Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 118

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Civil and Architectural Engineering]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

118 Transboundary Pollution after Natural Disasters: Scenario Analyses for Uranium at Kyrgyzstan-Uzbekistan Border

Authors: Fengqing Li, Petra Schneider

Abstract:

Failure of tailings management facilities (TMF) of radioactive residues is an enormous challenge worldwide and can result in major catastrophes. Particularly in transboundary regions, such failure is most likely to lead to international conflict. This risk occurs in Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan, where the current major challenge is the quantification of impacts due to pollution from uranium legacy sites and especially the impact on river basins after natural hazards (i.e., landslides). By means of GoldSim, a probabilistic simulation model, the amount of tailing material that flows into the river networks of Mailuu Suu in Kyrgyzstan after pond failure was simulated for three scenarios, namely 10%, 20%, and 30% of material inputs. Based on Muskingum-Cunge flood routing procedure, the peak value of uranium flood wave along the river network was simulated. Among the 23 TMF, 19 ponds are close to the river networks. The spatiotemporal distributions of uranium along the river networks were then simulated for all the 19 ponds under three scenarios. Taking the TP7 which is 30 km far from the Kyrgyzstan-Uzbekistan border as one example, the uranium concentration decreased continuously along the longitudinal gradient of the river network, the concentration of uranium was observed at the border after 45 min of the pond failure and the highest value was detected after 69 min. The highest concentration of uranium at the border were 16.5, 33, and 47.5 mg/L under scenarios of 10%, 20%, and 30% of material inputs, respectively. In comparison to the guideline value of uranium in drinking water (i.e., 30 µg/L) provided by the World Health Organization, the observed concentrations of uranium at the border were 550‒1583 times higher. In order to mitigate the transboundary impact of a radioactive pollutant release, an integrated framework consisting of three major strategies were proposed. Among, the short-term strategy can be used in case of emergency event, the medium-term strategy allows both countries handling the TMF efficiently based on the benefit-sharing concept, and the long-term strategy intends to rehabilitate the site through the relocation of all TMF.

Keywords: Central Asia, contaminant transport modelling, radioactive residue, transboundary conflict

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117 A Bayesian Hierarchical Poisson Model with an Underlying Cluster Structure for the Analysis of Measles in Colombia

Authors: Ana Corberan-Vallet, Karen C. Florez, Ingrid C. Marino, Jose D. Bermudez

Abstract:

In 2016, the Region of the Americas was declared free of measles, a viral disease that can cause severe health problems. However, since 2017, measles has reemerged in Venezuela and has subsequently reached neighboring countries. In 2018, twelve American countries reported confirmed cases of measles. Governmental and health authorities in Colombia, a country that shares the longest land boundary with Venezuela, are aware of the need for a strong response to restrict the expanse of the epidemic. In this work, we apply a Bayesian hierarchical Poisson model with an underlying cluster structure to describe disease incidence in Colombia. Concretely, the proposed methodology provides relative risk estimates at the department level and identifies clusters of disease, which facilitates the implementation of targeted public health interventions. Socio-demographic factors, such as the percentage of migrants, gross domestic product, and entry routes, are included in the model to better describe the incidence of disease. Since the model does not impose any spatial correlation at any level of the model hierarchy, it avoids the spatial confounding problem and provides a suitable framework to estimate the fixed-effect coefficients associated with spatially-structured covariates.

Keywords: Bayesian analysis, cluster identification, disease mapping, risk estimation

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116 Concordance of Maghrebian Place Names in Hungarian School Atlases

Authors: Malak Alasli

Abstract:

Hungarians come to use geographic names that are foreign to their environment and language in diverse settings, hence the aim of trying to adapt them to their own linguistic context. The Maghreb region (Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia) uses both Arabic and French in presenting the place names. Consequently, the lexicographical treatment of the toponym will, therefore, consist of both the presentation of the toponymic term and the pronunciation of the entries. The motivation behind this approach is the need for a better identification of the place in question by avoiding ambiguities, and for more respect to the heritage by conforming to the right use of toponyms both in written as well as in oral practice. The goal is to provide Hungarians with a set of data by attempting a system of transliteration from French/Arabic to Hungarian, where the place names of the Maghreb are transliterated for more efficient usage. To examine the importance of toponyms’ pronunciation, the latter were collected from several 20th and 21st Hungarian school atlases. Most people meet, for the first time, foreign place names in school, hence the choice of solely extracting place names from school atlases as sample data. Interviews targeted university students, where they were asked to pronounce the place names collected. Results revealed the intricacy behind the pronunciation. Two main conclusions emerged; Hungarian students encountered challenges reading the toponyms, and Arabic speakers could not identify the names either, which causes a cut in communication. Ergo, the importance of elaborating on the pronunciation of toponyms. Concordance is where you find variants of a name. Therefore, a chart was put forward including all the name variants obtained from various references with their Arabic transcription indicating any changes that may have occurred, and the origin of the denomination (Roman, Berber, etc.). A case will also be added for comments and observations. This work embraces a dual purpose. It will provide information to Hungarians on the official names of foreign places in case of occurring changes; for instance, 'El-goléa, Algeria' (used in a latest edition of a school atlas) has now the official name of 'El Ménia'. It will also serve as a reference for knowing the correct and precise forms of place names’ pronunciation.

