Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 165

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Civil and Architectural Engineering]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

165 Private Remote Sensor Atmospheric Correction Development for Harmful Algae Bloom Detection

Authors: Andrea Nesdoly, Derek Jacoby, Xi Sun, William Parkinson, Yvonne Coady

Abstract:

Aquatic systems throughout the world are threatened by harmful algal blooms (HABs) that impact public health, coastal ecosystems, and fisheries resources. With evolving satellite remote sensing technology the large-scale monitoring of HABs can be done long-term and in real-time through spectral and ocean colour analyses. These analyses are intensely sensitive to atmospheric correction (AC), and unfortunately AC development must be painstakingly customized for each remote sensor in use. Our work explores the systematic processes required in the development of AC for a private medium resolution remote sensor with respect to HAB detection. Results are validated through comparison with established remote sensors. The AC algorithm chosen for customization was the Case-2 Regional Coast Colour (C2RCC) for its accuracy over coastal waters and its measure of chlorophyll concentration, an indicator of HABs. C2RCC is particularly accessible as an aid in the private remote sensor AC development because it is open source. However, creating neural nets for a private remote sensor cannot be easily done without in-depth assistance from the C2RCC development team. Instead, we propose a tool chain to correct the private remote sensor data for atmosphere contributions and to derive chlorophyll concentration based on a between sensor comparison with established remote sensors corrected using C2RCC. This study details this tool chain as it was applied to the AC of a private remote sensor and HAB detection; moreover, it provides the methodology for between sensor comparison while identifying the tradeoffs found between spatial and spectral resolution.

Keywords: Remote Sensing, chlorophyll, atmospheric correction, harmful algae blooms

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164 A Deep Learning Based Integrated Model For Spatial Flood Prediction

Authors: Vinayaka Gude Divya Sampath

Abstract:

The research introduces an integrated prediction model to assess the susceptibility of roads in a future flooding event. The model consists of deep learning algorithm for forecasting gauge height data and Flood Inundation Mapper (FIM) for spatial flooding. An optimal architecture for Long short-term memory network (LSTM) was identified for the gauge located on Tangipahoa River at Robert, LA. Dropout was applied to the model to evaluate the uncertainty associated with the predictions. The estimates are then used along with FIM to identify the spatial flooding. Further geoprocessing in ArcGIS provides the susceptibility values for different roads. The model was validated based on the devastating flood of August 2016. The paper discusses the challenges for generalization the methodology for other locations and also for various types of flooding. The developed model can be used by the transportation department and other emergency response organizations for effective disaster management.

Keywords: Disaster Management, Deep learning, Urban Flooding, flood prediction

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163 WebGIS Development Framework With Prioritized Usability Elements

Authors: Ezekiel Mwangi, Stephen Kimani, Agnes Mindila

Abstract:

Usability is one of the key factors that determine the success or failure of any WebGIS (technology normally applied on the internet to analyze and present spatial data on the Internet). However, not all the usability attributes have the same impact on usability. It is, therefore, necessary to prioritize WebGIS usability elements and determine the ones that are more crucial to the success of the WebGIS. This research aims to identify the main elements of WebGIS usability, investigate the order of importance and priority of the usability elements of WebGIS, and propose a WebGIS development framework that incorporates the prioritization of the usability elements. This will be achieved through a literature review. The outcome of this research will help usability specialists and WebGIS developers in determining specific usability elements that should be accorded more emphasis during the design and development of WebGIS.

Keywords: Prioritization, WebGIS, Usability, framework

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162 Strategic Investment in Infrastructure Development to Facilitate Economic Growth in the United States

Authors: Arkaprabha Bhattacharyya, Makarand Hastak

Abstract:

The COVID-19 pandemic is unprecedented in terms of its global reach and economic impacts. Historically, investment in infrastructure development projects has been touted to boost the economic growth of a nation. The State and Local governments responsible for delivering infrastructure assets work under tight budgets. Therefore, it is important to understand which infrastructure projects have the highest potential of boosting economic growth in the post-pandemic era. This paper presents relationships between infrastructure projects and economic growth. Statistical relationships between investment in different types of infrastructure projects (transit, water, and wastewater, highways, power, manufacturing, etc.) and indicators of economic growth are presented using historic data between 2002 and 2020 from the U.S. Census Bureau and U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA). The outcome of the paper is the comparison of statistical correlations between investment in different types of infrastructure projects and indicators of economic growth. The comparison of the statistical correlations is useful in ranking the types of infrastructure projects based on their ability to influence economic prosperity. Therefore, investment in the infrastructures with a higher rank will have a better chance of boosting economic growth. Once the ranks are derived, they can be used by the decision-makers in infrastructure investment related decision-making process.

