materials, infrastructural facilities, poor planning, and undefined contracts. The study reveals that abandoned projects have a huge impact on the construction industry, such as wastage of resources with a mean value of 3.35, distrust of economic growth, 3.28, and so on. The study found a significant relationship between risk factors and public building construction in Abuja through a T-test value of 0.037, rejecting the null hypothesis and indicating a positive correlation.

Keywords: cost, tetfund, construction projects, public university

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384 A Study of Cracking Behavior in Concrete Beams Reinforced With Two Different Grades of Steel

Authors: Nihal Abdel Hamid Taha


Crack evaluation of flexure reinforced concrete (RC) member is considered an important step in the design process, since the formation of concrete cracks depends on the possibility of exposure to various conditions(pollution, humidity,..etc.). Because of the disparity between different grades of steel in the service load stresses, this affects the cracking behavior. This paper is concerned with the crack pattern and cracking load for concrete beams with T-section reinforced with two different grades of steel at the service load levels stages up to ultimate load. A practical program has been put up to investigate the difference between reinforced steel bars with yield strength 420 N/mm2 and 500 N/mm2 through six T-section reinforced beams. The beams were tested under static- monotonic two– point service loading up to ultimate failure under flexural stresses. The influence of parameters such as clear concrete cover and concrete compressive strength are considered for each of the two grades of steel used. Cracking load, spacing and width were determined. The experimental results demonstrated that increasing the concrete strength results in both of cracking and ultimate load increase, while no significant difference in yield load for the two steel grades used. It has also become obvious, that the number of cracks was more for the lower steel strength, which is followed by decrease in crack width and spacing.

Keywords: RC beams, cracking behavior, steel stress, crack width, crack spacing

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383 Caged in Concrete Jungles: Reasserting Cultural Identity and Environmental Sustainability through Material Choice and Design Expression in Architecture

Authors: Ikenna Michael Onuorah


The relentless march of globalization in architecture has led to a homogenization of built environments, often characterized by an overreliance on imported, resource-intensive materials and a disregard for local cultural contexts. This research posits that such practices pose significant environmental and cultural perils, trapping communities in "caged concrete jungles" devoid of both ecological sustainability and a meaningful connection to their heritage. Through a mixed-method approach encompassing quantitative and qualitative data analysis, the study investigated the impacts of neglecting local materials and cultural expression in architectural design. The research is anticipated to yield significant insights into the multifaceted consequences of neglecting locally available materials and cultural expression in architecture. It creates a compelling case for reasserting local materials and cultural expression in architectural design. Based on the anticipated research findings, the study proposed series of actionable recommendations for architects, policymakers, and communities to promote sustainable and culturally sensitive built environments. This will serve as a wake-up call, urging architects, policymakers, and communities to break free from the confines of "caged concrete jungles" and embrace a more sustainable and culturally sensitive approach to design.

Keywords: sustainability, cultural identity, building materials, sustainable dsigns

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