Keywords: concordance, onomastics, settlement names, school atlases

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115 Bond Strength of Concrete Beams Reinforced with Steel Plates: Experimental Study

Authors: Mazin Mohammed Sarhan Sarhan

Abstract:

This paper presents an experimental study of the bond behaviour of confined concrete beams reinforced with a chequer steel plate or a deformed steel bar by using the beam-bending pullout test. A total of three beams of 225 mm width, 300 mm height, and 600 mm length were cast and tested. All the beams had the same details of compression reinforcement and stirrups; two plain steel bars of 10 mm diameter (R10) were used for the compression reinforcement, and plain steel bars (R10) at a distance of 80 mm centre to centre were used for the stirrups. The first beam was reinforced with a deformed steel bar while the remaining beams were reinforced with horizontal or vertical chequer steel plates. The results showed no significant difference in the bond force between the beams reinforced with a deformed steel bar or a horizontal steel plate. The beam reinforced with a vertical steel plate considerably presented a bond force higher than the beam reinforced with a horizontal steel plate.

Keywords: bond, pullout, reinforced concrete, steel plate

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114 Universality as Opportunity Domain behind the Threats and Challenges of Natural Disasters

Authors: Kunto Wibowo Agung Prodjonoto

Abstract:

Occasionally, opportunities occur not due to chances but threats. This, however, is often not realized because a greater threat is perceived to be anything that threatens, endangers, or harms, resulting in bad impacts that are also part of the risk and consequence. As a result, more focus tends to direct towards the bad impacts. Risk, in this case, shall be seen rather as something challenging, which can turn to be an opportunity to tackle an obstacle. Therefore, it does not seem exaggerating if later, risk can be considered as a challenge that presents an opportunity. So as in the context of the threat of natural disasters which gives an idea that opportunities exist. Nature referred to in a fashion as 'natural disasters' captured an expression to picture the 'threats' aspect, which instructively implying a chance of opportunity. This is quite logical, as SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats) analysis can evaluate the situation at hand related to the analysis of various factors in formulating strategies to deal with natural disaster situations. The analytical method created by Albert Humphrey is indeed not an analytical tool to provide solutions, but certainly 'opportunities and challenges' are discussed therein on a vertical line, where opportunities are posited on the positive axis, and threats are posed on the negative axis. Observing this dynamism, the challenges and threats of disasters are having opportunity relevance to moralizing opportunities, that by quality poses universalism populist characteristics, universalism characteristics, and regional characteristics. Here, universalism appears as an opportunity domain underneath the threats and challenges of natural disasters.

Keywords: universality, opportunities, threats, challenges of natural disasters

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113 Large Amplitude Free Vibration of a Very Sag Marine Cable

Authors: O. Punjarat, S. Chucheepsakul, T. Phanyasahachart

Abstract:

This paper focuses on a variational formulation of large amplitude free vibration behavior of a very sag marine cable. In the static equilibrium state, the marine cable has a very large sag configuration. In the motion state, the marine cable is assumed to vibrate in in-plane motion with large amplitude from the static equilibrium position. The total virtual work-energy of the marine cable at the dynamic state is formulated which involves the virtual strain energy due to axial deformation, the virtual work done by effective weight, and the inertia forces. The equations of motion for the large amplitude free vibration of marine cable are obtained by taking into account the difference between the Euler’s equation in the static state and the displaced state. Based on the Galerkin finite element procedure, the linear and nonlinear stiffness matrices, and mass matrices of the marine cable are obtained and the eigenvalue problem is solved. The natural frequency spectrum and the large amplitude free vibration behavior of marine cable are presented.

Keywords: axial deformation, free vibration, Galerkin finite element method, large amplitude, variational method

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112 Analyzing Sun Valley Music Pavilion Idaho, USA, 2008 in Relation Flexibility and Adaptability

Authors: Ola Haj Saleh

Abstract:

This study of a contemporary building attempts to identify how a building can reflect its presence within its community. The example of the pavilion is discussed here with references to adaptability and flexibility theories. The analytical methodology of the Sun Valley Pavilion discovers to what extent a public space can be flexible and adaptable to several conditions. Furthermore, redefine an existing public building in an urban landscape context, becomes more than an important place for its community as a music pavilion for the arts, it is even for the interactivity wedding parties. Thus, the Sun Valley Pavilion can have an obvious role in a community gathering place in a result that flexibility and adaptability are more economical in the long term.

Keywords: adaptability, flexibility, pavilion, tensile

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111 Geovisualization of Human Mobility Patterns in Los Angeles Using Twitter Data

Authors: Linna Li

Abstract:

The capability to move around places is doubtless very important for individuals to maintain good health and social functions. People’s activities in space and time have long been a research topic in behavioral and socio-economic studies, particularly focusing on the highly dynamic urban environment. By analyzing groups of people who share similar activity patterns, many socio-economic and socio-demographic problems and their relationships with individual behavior preferences can be revealed. Los Angeles, known for its large population, ethnic diversity, cultural mixing, and entertainment industry, faces great transportation challenges such as traffic congestion, parking difficulties, and long commuting. Understanding people’s travel behavior and movement patterns in this metropolis sheds light on potential solutions to complex problems regarding urban mobility. This project visualizes people’s trajectories in Greater Los Angeles (L.A.) Area over a period of two months using Twitter data. A Python script was used to collect georeferenced tweets within the Greater L.A. Area including Ventura, San Bernardino, Riverside, Los Angeles, and Orange counties. Information associated with tweets includes text, time, location, and user ID. Information associated with users includes name, the number of followers, etc. Both aggregated and individual activity patterns are demonstrated using various geovisualization techniques. Locations of individual Twitter users were aggregated to create a surface of activity hot spots at different time instants using kernel density estimation, which shows the dynamic flow of people’s movement throughout the metropolis in a twenty-four-hour cycle. In the 3D geovisualization interface, the z-axis indicates time that covers 24 hours, and the x-y plane shows the geographic space of the city. Any two points on the z axis can be selected for displaying activity density surface within a particular time period. In addition, daily trajectories of Twitter users were created using space-time paths that show the continuous movement of individuals throughout the day. When a personal trajectory is overlaid on top of ancillary layers including land use and road networks in 3D visualization, the vivid representation of a realistic view of the urban environment boosts situational awareness of the map reader. A comparison of the same individual’s paths on different days shows some regular patterns on weekdays for some Twitter users, but for some other users, their daily trajectories are more irregular and sporadic. This research makes contributions in two major areas: geovisualization of spatial footprints to understand travel behavior using the big data approach and dynamic representation of activity space in the Greater Los Angeles Area. Unlike traditional travel surveys, social media (e.g., Twitter) provides an inexpensive way of data collection on spatio-temporal footprints. The visualization techniques used in this project are also valuable for analyzing other spatio-temporal data in the exploratory stage, thus leading to informed decisions about generating and testing hypotheses for further investigation. The next step of this research is to separate users into different groups based on gender/ethnic origin and compare their daily trajectory patterns.