Keywords: Economic growth, Infrastructure Projects, Infrastructure Development, Strategic Investment

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161 Application of the Hit or Miss Transform to Detect Dams Monitored for Water Quality Using Remote Sensing in South Africa

Authors: Brighton Chamunorwa

Abstract:

The current remote sensing of water quality procedures does not provide a step representing physical visualisation of the monitored dam. The application of the remote sensing of water quality techniques may benefit from use of mathematical morphology operators for shape identification. Given an input of dam outline, morphological operators such as the hit or miss transform identifies if the water body is present on input remotely sensed images. This study seeks to determine the accuracy of the hit or miss transform to identify dams monitored by the water resources authorities in South Africa on satellite images. To achieve this objective the study download a Landsat image acquired in winter and tested the capability of the hit or miss transform using shapefile boundaries of dams in the crocodile marico catchment. The results of the experiment show that it is possible to detect most dams on the Landsat image after the adjusting the erosion operator to detect pixel matching a percentage similarity of 80% and above. Successfully implementation of the current study contributes towards optimisation of mathematical morphology image operators. Additionally, the effort helps develop remote sensing of water quality monitoring with improved simulation of the conventional procedures.

Keywords: Remote Sensing, Water Quality Monitoring, mathematical morphology, hit or miss transform

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160 Urban Open Source: Synthesis of a Citizen-Centric Framework to Design Densifying Cities

Authors: Shaurya Chauhan, Sagar Gupta

Abstract:

Prominent urbanizing centres across the globe like Delhi, Dhaka, or Manila have exhibited that development often faces a challenge in bridging the gap among the top-down collective requirements of the city and the bottom-up individual aspirations of the ever-diversifying population. When this exclusion is intertwined with rapid urbanization and diversifying urban demography: unplanned sprawl, poor planning, and low-density development emerge as automated responses. In parallel, new ideas and methods of densification and public participation are being widely adopted as sustainable alternatives for the future of urban development. This research advocates a collaborative design method for future development: one that allows rapid application with its prototypical nature and an inclusive approach with mediation between the 'user' and the 'urban', purely with the use of empirical tools. Building upon the concepts and principles of 'open-sourcing' in design, the research establishes a design framework that serves the current user requirements while allowing for future citizen-driven modifications. This is synthesized as a 3-tiered model: user needs – design ideology – adaptive details. The research culminates into a context-responsive 'open source project development framework' (hereinafter, referred to as OSPDF) that can be used for on-ground field applications. To bring forward specifics, the research looks at a 300-acre redevelopment in the core of a rapidly urbanizing city as a case encompassing extreme physical, demographic, and economic diversity. The suggestive measures also integrate the region’s cultural identity and social character with the diverse citizen aspirations, using architecture and urban design tools, and references from recognized literature. This framework, based on a vision – feedback – execution loop, is used for hypothetical development at the five prevalent scales in design: master planning, urban design, architecture, tectonics, and modularity, in a chronological manner. At each of these scales, the possible approaches and avenues for open- sourcing are identified and validated, through hit-and-trial, and subsequently recorded. The research attempts to re-calibrate the architectural design process and make it more responsive and people-centric. Analytical tools such as Space, Event, and Movement by Bernard Tschumi and Five-Point Mental Map by Kevin Lynch, among others, are deep rooted in the research process. Over the five-part OSPDF, a two-part subsidiary process is also suggested after each cycle of application, for a continued appraisal and refinement of the framework and urban fabric with time. The research is an exploration – of the possibilities for an architect – to adopt the new role of a 'mediator' in development of the contemporary urbanity.

Keywords: Urban development, Open source, Urbanization, Public Participation

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159 Direction Stabilization and Simulation of an Aerial Delivery System with Ram-Air Parachute

Authors: Kemal Güven, Andaç T. Şamiloğlu

Abstract:

In this study, a controller system to stabilize the direction of an aerial delivery system is developed. First, a simulation platform is prepared in Matlab, Simulink. 6DOF vehicle model is used for simulations. Control algorithms for yaw, yaw rate and descent rate are developed and tested. For the flight stability, roll rate and pitch rate are observed.

Keywords: simulink, Aerial Delivery System, Direction Stabilization, Parachute

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158 Oil Pollution Analysis of the Ecuadorian Rainforest Using Remote Sensing Methods

Authors: Juan Heredia, Naci Dilekli

Abstract:

The Ecuadorian Rainforest has been polluted for almost 60 years with little to no regard to oversight, law, or regulations. The consequences have been vast environmental damage such as pollution and deforestation, as well as sickness and the death of many people and animals. The aim of this paper is to quantify and localize the polluted zones, which something that has not been conducted and is the first step for remediation. To approach this problem, multi-spectral Remote Sensing imagery was utilized using a novel algorithm developed for this study, based on four normalized indices available in the literature. The algorithm classifies the pixels in polluted or healthy ones. The results of this study include a new algorithm for pixel classification and quantification of the polluted area in the selected image. Those results were finally validated by ground control points found in the literature. The main conclusion of this work is that using hyperspectral images, it is possible to identify polluted vegetation. The future work is environmental remediation, in-situ tests, and more extensive results that would inform new policymaking.

