Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 214

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Civil and Architectural Engineering]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

214 Continuous Land Cover Change Detection in Subtropical Thicket Ecosystems

Authors: Craig Mahlasi


The Subtropical Thicket Biome has been in peril of transformation. Estimates indicate that as much as 63% of the Subtropical Thicket Biome is severely degraded. Agricultural expansion is the main driver of transformation. While several studies have sought to document and map the long term transformations, there is a lack of information on disturbance events that allow for timely intervention by authorities. Furthermore, tools that seek to perform continuous land cover change detection are often developed for forests and thus tend to perform poorly in thicket ecosystems. This study investigates the utility of Earth Observation data for continuous land cover change detection in Subtropical Thicket ecosystems. Temporal Neural Networks are implemented on a time series of Sentinel-2 observations. The model obtained 0.93 accuracy, a recall score of 0.93, and a precision score of 0.91 in detecting Thicket disturbances. The study demonstrates the potential of continuous land cover change in Subtropical Thicket ecosystems.

Keywords: remote sensing, land cover change detection, subtropical thickets, near-real time

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213 Geological Mapping of Gabel Humr Akarim Area, Southern Eastern Desert, Egypt: Constrain from Remote Sensing Data, Petrographic Description and Field Investigation

Authors: Doaa Hamdi, Ahmed Hashem


The present study aims at integrating the ASTER data and Landsat 8 data to discriminate and map alteration and/or mineralization zones in addition to delineating different lithological units of Humr Akarim Granites area. The study area is located at 24º9' to 24º13' N and 34º1' to 34º2'45"E., covering a total exposed surface area of about 17 km². The area is characterized by rugged topography with low to moderate relief. Geologic fieldwork and petrographic investigations revealed that the basement complex of the study area is composed of metasediments, mafic dikes, older granitoids, and alkali-feldspar granites. Petrographic investigations revealed that the secondary minerals in the study area are mainly represented by chlorite, epidote, clay minerals and iron oxides. These minerals have specific spectral signatures in the region of visible near-infrared and short-wave infrared (0.4 to 2.5 µm). So that the ASTER imagery processing was concentrated on VNIR-SWIR spectrometric data in order to achieve the purposes of this study (geologic mapping of hydrothermal alteration zones and delineate possible radioactive potentialities). Mapping of hydrothermal alterations zones in addition to discriminating the lithological units in the study area are achieved through the utilization of some different image processing, including color band composites (CBC) and data transformation techniques such as band ratios (BR), band ratio codes (BRCs), principal component analysis(PCA), Crosta Technique and minimum noise fraction (MNF). The field verification and petrographic investigation confirm the results of ASTER imagery and Landsat 8 data, proposing a geological map (scale 1:50000).

Keywords: remote sensing, petrography, mineralization, alteration detection

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212 Escape Through Culture: Gamified Cultural Experiences

Authors: Spiros Papadopoulos, Avrokomi Zavitsanou, Elena Mantzari, Vassilis Bourdakis, Aristides Vagelatos


This paper presents the research project “Escape Through Culture”, which is co-funded by the European Union and national resources through the Operational Programme “Competitiveness, Entrepreneurship and Innovation” 2014-2020 and the Single RTDI State Aid Action "RESEARCH - CREATE - INNOVATE". The project implementation is assumed by three partners, (1) the Computer Technology Institute and Press "Diophantus" (CTI), experienced with the design and implementation of serious games, natural language processing and ICT in education, (2) the Laboratory of Environmental Communication and Audiovisual Documentation (LECAD), part of the University of Thessaly, Department of Architecture, which is experienced with the study of creative transformation and reframing of the urban and environmental multimodal experiences through the use of AR and VR technologies, and (3) “Apoplou”, an IT Company with experience in the implementation of interactive digital applications. The research project proposes the design of an innovative infrastructure of digital educational escape games for mobile devices and computers, with the use of Virtual Reality and Augmented Reality for the promotion of Greek cultural heritage in Greece and abroad. In particular, the project advocates the combination of Greek cultural heritage and literature, digital technologies advancements and the implementation of innovative gamifying practices. The cultural experience of the players will take place in 3 layers: (1) In space: the digital games produced are going to utilize the dual character of the space as a cultural landscape (the real space - landscape but also the space - landscape as presented with the technologies of augmented reality and virtual reality). (2) In literary texts: the selected texts of Greek writers will support the sense of place and the multi-sensory involvement of the user, through the context of space-time, language and cultural characteristics. (3) In the philosophy of the "escape game" tool: whether played in a computer environment, indoors or outdoors, the spatial experience is one of the key components of escape games. The innovation of the project lies both in the junction of Augmented/Virtual Reality with the promotion of cultural points of interest, as well as in the interactive, gamified practices of literary texts. The digital escape game infrastructure will be highly interactive, integrating the projection of Greek landscape cultural elements and digital literary text analysis, supporting the creation of escape games, establishing and highlighting new playful ways of experiencing iconic cultural places, such as Elefsina, Skiathos etc. The literary texts’ content will relate to specific elements of the Greek cultural heritage, depicted by prominent Greek writers and poets. The majority of the texts will originate from Greek educational content available in digital libraries and repositories developed and maintained by CTI. The escape games produced will be available for use during educational field trips, thematic tourism holidays etc. In this paper, the methodology adopted for the infrastructure development will be presented. The research is based on theories of place, gamification, gaming development, making use of corpus linguistics concepts and digital humanities practices for the compilation and the analysis of literary texts.