Keywords: geovisualization, human mobility pattern, Los Angeles, social media

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110 Band Characterization and Development of Hyperspectral Indices for Retrieving Chlorophyll Content

Authors: Ramandeep Kaur M. Malhi, Prashant K. Srivastava, G.Sandhya Kiran

Abstract:

Quantitative estimates of foliar biochemicals, namely chlorophyll content (CC), serve as key information for the assessment of plant productivity, stress, and the availability of nutrients. This also plays a critical role in predicting the dynamic response of any vegetation to altering climate conditions. The advent of hyperspectral data with an enhanced number of available wavelengths has increased the possibility of acquiring improved information on CC. Retrieval of CC is extensively carried through well known spectral indices derived from hyperspectral data. In the present study, an attempt is made to develop hyperspectral indices by identifying optimum bands for CC estimation in Butea monosperma (Lam.) Taub growing in forests of Shoolpaneshwar Wildlife Sanctuary, Narmada district, Gujarat State, India. 196 narrow bands of EO-1 Hyperion images were screened, and the best optimum wavelength from blue, green, red, and near infrared (NIR) regions were identified based on the coefficient of determination (R²) between band reflectance and laboratory estimated CC. The identified optimum wavelengths were then employed for developing 12 hyperspectral indices. These spectral index values and CC values were then correlated to investigate the relation between laboratory measured CC and spectral indices. Band 15 of blue range and Band 22 of green range, Band 40 of the red region, and Band 79 of NIR region were found to be optimum bands for estimating CC. The optimum band based combinations on hyperspectral data proved to be the most effective indices for quantifying Butea CC with NDVI and TVI identified as the best (R² > 0.7, p < 0.01). The study demonstrated the significance of band characterization in the development of the best hyperspectral indices for the chlorophyll estimation, which can aid in monitoring the vitality of forests.

Keywords: band, characterization, chlorophyll, hyperspectral, indices

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109 Flood Mapping Using Height above the Nearest Drainage Model: A Case Study in Fredericton, NB, Canada

Authors: Morteza Esfandiari, Shabnam Jabari, Heather MacGrath, David Coleman

Abstract:

Flood is a severe issue in different places in the world as well as the city of Fredericton, New Brunswick, Canada. The downtown area of Fredericton is close to the Saint John River, which is susceptible to flood around May every year. Recently, the frequency of flooding seems to be increased, especially after the fact that the downtown area and surrounding urban/agricultural lands got flooded in two consecutive years in 2018 and 2019. In order to have an explicit vision of flood span and damage to affected areas, it is necessary to use either flood inundation modelling or satellite data. Due to contingent availability and weather dependency of optical satellites, and limited existing data for the high cost of hydrodynamic models, it is not always feasible to rely on these sources of data to generate quality flood maps after or during the catastrophe. Height Above the Nearest Drainage (HAND), a state-of-the-art topo-hydrological index, normalizes the height of a basin based on the relative elevation along with the stream network and specifies the gravitational or the relative drainage potential of an area. HAND is a relative height difference between the stream network and each cell on a Digital Terrain Model (DTM). The stream layer is provided through a multi-step, time-consuming process which does not always result in an optimal representation of the river centerline depending on the topographic complexity of that region. HAND is used in numerous case studies with quite acceptable and sometimes unexpected results because of natural and human-made features on the surface of the earth. Some of these features might cause a disturbance in the generated model, and consequently, the model might not be able to predict the flow simulation accurately. We propose to include a previously existing stream layer generated by the province of New Brunswick and benefit from culvert maps to improve the water flow simulation and accordingly the accuracy of HAND model. By considering these parameters in our processing, we were able to increase the accuracy of the model from nearly 74% to almost 92%. The improved model can be used for generating highly accurate flood maps, which is necessary for future urban planning and flood damage estimation without any need for satellite imagery or hydrodynamic computations.

Keywords: HAND, DTM, rapid floodplain, simplified conceptual models

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108 Investigation of Different Machine Learning Algorithms in Large-Scale Land Cover Mapping within the Google Earth Engine

Authors: Amin Naboureh, Ainong Li, Jinhu Bian, Guangbin Lei, Hamid Ebrahimy

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Large-scale land cover mapping has become a new challenge in land change and remote sensing field because of involving a big volume of data. Moreover, selecting the right classification method, especially when there are different types of landscapes in the study area is quite difficult. This paper is an attempt to compare the performance of different machine learning (ML) algorithms for generating a land cover map of the China-Central Asia–West Asia Corridor that is considered as one of the main parts of the Belt and Road Initiative project (BRI). The cloud-based Google Earth Engine (GEE) platform was used for generating a land cover map for the study area from Landsat-8 images (2017) by applying three frequently used ML algorithms including random forest (RF), support vector machine (SVM), and artificial neural network (ANN). The selected ML algorithms (RF, SVM, and ANN) were trained and tested using reference data obtained from MODIS yearly land cover product and very high-resolution satellite images. The finding of the study illustrated that among three frequently used ML algorithms, RF with 91% overall accuracy had the best result in producing a land cover map for the China-Central Asia–West Asia Corridor whereas ANN showed the worst result with 85% overall accuracy. The great performance of the GEE in applying different ML algorithms and handling huge volume of remotely sensed data in the present study showed that it could also help the researchers to generate reliable long-term land cover change maps. The finding of this research has great importance for decision-makers and BRI’s authorities in strategic land use planning.