Keywords: Remote Sensing, Hyperspectral Remote Sensing, Amazon forest, oil pollution quatification

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157 Industrial Production of the Saudi Future Dwelling: A Saudi Volumetric Solution for Single Family Homes, Leveraging Industry 4.0 with Scalable Automation, Hybrid Structural Insulated Panels Technology and Local Materials

Authors: Bandar Alkahlan

Abstract:

The King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST) created the Saudi Future Dwelling (SFD) initiative to identify, localize and commercialize a scalable home manufacturing technology suited to deployment across the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). This paper outlines the journey, the creation of the international project delivery team, the product design, the selection of the process technologies, and the outcomes. A target was set to remove 85% of the construction and finishing processes from the building site as these activities could be more efficiently completed in a factory environment. Therefore, integral to the SFD initiative is the successful industrialization of the home building process using appropriate technologies, automation, robotics, and manufacturing logistics. The technologies proposed for the SFD housing system are designed to be energy efficient, economical, fit for purpose from a Saudi cultural perspective, and will minimize the use of concrete, relying mainly on locally available Saudi natural materials derived from the local resource industries. To this end, the building structure is comprised of a hybrid system of structural insulated panels (SIP), combined with a light gauge steel framework manufactured in a large format panel system. The paper traces the investigative process and steps completed by the project team during the selection process. As part of the SFD Project, a pathway was mapped out to include a proof-of-concept prototype housing module and the set-up and commissioning of a lab-factory complete with all production machinery and equipment necessary to simulate a full-scale production environment. The prototype housing module was used to validate and inform current and future product design as well as manufacturing process decisions. A description of the prototype design and manufacture is outlined along with valuable learning derived from the build and how these results were used to enhance the SFD project. The industrial engineering concepts and lab-factory detailed design and layout are described in the paper, along with the shop floor I.T. management strategy. Special attention was paid to showcase all technologies within the lab-factory as part of the engagement strategy with private investors to leverage the SFD project with large scale factories throughout the Kingdom. A detailed analysis is included in the process surrounding the design, specification, and procurement of the manufacturing machinery, equipment, and logistical manipulators required to produce the SFD housing modules. The manufacturing machinery was comprised of a combination of standardized and bespoke equipment from a wide range of international suppliers. The paper describes the selection process, pre-ordering trials and studies, and, in some cases, the requirement for additional research and development by the equipment suppliers in order to achieve the SFD objectives. A set of conclusions is drawn describing the results achieved thus far, along with a list of recommended ongoing operational tests, enhancements, research, and development aimed at achieving full-scale engagement with private sector investment and roll-out of the SFD project across the Kingdom.

Keywords: Automation, Manufacturing, Product Design, dwelling

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156 Geographical Information System-Based Approach for Vertical Takeoff and Landing Takeoff and Landing Site Selection

Authors: Chamnan Kumsap, Somsarit Sinnung, Suriyawate Boonthalarath, Teeranai Srithamarong

Abstract:

This research paper addresses the GIS analysis approach to the investigation of suitable sites for a vertical takeoff and landing drone. The study manipulated GIS and terrain layers into a proper input before the spatial analysis that included slope, reclassify, classify, and buffer was applied to the individual layers. The output layers were weighted, and multi-criteria analyzed before those patches failing to comply with filtering out criteria were discarded. Field survey for each suitable candidate site was conducted to cross-check the proposed approach with the real world. Conclusion was extracted for the VTOL takeoff and landing sites, and discussion was provided with further study being suggested on the mission simulation of selected takeoff and landing sites.

Keywords: Site selection, VTOL, GIS approach, takeoff and landing

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155 Geographic Information System and Dynamic Segmentation of Very High Resolution Images for the Semi-Automatic Extraction of Sandy Accumulation

Authors: A. Bensaid, T. Mostephaoui, R. Nedjai

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A considerable area of Algerian lands is threatened by the phenomenon of wind erosion. For a long time, wind erosion and its associated harmful effects on the natural environment have posed a serious threat, especially in the arid regions of the country. In recent years, as a result of increases in the irrational exploitation of natural resources (fodder) and extensive land clearing, wind erosion has particularly accentuated. The extent of degradation in the arid region of the Algerian Mecheria department generated a new situation characterized by the reduction of vegetation cover, the decrease of land productivity, as well as sand encroachment on urban development zones. In this study, we attempt to investigate the potential of remote sensing and geographic information systems for detecting the spatial dynamics of the ancient dune cords based on the numerical processing of LANDSAT images (5, 7, and 8) of three scenes 197/37, 198/36 and 198/37 for the year 2020. As a second step, we prospect the use of geospatial techniques to monitor the progression of sand dunes on developed (urban) lands as well as on the formation of sandy accumulations (dune, dunes fields, nebkha, barkhane, etc.). For this purpose, this study made use of the semi-automatic processing method for the dynamic segmentation of images with very high spatial resolution (SENTINEL-2 and Google Earth). This study was able to demonstrate that urban lands under current conditions are located in sand transit zones that are mobilized by the winds from the northwest and southwest directions.

Keywords: Remote Sensing, Segmentation, Land Development, GIS

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154 Web Map Service for Fragmentary Rockfall Inventory

Authors: M. Amparo Nunez-Andres, Nieves Lantada

Abstract:

One of the most harmful geological risks is rockfalls. They cause both economic lost, damaged in buildings and infrastructures, and personal ones. Therefore, in order to estimate the risk of the exposed elements, it is necessary to know the mechanism of this kind of events, since the characteristics of the rock walls, to the propagation of fragments generated by the initial detached rock mass. In the framework of the research RockModels project, several inventories of rockfalls were carried out along the northeast of the Spanish peninsula and the Mallorca island. These inventories have general information about the events, although the important fact is that they contained detailed information about fragmentation. Specifically, the IBSD (Insitu Block Size Distribution) is obtained by photogrammetry from drone or TLS (Terrestrial Laser Scanner) and the RBSD (Rock Block Size Distribution) from the volume of the fragment in the deposit measured by hand. In order to share all this information with other scientists, engineers, members of civil protection, and stakeholders, it is necessary a platform accessible from the internet and following interoperable standards. In all the process, open-software have been used: PostGIS 2.1., Geoserver, and OpenLayers library. In the first step, a spatial database was implemented to manage all the information. We have used the data specifications of INSPIRE for natural risks adding specific and detailed data about fragmentation distribution. The next step was to develop a WMS with Geoserver. A previous phase was the creation of several views in PostGIS to show the information at different scales of visualization and with different degrees of detail. In the first view, the sites are identified with a point, and basic information about the rockfall event is facilitated. In the next level of zoom, at medium scale, the convex hull of the rockfall appears with its real shape and the source of the event and fragments are represented by symbols. The queries at this level offer a major detail about the movement. Eventually, the third level shows all elements: deposit, source, and blocks, in their real size, if it is possible, and in their real localization. The last task was the publication of all information in a web mapping site (www.rockdb.upc.edu) with data classified by levels using libraries in JavaScript as OpenLayers.

Keywords: Web Mapping, WMS, geological risk, rockfalls

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153 Hazardous Vegetation Detection in Right-Of-Way Power Transmission Lines in Brazil Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle and Light Detection and Ranging

Authors: Mauricio George Miguel Jardini, Jose Antonio Jardini

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Transmission power utilities participate with kilometers of circuits, many with particularities in terms of vegetation growth. To control these rights-of-way, maintenance teams perform ground, and air inspections, and the identification method is subjective (indirect). On a ground inspection, when identifying an irregularity, for example, high vegetation threatening contact with the conductor cable, pruning or suppression is performed immediately. In an aerial inspection, the suppression team is mobilized to the identified point. This work investigates the use of 3D modeling of a transmission line segment using RGB (red, blue, and green) images and LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) sensor data. Both sensors are coupled to unmanned aerial vehicle. The goal is the accurate and timely detection of vegetation along the right-of-way that can cause shutdowns.

Keywords: Vegetation, Lidar, Transmission Lines, right-of-way

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152 The OLOS® Way to Cultural Heritage: User Interface with Anthropomorphic Characteristics

Authors: Daniele Baldacci, Remo Pareschi

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Augmented Reality and Augmented Intelligence are radically changing information technology. The path that starts from the keyboard and then, passing through milestones such as Siri, Alexa and other vocal avatars, reaches a more fluid and natural communication with computers, thus converting the dichotomy between man and machine into a harmonious interaction, now heads unequivocally towards a new IT paradigm, where holographic computing will play a key role. The OLOS® platform contributes substantially to this trend in that it infuses computers with human features, by transferring the gestures and expressions of persons of flesh and bones to anthropomorphic holographic interfaces which in turn will use them to interact with real-life humans. In fact, we could say, boldly but with a solid technological background to back the statement, that OLOS® gives reality to an altogether new entity, placed at the exact boundary between nature and technology, namely the holographic human being. Holographic humans qualify as the perfect carriers for the virtual reincarnation of characters handed down from history and tradition. Thus, they provide for an innovative and highly immersive way of experiencing our cultural heritage as something alive and pulsating in the present.

Keywords: Human-computer interfaces, digital cinematography, holographic simulation, interactive museum exhibits

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151 Digital Geography and Geographic Information System in Schools: Towards a Hierarchical Geospatial Approach

Authors: Mary Fargher

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This paper examines the opportunities of using a more hierarchical approach to geospatial enquiry in using GIS in school geography. A case is made that it is not just the lack of teacher technological knowledge that is stopping some teachers from using GIS in the classroom but that there is a gap in their understanding of how to link GIS use more specifically to the pedagogy of teaching geography with GIS. Using a hierarchical approach to geospatial enquiry as a theoretical framework, the analysis shows clearly how concepts of spatial distribution, interaction, relation, comparison, and temporal relationships can be used by teachers more explicitly to capitalise on the analytical power of GIS and to construct what can be interpreted as powerful geographical knowledge. An exemplar illustrating this approach on the topic of geo-hazards is then presented for critical analysis and discussion. Recommendations are then made for a model of progression for geography teacher education with GIS through hierarchical geospatial enquiry that takes into account beginner, intermediate, and more advanced users.

Keywords: Education, GIS, digital geography, hierarchical geospatial enquiry, powerful geographical knowledge

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150 Immediate Geometric Solution of Irregular Quadrilaterals: A Digital Tool Applied to Topography

Authors: Miguel Mariano Rivera Galvan

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The purpose of this research was to create a digital tool by which users can obtain an immediate and accurate solution of the angular characteristics of an irregular quadrilateral. The development of this project arose because of the frequent absence of a polygon’s geometric information in land ownership accreditation documents. The researcher created a mathematical model using a linear approximation iterative method, employing various disciplines and techniques including trigonometry, geometry, algebra, and topography. This mathematical model uses as input data the surface of the quadrilateral, as well as the length of its sides, to obtain its interior angles and make possible its representation in a coordinate system. The results are as accurate and reliable as the user requires, offering the possibility of using this tool as a support to develop future engineering and architecture projects quickly and reliably.