Keywords: land cover, google earth engine, machine learning, remote sensing

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107 Postbuckling Analysis of End Supported Rods under Self-Weight Using Intrinsic Coordinate Finite Elements

Authors: C. Juntarasaid, T. Pulngern, S. Chucheepsakul

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A formulation of postbuckling analysis of end supported rods under self-weight has been presented by the variational method. The variational formulation involving the strain energy due to bending and the potential energy of the self-weight, are expressed in terms of the intrinsic coordinates. The variational formulation is accomplished by introducing the Lagrange multiplier technique to impose the boundary conditions. The finite element method is used to derive a system of nonlinear equations resulting from the stationary of the total potential energy and then Newton-Raphson iterative procedure is applied to solve this system of equations. The numerical results demonstrate the postbluckled configurations of end supported rods under self-weight. This finite element method based on variational formulation expressed in term of intrinsic coordinate is highly recommended for postbuckling analysis of end-supported rods under self-weight.

Keywords: postbuckling, finite element method, variational method, intrinsic coordinate

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106 Test and Evaluation of Patient Tracking Platform in an Earthquake Simulation

Authors: Nahid Tavakoli, Mohammad H. Yarmohammadian, Ali Samimi

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In earthquake situation, medical response communities such as field and referral hospitals are challenged with injured victims’ identification and tracking. In our project, it was developed a patient tracking platform (PTP) where first responders triage the patients with an electronic tag which report the location and some information of each patient during his/her movement. This platform includes: 1) near field communication (NFC) tags (ISO 14443), 2) smart mobile phones (Android-base version 4.2.2), 3) Base station laptops (Windows), 4) server software, 5) Android software to use by first responders, 5) disaster command software, and 6) system architecture. Our model has been completed through literature review, Delphi technique, focus group, design the platform, and implement in an earthquake exercise. This paper presents consideration for content, function, and technologies that must apply for patient tracking in medical emergencies situations. It is demonstrated the robustness of the patient tracking platform (PTP) in tracking 6 patients in a simulated earthquake situation in the yard of the relief and rescue department of Isfahan’s Red Crescent.

Keywords: test and evaluation, patient tracking platform, earthquake, simulation

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105 Integrating Time-Series and High-Spatial Remote Sensing Data Based on Multilevel Decision Fusion

Authors: Xudong Guan, Ainong Li, Gaohuan Liu, Chong Huang, Wei Zhao

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Due to the low spatial resolution of MODIS data, the accuracy of small-area plaque extraction with a high degree of landscape fragmentation is greatly limited. To this end, the study combines Landsat data with higher spatial resolution and MODIS data with higher temporal resolution for decision-level fusion. Considering the importance of the land heterogeneity factor in the fusion process, it is superimposed with the weighting factor, which is to linearly weight the Landsat classification result and the MOIDS classification result. Three levels were used to complete the process of data fusion, that is the pixel of MODIS data, the pixel of Landsat data, and objects level that connect between these two levels. The multilevel decision fusion scheme was tested in two sites of the lower Mekong basin. We put forth a comparison test, and it was proved that the classification accuracy was improved compared with the single data source classification results in terms of the overall accuracy. The method was also compared with the two-level combination results and a weighted sum decision rule-based approach. The decision fusion scheme is extensible to other multi-resolution data decision fusion applications.

Keywords: image classification, decision fusion, multi-temporal, remote sensing

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104 Principles for the Realistic Determination of the in-situ Concrete Compressive Strength under Consideration of Rearrangement Effects

Authors: Rabea Sefrin, Christian Glock, Juergen Schnell

Abstract:

The preservation of existing structures is of great economic interest because it contributes to higher sustainability and resource conservation. In the case of existing buildings, in addition to repair and maintenance, modernization or reconstruction works often take place in the course of adjustments or changes in use. Since the structural framework and the associated load level are usually changed in the course of the structural measures, the stability of the structure must be verified in accordance with the currently valid regulations. The concrete compressive strength of the existing structures concrete and the derived mechanical parameters are of central importance for the recalculation and verification. However, the compressive strength of the existing concrete is usually set comparatively low and thus underestimated. The reasons for this are too small numbers, and large scatter of material properties of the drill cores, which are used for the experimental determination of the design value of the compressive strength. Within a structural component, the load is usually transferred over the area with higher stiffness and consequently with higher compressive strength. Therefore, existing strength variations within a component only play a subordinate role due to rearrangement effects. This paper deals with the experimental and numerical determination of such rearrangement effects in order to calculate the concrete compressive strength of existing structures more realistic and economical. The influence of individual parameters such as the specimen geometry (prism or cylinder) or the coefficient of variation of the concrete compressive strength is analyzed in experimental small-part tests. The coefficients of variation commonly used in practice are adjusted by dividing the test specimens into several layers consisting of different concretes, which are monolithically connected to each other. From each combination, a sufficient number of the test specimen is produced and tested to enable evaluation on a statistical basis. Based on the experimental tests, FE simulations are carried out to validate the test results. In the frame of a subsequent parameter study, a large number of combinations is considered, which had not been investigated in the experimental tests yet. Thus, the influence of individual parameters on the size and characteristic of the rearrangement effect is determined and described more detailed. Based on the parameter study and the experimental results, a calculation model for a more realistic determination of the in situ concrete compressive strength is developed and presented. By considering rearrangement effects in concrete during recalculation, a higher number of existing structures can be maintained without structural measures. The preservation of existing structures is not only decisive from an economic, sustainable, and resource-saving point of view but also represents an added value for cultural and social aspects.

Keywords: existing structures, in-situ concrete compressive strength, rearrangement effects, recalculation

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103 Plethora of Drivers Transforming Colonial Cities: The Case of Allahabad

Authors: Akanksha Gupta, Vishal Dubey

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In the Neoliberal era, there has been a much-talked discourse about urban issues that arise from a narrow approach of the single rationality of market-driven planning in Indian cities. More to this, India's urban planning is already jeopardized by the captious shortage of infrastructure, a cluster of incoherent governing bodies and implementation mechanism, leading cities to lie in the plethora of urban challenges. In this context, Allahabad (now known as Prayagraj) a city in North India is not an exception. Once known as the most planned splendid Colonial city of the British regime in India collapsed phenomenally because of the incompetent approach of planning machinery, straightforward market-driven accession and lack of attention on urban equity and sustainability. Particularly Civil Lines a Colonial neighbourhood, reached to the zenith of the glorified legacy of the Colonial era, transformed into filthy and congested urban form. Contextually this study contemplates and assesses the chronological episodes of major changes in land management reforms and policies under the ad hoc approach of political economy and land use planning which radically degraded the living environment in the present context. This study would empirically showcase the selected sample area detailing some of the major consequences in terms of gradual change in urban morphology, land use, and function. Here the method of study is primarily a qualitative study implying oral history and other historical methods to exhibit the idiom of planning conundrum. This subsequently reflects the repercussions translated into major issues like unclear land titles, encroachment, and unauthorized development and mushrooming of informal and squatter settlements. In nutshell, the study seeks to distinct out the limitations of the land reform and land management policies, which impacted the general degradation to the beautiful setting of Colonial neighbourhood. The Colonial legacy of Civil Lines now exists in the traces of history- memories of people, who once took pride in its serenity have now witnessed the transformation bit by bit till neo-liberal market forces completely swallow it.

Keywords: civil lines, land reforms, policies, urban challenges

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102 Decision-Making Process Based on Game Theory in the Process of Urban Transformation

Authors: Cemil Akcay, Goksun Yerlikaya

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Buildings are the living spaces of people with an active role in every aspect of life in today's world. While some structures have survived from the early ages, most of the buildings that completed their lifetime have not transported to the present day. Nowadays, buildings that do not meet the social, economic, and safety requirements of the age return to life with a transformation process. This transformation is called urban transformation. Urban transformation is the renewal of the areas with a risk of disaster and the technological infrastructure required by the structure. The transformation aims to prevent damage to earthquakes and other disasters by rebuilding buildings that have completed their non-earthquake-resistant economic life. It is essential to decide on other issues related to conversion and transformation in places where most of the building stock should transform into the first-degree earthquake belt, such as Istanbul. In urban transformation, property owners, local authority, and contractor must deal at a common point. Considering that hundreds of thousands of property owners are sometimes in the areas of transformation, it is evident how difficult it is to make the deal and decide. For the optimization of these decisions, the use of game theory is foreseeing. The main problem in this study is that the urban transformation is carried out in place, or the building or buildings are transport to a different location. There are many stakeholders in the Istanbul University Cerrahpaşa Medical Faculty Campus, which is planned to be carried out in the process of urban transformation, was tried to solve the game theory applications. An analysis of the decisions given on a real urban transformation project and the logical suitability of decisions taken without the use of game theory were also supervised using game theory. In each step of this study, many decision-makers are classifying according to a specific logical sequence, and in the game trees that emerged as a result of this classification, Nash balances were tried to observe, and optimum decisions were determined. All decisions taken for this project have been subjected to two significant differentiated comparisons using game theory, and as decisions are taken without the use of game theory, and according to the results, solutions for the decision phase of the urban transformation process introduced. The game theory model developed from beginning to the end of the urban transformation process, particularly as a solution to the difficulty of making rational decisions in large-scale projects with many participants in the decision-making process. The use of a decision-making mechanism can provide an optimum answer to the demands of the stakeholders. In today's world for the construction sector, it is also seeing that the game theory is a non-surprising consequence of the fact that it is the most critical issues of planning and making the right decision in future years.

Keywords: urban transformation, the game theory, decision making, multi-actor project

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101 Analysis of the Accuracy of Earth Movement with Drone Surveys

Authors: Raúl Pereda García, Julio Manuel de Luis Ruiz, Elena Castillo López, Rubén Pérez Álvarez, Felipe Piña García

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New technologies for the capture of point clouds have experienced a great advance in recent years. In this way, its use has been extended in geomatics, providing measurement solutions that have been popularized without there being, many times, a detailed study of its accuracy. This research focuses on the study of the viability of topographic works with drones incorporating different sensors sensitive to the visible spectrum. The fundamentals have been applied to a road, located in Cantabria (Spain), where a platform extension and the reform of a riprap were being constructed. A total of six flights were made during two months, all of them with GPS as part of the photogrammetric process, and the results were contrasted with those measured with total station. The obtained results show that the choice of the camera and the planning of the flight have an important impact on the accuracy. In fact, the representations with a level of detail corresponding to 1/1000 scale are admissible, depending on the existing vegetation, and obtaining better results in the area of the riprap. This set of techniques is, therefore, suitable for the control of earthworks in road works but with certain limitations which are exposed in this paper.

Keywords: drone, earth movement control, global position system, surveying technology.