Keywords: Geometry, Solution, mathematical model, digital tool, quadrilateral

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149 Assesing Spatio-Temporal Growth of Kochi City Using Remote Sensing Data

Authors: Navya Saira George, Patroba Achola Odera

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This study aims to determine spatio-temporal expansion of Kochi City, situated on the west coast of Kerala State in India. Remote sensing and GIS techniques have been used to determine land use/cover and urban expansion of the City. Classification of Landsat images of the years 1973, 1988, 2002 and 2018 have been used to reproduce a visual story of the growth of the City over a period of 45 years. Accuracy range of 0.79 ~ 0.86 is achieved with kappa coefficient range of 0.69 ~ 0.80. Results show that the areas covered by vegetation and water bodies decreased progressively from 53.0 ~ 30.1% and 34.1 ~ 26.2% respectively, while built-up areas increased steadily from 12.5 to 42.2% over the entire study period (1973 ~ 2018). The shift in land use from agriculture to non-agriculture may be attributed to the land reforms since 1980s.

Keywords: Remote Sensing, Geographical Information Systems, urban sprawl, land use/cover, Kochi City

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148 Sustainability of High-Rise Affordable Housing: Critical Issues in Applying Green Building Rating Tools

Authors: Poh Im. Lim, Hillary Yee Qin. Tan

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Nowadays, going green has become a trend, and being emphasized in the construction industry. In Malaysia, there are several green rating tools available in the industry and among these, GBI and GreenRE are considered as the most common tools adopted for residential buildings. However, being green is not equal to or making something sustainable. Being sustainable is to take economic, environmental and social aspects into consideration. This is particularly essential in the affordable housing sector as the end-users belong to lower-income and places importance on many socio-economic needs beyond the environmental criteria. This paper discusses the arguments in proposing a sustainability framework that is tailor-made for high-rise affordable housing. In-depth interviews and observation mapping methods were used in gathering inputs from the end-users, non-governmental organisations (NGOs) as well as the professionals. ‘Bottom-up’ approach was applied in this research to show the significance of participation from the local community in the decision-making process. The proposed sustainability framework illustrates the discrepancies between user priorities and what the industry is providing. The outcome of this research suggests that integrating sustainability into high-rise affordable housing is achievable and beneficial to the industry, society, and the environment.

Keywords: Sustainable Development, green building rating tools, high-rise affordable housing, sustainability framework

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147 The Portland Cement Limestone: Silica Fume System as an Alternative Cementitious Material

Authors: C. S. Paglia, E. Ginercordero, A. Jornet

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Environmental pollution, along with the depletion of natural resources, is among the most serious global challenges in our times. The construction industry is one of the sectors where a relevant reduction of the environmental impact can be achieved. Thus, the cement production will play a key role in sustainability, by reducing the CO₂ emissions and energy consumption and by increasing the durability of the structures. A large number of investigations have been carried out on blended cements, but it exists a lack of information on the Portland cement limestone - silica fume system. Mortar blends are optimized in the mix proportions for the different ingredients, in particular for the dosage of the silica fume. Portland cement and the new binder-based systems are compared with respect to the fresh mortar properties, the mechanical and the durability behaviour of the hardened specimens at 28 and 90 days. The use of this new binder combination exhibits an interesting hydration development with time and maintain the conventional characteristics of Portland cementitious material. On the other hand, it will be necessary to reproduce the Portland Limestone Cement-silica fume system within the concrete. A reduction of the CO₂ production, energy consumption, and a reasonable service life of the concrete structures, including a maintenance free period, will all contribute to a better environment.

Keywords: cement, silica fume, limestone, binder

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146 Modeling Average Paths Traveled by Ferry Vessels Using AIS Data

Authors: Devin Simmons

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At the USDOT’s Bureau of Transportation Statistics, a biannual census of ferry operators in the U.S. is conducted, with results such as route mileage used to determine federal funding levels for operators. AIS data allows for the possibility of using GIS software and geographical methods to confirm operator-reported mileage for individual ferry routes. As part of the USDOT’s work on the ferry census, an algorithm was developed that uses AIS data for ferry vessels in conjunction with known ferry terminal locations to model the average route travelled for use as both a cartographic product and confirmation of operator-reported mileage. AIS data from each vessel is first analyzed to determine individual journeys based on the vessel’s velocity, and changes in velocity over time. These trips are then converted to geographic linestring objects. Using the terminal locations, the algorithm then determines whether the trip represented a known ferry route. Given a large enough dataset, routes will be represented by multiple trip linestrings, which are then filtered by DBSCAN spatial clustering to remove outliers. Finally, these remaining trips are ready to be averaged into one route. The algorithm interpolates the point on each trip linestring that represents the start point. From these start points, a centroid is calculated, and the first point of the average route is determined. Each trip is interpolated again to find the point that represents one percent of the journey’s completion, and the centroid of those points is used as the next point in the average route, and so on until 100 points have been calculated. Routes created using this algorithm have shown demonstrable improvement over previous methods, which included the implementation of a LOESS model. Additionally, the algorithm greatly reduces the amount of manual digitizing needed to visualize ferry activity.

Keywords: Modeling, Transportation, ferry vessels, AIS data

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145 Red-Tide Detection and Prediction Using MODIS Data in the Arabian Gulf of Qatar

Authors: Yasir E. Mohieldeen

Abstract:

Qatar is one of the most water scarce countries in the World. In 2014, the average per capita rainfall was less than 29 m3/y/ca, while the global average is 6,000 m3/y/ca. However, the per capita water consumption in Qatar is among the highest in the World: more than 500 liters per person per day, whereas the global average is 160 liters per person per day. Since the early 2000s, Qatar has been relying heavily on desalinated water from the Arabian Gulf as the main source of fresh water. In 2009, about 99.9% of the total potable water produced was desalinated. Reliance on desalinated water makes Qatar very vulnerable to water related natural disasters, such as the red-tide phenomenon. Qatar’s strategic water reserve lasts for only 7 days. In case of red-tide outbreak, the country would not be able to desalinate water for days, let alone the months that this disaster would bring about (as it clogs the desalination equipment). The 2008-09 red-tide outbreak, for instance, lasted for more than eight months and forced the closure of desalination plants in the region for weeks. This study aims at identifying favorite conditions for red-tide outbreaks, using satellite data along with in-situ measurements. This identification would allow the prediction of these outbreaks and their hotspots. Prediction and monitoring of outbreaks are crucial to water security in the country, as different measures could be put in place in advance to prevent an outbreak and mitigate its impact if it happened. Red-tide outbreaks are detected using different algorithms for chlorophyll concentration in the Gulf waters. Vegetation indices, such as Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) were used along with Surface Algae Bloom Index (SABI) to detect known outbreaks. MODIS (or Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) bands are used to calculate these indices. A red-tide outbreaks atlas in the Arabian Gulf is being produced. Prediction of red-tide outbreaks ahead of their occurrences would give critical information on possible water-shortage in the country. Detecting known outbreaks in the past few decades and related parameters (e.g. water salinity, water surface temperature, nutrition, sandstorms, … etc) enables the identification of favorite conditions of red-tide outbreak that are key to the prediction of these outbreaks.

Keywords: Water desalination, Arabian Gulf, MODIS, red-tide detection, strategic water reserve

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144 Change Detection of Water Bodies in Dhaka City: An Analysis Using Geographic Information System and Remote Sensing

Authors: M. Humayun Kabir, Mahamuda Afroze, K. Maudood Elahi

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Since the late 1900s, unplanned and rapid urbanization processes have drastically altered the land, reduced water bodies, and decreased vegetation cover in the capital city of Bangladesh, Dhaka. The capitalist modes of urbanization results in the encroachment of the surface water bodies in this city. The main goal of this study is to investigate the change detection of water bodies in Dhaka city, analyzing spatial distribution of water bodies and calculating the changing rate of it. This effort aims to influence public policy for environmental justice initiatives around protecting water bodies for ensuring proper function of the urban ecosystem. This study accomplishes research goal by compiling satellite imageries into GIS software to understand the changes of water bodies in Dhaka city. The work focuses on the late 20th century to early 21st century to analyze this city before and after major infrastructural changes occurred in unplanned manner. The land use of the study area has been classified into four categories, and the areas of the different land use have been calculated using MS Excel and SPSS. The results reveal that the urbanization expanded from central to northern part and major encroachment occurred at the western and eastern part of the city. It has also been found that, in 1988, the total area of water bodies was 8935.38 hectares, and it gradually decreased, and in 1998, 2008, 2017, the total areas of water bodies reached 6065.73, 4853.32, 2077.56 hectares, respectively. Rapid population growth, unplanned urbanization, and industrialization have generated pressure to change the land use pattern in Dhaka city. These expansion processes are engulfing wetland, water bodies, and vegetation cover without considering environmental impact. In order to regain the wetland and surface water bodies, the concern authorities must implement laws and act as a legal instrument in this regard and take action against the violators of it. This research is the synthesis of time series data that provides a complete picture of the water body’s status of Dhaka city that might help to make plans and policies for water body conservation.

Keywords: Ecosystem, Remote Sensing, Land Use, GIS, Urbanization, industrialization

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143 Participatory Cartography for Disaster Reduction in Pogreso, Yucatan Mexico

Authors: Gustavo Cruz-Bello

Abstract:

Progreso is a coastal community in Yucatan, Mexico, highly exposed to floods produced by severe storms and tropical cyclones. A participatory cartography approach was conducted to help to reduce floods disasters and assess social vulnerability within the community. The first step was to engage local authorities in risk management to facilitate the process. Two workshop were conducted, in the first, a poster size printed high spatial resolution satellite image of the town was used to gather information from the participants: eight women and seven men, among them construction workers, students, government employees and fishermen, their ages ranged between 23 and 58 years old. For the first task, participants were asked to locate emblematic places and place them in the image to familiarize with it. Then, they were asked to locate areas that get flooded, the buildings that they use as refuges, and to list actions that they usually take to reduce vulnerability, as well as to collectively come up with others that might reduce disasters. The spatial information generated at the workshops was digitized and integrated into a GIS environment. A printed version of the map was reviewed by local risk management experts, who validated feasibility of proposed actions. For the second workshop, we retrieved the information back to the community for feedback. Additionally a survey was applied in one household per block in the community to obtain socioeconomic, prevention and adaptation data. The information generated from the workshops was contrasted, through T and Chi Squared tests, with the survey data in order to probe the hypothesis that poorer or less educated people, are less prepared to face floods (more vulnerable) and live near or among higher presence of floods. Results showed that a great majority of people in the community are aware of the hazard and are prepared to face it. However, there was not a consistent relationship between regularly flooded areas with people’s average years of education, house services, or house modifications against heavy rains to be prepared to hazards. We could say that the participatory cartography intervention made participants aware of their vulnerability and made them collectively reflect about actions that can reduce disasters produced by floods. They also considered that the final map could be used as a communication and negotiation instrument with NGO and government authorities. It was not found that poorer and less educated people are located in areas with higher presence of floods.

Keywords: Climate Change, floods, Participatory Mapping, Social Vulnerability, Mexico

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142 Experimental Investigation of Fly Ash in Low Strength Range for Sustainability and Affordability

Authors: Mulubrhan Berihu, Supratic Gupta, Wondrad Fantahun

Abstract:

Due to design versatility, availability, and cost-efficiency, concrete is continuing to be the most used construction material on earth. However, the production of Portland cement, the primary component of the concrete mix is causing to have a serious effect on environmental and economic impacts. This shows there is a need to study using supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs). The most commonly used supplementary cementitious materials are wastes, and the use of these industrial waste products has technical, economic and environmental benefits besides the reduction of CO₂ emission from cement production. This paper aims to document the effect on the strength property of concrete due to the use of low cement by maximizing supplementary cementitious materials like fly ash. The amount of cement content was below 250 kg/m³ and in all the mixes, the quantity powder (cement + fly ash) is almost kept about 500 kg. According to this seven different cement content (250 kg/m³, 195 kg/m³, 150 kg/m³, 125 kg/m³, 100 kg/m³, 85 kg/m³, 70 kg/m³) with different amount of replacement of SCMs was conducted. The mix proportion was prepared by keeping the water content constant and varying the cement content, SCMs and water to binder ratio. Based on the different mix proportions of pozzolana (Fly ash), a range of mix design was formulated. The test results showed that using up to 85 kg/m³ of cement is possible for plain concrete works like hollow block concrete to achieve 9.8 Mpa and the experimental results indicate that strength is a function of w/b.

Keywords: compressive strength, water permeability, cement content, Efficiency Factor, mix proportion, w/c ratio, SCMs

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141 Investigation of Several Parameters on Local Scour around Inclined Dual Bridge Piers

Authors: Murat Çeşme

Abstract:

For a bridge engineer to ensure a safe footing design, it is very important to estimate the maximum scour depth around the piers as accurately as possible. Many experimental studies have been performed by several investigators to obtain information about scouring mechanism. In order to examine the effect of inclination of dual bridge piers on scour depth under clear-water conditions for various uniform flow depths, an experimental research on scaled dual bridge piers has been carried over in METU Hydromechanics Lab. Dimensional and non-dimensional curves were developed and presented to show the variation of scour depth with respect to various parameters such as footing angle with the vertical, flow depth and footing dimensions. Results of the study were compared to those obtained from a similar study performed with single inclined piers to see the effect of the second pier on scour depths. Useful equations for the design engineers were developed based on multiple regression analyses to be used for predicting local scour depths around inclined piers in uniform and non-uniform sediments.

Keywords: Experimental research, scour depth, inclined dual bridge piers, footing safety, clear water condition

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140 Multi-Temporal Analysis of Vegetation Change within High Contaminated Watersheds by Superfund Sites in Wisconsin

Authors: Punwath Prum

Abstract:

Superfund site is recognized publicly to be a severe environmental problem to surrounding communities and biodiversity due to its hazardous chemical waste from industrial activities. It contaminates the soil and water but also is a leading potential point-source pollution affecting ecosystem in watershed areas from chemical substances. The risks of Superfund site on watershed can be effectively measured by utilizing publicly available data and geospatial analysis by free and open source application. This study analyzed the vegetation change within high risked contaminated watersheds in Wisconsin. The high risk watersheds were measured by which watershed contained high number Superfund sites. The study identified two potential risk watersheds in Lafayette and analyzed the temporal changes of vegetation within the areas based on Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) analysis. The raster statistic was used to compare the change of NDVI value over the period. The analysis results showed that the NDVI value within the Superfund sites’ boundary has a significant lower value than nearby surrounding and provides an analogy for environmental hazard affect by the chemical contamination in Superfund site.