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100 Application of Transform Fourier for Dynamic Control of Structures with Global Positioning System

Authors: J. M. de Luis Ruiz, P. M. Sierra García, R. P. García, R. P. Álvarez, F. P. García, E. C. López

Abstract:

Given the evolution of viaducts, structural health monitoring requires more complex techniques to define their state. two alternatives can be distinguished: experimental and operational modal analysis. Although accelerometers or Global Positioning System (GPS) have been applied for the monitoring of structures under exploitation, the dynamic monitoring during the stage of construction is not common. This research analyzes whether GPS data can be applied to certain dynamic geometric controls of evolving structures. The fundamentals of this work were applied to the New Bridge of Cádiz (Spain), a worldwide milestone in bridge building. GPS data were recorded with an interval of 1 second during the erection of segments and turned to the frequency domain with Fourier transform. The vibration period and amplitude were contrasted with those provided by the finite element model, with differences of less than 10%, which is admissible. This process provides a vibration record of the structure with GPS, avoiding specific equipment.

Keywords: Fourier transform, global position system, operational modal analysis, structural health monitoring

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99 Mobile Platform’s Attitude Determination Based on Smoothed GPS Code Data and Carrier-Phase Measurements

Authors: Mohamed Ramdani, Hassen Abdellaoui, Abdenour Boudrassen

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Mobile platform’s attitude estimation approaches mainly based on combined positioning techniques and developed algorithms; which aim to reach a fast and accurate solution. In this work, we describe the design and the implementation of an attitude determination (AD) process, using only measurements from GPS sensors. The major issue is based on smoothed GPS code data using Hatch filter and raw carrier-phase measurements integrated into attitude algorithm based on vectors measurement using least squares (LSQ) estimation method. GPS dataset from a static experiment is used to investigate the effectiveness of the presented approach and consequently to check the accuracy of the attitude estimation algorithm. Attitude results from GPS multi-antenna over short baselines are introduced and analyzed. The 3D accuracy of estimated attitude parameters using smoothed measurements is over 0.27°.

Keywords: attitude determination, GPS code data smoothing, hatch filter, carrier-phase measurements, least-squares attitude estimation

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98 Geographic Information System for District Level Energy Performance Simulations

Authors: Avichal Malhotra, Jerome Frisch, Christoph van Treeck

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The utilization of semantic, cadastral and topological data from geographic information systems (GIS) has exponentially increased for building and urban-scale energy performance simulations. Urban planners, simulation scientists, and researchers use virtual 3D city models for energy analysis, algorithms and simulation tools. For dynamic energy simulations at city and district level, this paper provides an overview of the available GIS data models and their levels of detail. Adhering to different norms and standards, these models also intend to describe building and construction industry data. For further investigations, CityGML data models are considered for simulations. Though geographical information modelling has considerably many different implementations, extensions of virtual city data can also be made for domain specific applications. Highlighting the use of the extended CityGML models for energy researches, a brief introduction to the Energy Application Domain Extension (ADE) along with its significance is made. Consequently, addressing specific input simulation data, a workflow using Modelica underlining the usage of GIS information and the quantification of its significance over annual heating energy demand is presented in this paper.

Keywords: CityGML, EnergyADE, energy performance simulation, GIS

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97 Landslide Susceptibility Mapping: A Comparison between Logistic Regression and Multivariate Adaptive Regression Spline Models in the Municipality of Oudka, Northern of Morocco

Authors: S. Benchelha, H. C. Aoudjehane, M. Hakdaoui, R. El Hamdouni, H. Mansouri, T. Benchelha, M. Layelmam, M. Alaoui

Abstract:

The logistic regression (LR) and multivariate adaptive regression spline (MarSpline) are applied and verified for analysis of landslide susceptibility map in Oudka, Morocco, using geographical information system. From spatial database containing data such as landslide mapping, topography, soil, hydrology and lithology, the eight factors related to landslides such as elevation, slope, aspect, distance to streams, distance to road, distance to faults, lithology map and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) were calculated or extracted. Using these factors, landslide susceptibility indexes were calculated by the two mentioned methods. Before the calculation, this database was divided into two parts, the first for the formation of the model and the second for the validation. The results of the landslide susceptibility analysis were verified using success and prediction rates to evaluate the quality of these probabilistic models. The result of this verification was that the MarSpline model is the best model with a success rate (AUC = 0.963) and a prediction rate (AUC = 0.951) higher than the LR model (success rate AUC = 0.918, rate prediction AUC = 0.901).

Keywords: landslide susceptibility mapping, regression logistic, multivariate adaptive regression spline, Oudka, Taounate

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96 Investigation on the Energy Impact of Spatial Geometry in a Residential Building Using Building Information Modeling Technology

Authors: Shashank. S. Bagane, H. N. Rajendra Prasad

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Building Information Modeling (BIM) has currently developed into a potent solution. The consistent development of BIM technology in the sphere of Architecture, Engineering, and Construction (AEC) industry has enhanced the effectiveness of construction and decision making. However, aggrandized global warming and energy crisis has impacted on building energy analysis. It is now becoming an important factor to be considered in the AEC industry. Amalgamating energy analysis in the planning and design phase of a structure has become a necessity. In the current construction industry, estimating energy usage and reducing its footprint is of high priority. The construction industry is giving more prominence to sustainability alongside energy efficiency. This demand is compelling the designers, planners, and engineers to inspect the sustainable performance throughout the building's life cycle. The current study primarily focuses on energy consumption, space arrangement, and spatial geometry of a residential building. Most commonly residential structures in India are constructed considering Vastu Shastra. Vastu designs are intended to integrate architecture with nature and utilizing geometric patterns, symmetry, and directional alignments. In the current study, a residential brick masonry structure is considered for BIM analysis, Architectural model of the structure will be created using Revit software, later the orientation and spatial arrangement will be finalized based on Vastu principles. Furthermore, the structure will be investigated for the impact of building orientation and spatial arrangements on energy using Green Building Studio software. Based on the BIM analysis of the structure, energy consumption of subsequent building orientations will be understood. A well-orientated building having good spatial arrangement can save a considerable amount of energy throughout its life cycle and reduces the need for heating and lighting which will prove to diminish energy usage and improve the energy efficiency of the residential building.

Keywords: building information modeling, energy impact, spatial geometry, vastu

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95 Development of Low-Cost Vibro-Acoustic, and Fire-Resistant, Insulation Material from Natural and Sustainable Sources

Authors: K. Nasir, S. Ahmad, A. Khan, H. Benkreira

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The topic of the research is to develop sustainable fire-resistant materials for vibration and acoustic damping of structure and airborne noises from sustainable recycled materials and biodegradable binders. The paper reports, methods and techniques of enhancing fire resistive, vibration and acoustic properties of building insulation materials made from natural resources like wood and recycled materials like rubber and textile waste. The structures are designed to optimize the number, size and stratification of closed (heat insulating) and open (noise insulating) pores. The samples produced are tested for their heat and noise insulating properties, including vibration damping and their structural properties (airflow resistivity, porosity, tortuosity and elastic modulus). The structural properties are then used in theoretical models to check the acoustic insulation measurements. Initial data indicate that one layer of such material can yield as much as 18 times more damping, increasing the loss factor by 18%.

Keywords: fire resistant, vibration damping, acoustic material, vibro-acoustic, thermal insulation, sustainable material, low cost materials, recycled materials, construction material

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94 Mountain Photo Sphere: An Android Application of Mountain Hiking Street View

Authors: Yanto Budisusanto, Aulia Rachmawati

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Land navigation technology that is being developed is Google Street View to provide 360° street views, enabling the user to know the road conditions physically with the photo display. For climbers, especially beginners, detail information of climbing terrain is needed so climbers can prepare supplies and strategies before climbing. Therefore, we built a mountaineer guide application named Mountain Photo Sphere. This application displays a 360̊ panoramic view of mountain hiking trail and important points along the hiking path and its surrounding conditions. By combining panoramic photos 360̊ and tracking paths from coordinate data, a virtual tour will be formed. It is built using Java language and Android Studio. The hiking trail map composed by Google Maps API (Gaining access to google maps), Google GEO API (Gaining access to google maps), and OpenStreetMap API (Getting map files to be accessed offline on the Application). This application can be accessed offline so that climbers can use the application during climbing activities.

Keywords: google street view, panoramic photo 360°, mountain hiking, mountain photo sphere

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93 Sensitivity Analysis of Prestressed Post-Tensioned I-Girder and Deck System

Authors: Tahsin A. H. Nishat, Raquib Ahsan

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Sensitivity analysis of design parameters of the optimization procedure can become a significant factor while designing any structural system. The objectives of the study are to analyze the sensitivity of deck slab thickness parameter obtained from both the conventional and optimum design methodology of pre-stressed post-tensioned I-girder and deck system and to compare the relative significance of slab thickness. For analysis on conventional method, the values of 14 design parameters obtained by the conventional iterative method of design of a real-life I-girder bridge project have been considered. On the other side for analysis on optimization method, cost optimization of this system has been done using global optimization methodology 'Evolutionary Operation (EVOP)'. The problem, by which optimum values of 14 design parameters have been obtained, contains 14 explicit constraints and 46 implicit constraints. For both types of design parameters, sensitivity analysis has been conducted on deck slab thickness parameter which can become too sensitive for the obtained optimum solution. Deviations of slab thickness on both the upper and lower side of its optimum value have been considered reflecting its realistic possible ranges of variations during construction. In this procedure, the remaining parameters have been kept unchanged. For small deviations from the optimum value, compliance with the explicit and implicit constraints has been examined. Variations in the cost have also been estimated. It is obtained that without violating any constraint deck slab thickness obtained by the conventional method can be increased up to 25 mm whereas slab thickness obtained by cost optimization can be increased only up to 0.3 mm. The obtained result suggests that slab thickness becomes less sensitive in case of conventional method of design. Therefore, for realistic design purpose sensitivity should be conducted for any of the design procedure of girder and deck system.

Keywords: sensitivity analysis, optimum design, evolutionary operations, PC I-girder, deck system

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92 Adaptation Measures as a Response to Climate Change Impacts and Associated Financial Implications for Construction Businesses by the Application of a Mixed Methods Approach

Authors: Luisa Kynast

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It is obvious that buildings and infrastructure are highly impacted by climate change (CC). Both, design and material of buildings need to be resilient to weather events in order to shelter humans, animals, or goods. As well as buildings and infrastructure are exposed to weather events, the construction process itself is generally carried out outdoors without being protected from extreme temperatures, heavy rain, or storms. The production process is restricted by technical limitations for processing materials with machines and physical limitations due to human beings (“outdoor-worker”). In future due to CC, average weather patterns are expected to change as well as extreme weather events are expected to occur more frequently and more intense and therefore have a greater impact on production processes and on the construction businesses itself. This research aims to examine this impact by analyzing an association between responses to CC and financial performance of businesses within the construction industry. After having embedded the above depicted field of research into the resource dependency theory, a literature review was conducted to expound the state of research concerning a contingent relation between climate change adaptation measures (CCAM) and corporate financial performance for construction businesses. The examined studies prove that this field is rarely investigated, especially for construction businesses. Therefore, reports of the Carbon Disclosure Project (CDP) were analyzed by applying content analysis using the software tool MAXQDA. 58 construction companies – located worldwide – could be examined. To proceed even more systematically a coding scheme analogous to findings in literature was adopted. Out of qualitative analysis, data was quantified and a regression analysis containing corporate financial data was conducted. The results gained stress adaptation measures as a response to CC as a crucial proxy to handle climate change impacts (CCI) by mitigating risks and exploiting opportunities. In CDP reports the majority of answers stated increasing costs/expenses as a result of implemented measures. A link to sales/revenue was rarely drawn. Though, CCAM were connected to increasing sales/revenues. Nevertheless, this presumption is supported by the results of the regression analysis where a positive effect of implemented CCAM on construction businesses´ financial performance in the short-run was ascertained. These findings do refer to appropriate responses in terms of the implemented number of CCAM. Anyhow, still businesses show a reluctant attitude for implementing CCAM, which was confirmed by findings in literature as well as by findings in CDP reports. Businesses mainly associate CCAM with costs and expenses rather than with an effect on their corporate financial performance. Mostly companies underrate the effect of CCI and overrate the costs and expenditures for the implementation of CCAM and completely neglect the pay-off. Therefore, this research shall create a basis for bringing CC to the (financial) attention of corporate decision-makers, especially within the construction industry.