Keywords: watershed, Spatial analysis, Soil Contamination

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139 Metareasoning Image Optimization Q-Learning

Authors: Mahasa Zahirnia

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to explore new and effective ways of optimizing satellite images using artificial intelligence, and the process of implementing reinforcement learning to enhance the quality of data captured within the image. In our implementation of Bellman's Reinforcement Learning equations, associated state diagrams, and multi-stage image processing, we were able to enhance image quality, detect and define objects. Reinforcement learning is the differentiator in the area of artificial intelligence, and Q-Learning relies on trial and error to achieve its goals. The reward system that is embedded in Q-Learning allows the agent to self-evaluate its performance and decide on the best possible course of action based on the current and future environment. Results show that within a simulated environment, built on the images that are commercially available, the rate of detection was 40-90%. Reinforcement learning through Q-Learning algorithm is not just desired but required design criteria for image optimization and enhancements. The proposed methods presented are a cost effective method of resolving uncertainty of the data because reinforcement learning finds ideal policies to manage the process using a smaller sample of images.

Keywords: Reinforcement Learning, Markov decision process, q-learning, image optimization

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138 Variability of the Snowline Altitude at Different Region in the Eastern Tibetan Plateau in Recent 20 Years

Authors: Chang Liu, Zhen Li, Ping Zhang

Abstract:

These Glaciers are thought of as natural water reservoirs and are of vital importance to hydrological models and industrial production, and glacial changes act as significant indicators of climate change. The glacier snowline can be used as an indicator of the equilibrium line, which may be a key parameter to study the effect of climate change on glaciers. Using Google Earth Engine, we select optical satellite imageries and implement the Otsu thresholding method on a near-infrared band to detect snowline altitudes (SLAs) of 26 glaciers in three regions of the eastern Tibetan Plateau. Three different study regions in the eastern Tibetan Plateau have different climate regimes, which are Sepu Kangri (SK, maritime glacier), Bu’Gyai Kangri (BK, continental glacier) and west of Qiajajima (WQ, continental glacier), along a latitudinal transect from south to north. We analyzed the effects of climatic factors on the SLA changes from 1995 to 2016. SLAs are fluctuating upward, and the rising values are 100 m, 60 m, and 34 m from south to north during the 22 years. We also observed that the climatic factor that affects the variability of SLA gradually changes from precipitation to temperature from south to north. The northern continental glaciers are mainly affected by temperature, and the southern maritime glaciers affected by precipitation. Owing to the influence of primary climatic factors, continental glaciers are found to have higher SLAs on the south slope, while maritime glaciers have higher SLAs on the north slope.

Keywords: Climate Change, Tibetan Plateau, Glacier, snowline altitude

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137 Geospatial Techniques and VHR Imagery Use for Identification and Classification of Slums in Gujrat City, Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Ameer Nawaz Akram

Abstract:

The 21st century has been revealed that many individuals around the world are living in urban settlements than in rural zones. The evolution of numerous cities in emerging and newly developed countries is accompanied by the rise of slums. The precise definition of a slum varies countries to countries, but the universal harmony is that slums are dilapidated settlements facing severe poverty and have lacked access to sanitation, water, electricity, good living styles, and land tenure. The slum settlements always vary in unique patterns within and among the countries and cities. The core objective of this study is the spatial identification and classification of slums in Gujrat city Pakistan from very high-resolution GeoEye-1 (0.41m) satellite imagery. Slums were first identified using GPS for sample site identification and ground-truthing; through this process, 425 slums were identified. Then Object-Oriented Analysis (OOA) was applied to classify slums on digital image. Spatial analysis softwares, e.g., ArcGIS 10.3, Erdas Imagine 9.3, and Envi 5.1, were used for processing data and performing the analysis. Results show that OOA provides up to 90% accuracy for the identification of slums. Jalal Cheema and Allah Ho colonies are severely affected by slum settlements. The ratio of criminal activities is also higher here than in other areas. Slums are increasing with the passage of time in urban areas, and they will be like a hazardous problem in coming future. So now, the executive bodies need to make effective policies and move towards the amelioration process of the city.

Keywords: GPS, Satellite Imagery, slums, object oriented analysis, zonal change detection

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136 Evaluating the Impact of Expansion on Urban Thermal Surroundings: A Case Study of Lahore Metropolitan City, Pakistan

Authors: Usman Ahmed Khan

Abstract:

Urbanization directly affects the existing infrastructure, landscape modification, environmental contamination, and traffic pollution, especially if there is a lack of urban planning. Recently, the rapid urban sprawl has resulted in less developed green areas and has devastating environmental consequences. This study was aimed to study the past urban expansion rates and measure LST from satellite data. The land use land cover (LULC) maps of years 1996, 2010, 2013, and 2017 were generated using landsat satellite images. Four main classes, i.e., water, urban, bare land, and vegetation, were identified using unsupervised classification with iterative self-organizing data analysis (isodata) technique. The LST from satellite thermal data can be derived from different procedures: atmospheric, radiometric calibrations and surface emissivity corrections, classification of spatial changeability in land-cover. Different methods and formulas were used in the algorithm that successfully retrieves the land surface temperature to help us study the thermal environment of the ground surface. To verify the algorithm, the land surface temperature and the near-air temperature were compared. The results showed that, From 1996-2017, urban areas increased to about a considerable increase of about 48%. Few areas of the city also shown in a reduction in LST from the year 1996-2017 that actually began their transitional phase from rural to urban LULC. The mean temperature of the city increased averagely about 1ºC each year in the month of October. The green and vegetative areas witnessed a decrease in the area while a higher number of pixels increased in urban class.

Keywords: Urbanization, LST, LULC, isodata

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