Keywords: climate change adaptation measures, construction businesses, financial implication, resource dependency theory

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91 Cotton Crops Vegetative Indices Based Assessment Using Multispectral Images

Authors: Muhammad Shahzad Shifa, Amna Shifa, Muhammad Omar, Aamir Shahzad, Rahmat Ali Khan

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Many applications of remote sensing to vegetation and crop response depend on spectral properties of individual leaves and plants. Vegetation indices are usually determined to estimate crop biophysical parameters like crop canopies and crop leaf area indices with the help of remote sensing. Cotton crops assessment is performed with the help of vegetative indices. Remotely sensed images from an optical multispectral radiometer MSR5 are used in this study. The interpretation is based on the fact that different materials reflect and absorb light differently at different wavelengths. Non-normalized and normalized forms of these datasets are analyzed using two complementary data mining algorithms; K-means and K-nearest neighbor (KNN). Our analysis shows that the use of normalized reflectance data and vegetative indices are suitable for an automated assessment and decision making.

Keywords: cotton, condition assessment, KNN algorithm, clustering, MSR5, vegetation indices

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90 Biomimetic Architecture from the Inspiration by Nature to the Innovation of the Saharan Architecture

Authors: Yassine Mohammed Benyoucef, Razin Andery Dionisovich

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Biomimicry is an old approach, but in the scientific conceptualization is new, as an approach of innovation based on the emulation of Nature, in recent years, this approach brings many potential theories and innovations in the architecture field. Indeed, these innovations have changed our view towards other Natural organisms also to the design processes in architecture, now the use of the biomimicry approach allows the application of a great sustainable development. The Sahara area is heading towards a sustainable policy with the desire to develop this rich context in terms of architecture, because of the rapid evolution of the architectural and urban concepts and the technology acceleration in one side, and under the pressure of the architectural crisis and the accelerated urbanization in the Saharan cities on the other side, the imperatives of sustainable development, ecology, climate adaptation, energy needs, are strongly imposed. Besides that, the new architectural and urban projects in the Saharan cities are not reliable in terms of energy efficiency and design and relationship with the environment. This article discusses the using of biomimetic strategy in the sustainable development of Saharan architecture. The aim of the article is to present a synthesis of biomimicry approach and propose the biomimicry as a solution for the development of Saharan architecture which can use this approach as a sustainable and innovation strategy. The biomimicry is the solution for effective strategies of development and can have a great potential point to meet the current challenges of designing efficient for forms or structures, energy efficiency, and climate issues. Moreover, the Sahara can be a favorable soil for great changes, the use of this approach is the key for the most optimal strategies and sustainable development of the Saharan architecture.

Keywords: biomimicry, Sahara, architecture, nature, innovation, technology

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89 A Study on Characteristics of Runoff Analysis Methods at the Time of Rainfall in Rural Area, Okinawa Prefecture Part 2: A Case of Kohatu River in South Central Part of Okinawa Pref

Authors: Kazuki Kohama, Hiroko Ono

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The rainfall in Japan is gradually increasing every year according to Japan Meteorological Agency and Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fifth Assessment Report. It means that the rainfall difference between rainy season and non-rainfall is increasing. In addition, the increasing trend of strong rain for a short time clearly appears. In recent years, natural disasters have caused enormous human injuries in various parts of Japan. Regarding water disaster, local heavy rain and floods of large rivers occur frequently, and it was decided on a policy to promote hard and soft sides as emergency disaster prevention measures with water disaster prevention awareness social reconstruction vision. Okinawa prefecture in subtropical region has torrential rain and water disaster several times a year such as river flood, in which is caused in specific rivers from all 97 rivers. Also, the shortage of capacity and narrow width are characteristic of river in Okinawa and easily cause river flood in heavy rain. This study focuses on Kohatu River that is one of the specific rivers. In fact, the water level greatly rises over the river levee almost once a year but non-damage of buildings around. On the other hand in some case, the water level reaches to ground floor height of house and has happed nine times until today. The purpose of this research is to figure out relationship between precipitation, surface outflow and total treatment water quantity of Kohatu River. For the purpose, we perform hydrological analysis although is complicated and needs specific details or data so that, the method is mainly using Geographic Information System software and outflow analysis system. At first, we extract watershed and then divided to 23 catchment areas to understand how much surface outflow flows to runoff point in each 10 minutes. On second, we create Unit Hydrograph indicating the area of surface outflow with flow area and time. This index shows the maximum amount of surface outflow at 2400 to 3000 seconds. Lastly, we compare an estimated value from Unit Hydrograph to a measured value. However, we found that measure value is usually lower than measured value because of evaporation and transpiration. In this study, hydrograph analysis was performed using GIS software and outflow analysis system. Based on these, we could clarify the flood time and amount of surface outflow.

Keywords: disaster prevention, water disaster, river flood, GIS software

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