Keywords: escapegames, cultural landscapes, gamification, digital humanities, literature

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211 Mineral Deposits in Spatial Planning Systems – Review of European Practices

Authors: Alicja Kot-Niewiadomska


Securing sustainable access to raw materials is vital for the growth of the European economy and for the goals laid down in Strategy Europe 2020. One of the most important sources of mineral raw materials are primary deposits. The efficient management of them, including extraction, will ensure competitiveness of the European economy. A critical element of this approach is mineral deposits safeguarding and the most important tool - spatial planning. The safeguarding of deposits should be understood as safeguarding of land access, and safeguarding of area against development, which may (potential) prevent the use of the deposit and the necessary mining activities. Many European Union countries successfully integrated their mineral policy and spatial policy, which has ensured the proper place of mineral deposits in their spatial planning systems. These, in turn, are widely recognized as the most important mineral deposit safeguarding tool, the essence of which is to ensure long-term access to its resources. The examples of Austria, Portugal, Slovakia, Czech Republic, Sweden, and the United Kingdom, discussed in the paper, are often mentioned as examples of good practices in this area. Although none of these countries managed to avoid cases of social and environmental conflicts related to mining activities, the solutions they implement certainly deserve special attention. And for many countries, including Poland, they can be a potential source of solutions aimed at improving the protection of mineral deposits.

Keywords: mineral deposits, land use planning, mineral deposit safeguarding, European practices

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210 Colour and Travel: Design of an Innovative Infrastructure for Travel Applications with Entertaining and Playful Features

Authors: Avrokomi Zavitsanou, Spiros Papadopoulos, Theofanis Alexandridis, Vasiliki Tzora, Nikos Papastamatiou, Alexandros Papadopoulos


This paper presents the research project ‘Colour & Travel’, which is co-funded by the European Union and national resources through the Operational Programme “Competitiveness, Entrepreneurship and Innovation” 2014-2020, under the Single RTDI State Aid Action "RESEARCH - CREATE - INNOVATE". The research project proposes the design of an innovative, playful framework for exploring a variety of travel destinations and creating personalised travel narratives, aiming to entertain, educate, and promote culture and tourism. Gamification of the cultural and touristic environment can enhance its experiential, multi-sensory aspects and broaden the perception of the traveler. The latter's involvement in creating and shaping his personal travel narrations and the possibility of sharing it with others can offer him an alternative, more binding way of getting acquainted with a place. In particular, the paper presents the design of an infrastructure: (a) for the development of interactive travel guides for mobile devices, where sites with specific points of interest will be recommended, with which the user can interact in playful ways and then create his personal travel narratives, (b) for the development of innovative games within virtual reality environment, where the interaction will be offered while the user is moving within the virtual environment; and (c) for an online application where the content will be offered through the browser and the modern 3D imaging technologies (WebGL). The technological products that will be developed within the proposed project can strengthen important sectors of economic and social life, such as trade, tourism, exploitation and promotion of the cultural environment, creative industries, etc. The final applications delivered at the end of the project will guarantee an improved level of service for visitors and will be a useful tool for content creators with increased adaptability, expansibility, and applicability in many regions of Greece and abroad. This paper aims to present the research project by referencing the state of the art and the methodological scheme, ending with a brief reflection on the expected outcome in terms of results.

Keywords: gamification, culture, tourism, AR, VR, applications

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209 BIM Model and Virtual Prototyping in Construction Management

Authors: Samar Alkindy


Purpose: The BIM model has been used to support the planning of different construction projects in the industry by showing the different stages of the construction process. The model has been instrumental in identifying some of the common errors in the construction process through the spatial arrangement. The continuous use of the BIM model in the construction industry has resulted in various radical changes such as virtual prototyping. Construction virtual prototyping is a highly advanced technology that incorporates a BIM model with realistic graphical simulations, and facilitates the simulation of the project before a product is built in the factory. The paper presents virtual prototyping in the construction industry by examining its application, challenges and benefits to a construction project. Methodology approach: A case study was conducted for this study in four major construction projects, which incorporate virtual construction prototyping in several stages of the construction project. Furthermore, there was the administration of interviews with the project manager and engineer and the planning manager. Findings: Data collected from the methodological approach shows a positive response for virtual construction prototyping in construction, especially concerning communication and visualization. Furthermore, the use of virtual prototyping has increased collaboration and efficiency between construction experts handling a project. During the planning stage, virtual prototyping has increased accuracy, reduced planning time, and reduced the amount of rework during the implementation stage. Irrespective of virtual prototyping being a new concept in the construction industry, the findings outline that the approach will benefit the management of construction projects.

Keywords: construction operations, construction planning, process simulation, virtual prototyping

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208 Radar Track-based Classification of Birds and UAVs

Authors: Altilio Rosa, Chirico Francesco, Foglia Goffredo


In recent years, the number of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) has significantly increased. The rapid development of commercial and recreational drones makes them an important part of our society. Despite the growing list of their applications, these vehicles pose a huge threat to civil and military installations: detection, classification and neutralization of such flying objects become an urgent need. Radar is an effective remote sensing tool for detecting and tracking flying objects, but scenarios characterized by the presence of a high number of tracks related to flying birds make especially challenging the drone detection task: operator PPI is cluttered with a huge number of potential threats and his reaction time can be severely affected. Flying birds compared to UAVs show similar velocity, RADAR cross-section and, in general, similar characteristics. Building from the absence of a single feature that is able to distinguish UAVs and birds, this paper uses a multiple features approach where an original feature selection technique is developed to feed binary classifiers trained to distinguish birds and UAVs. RADAR tracks acquired on the field and related to different UAVs and birds performing various trajectories were used to extract specifically designed target movement-related features based on velocity, trajectory and signal strength. An optimization strategy based on a genetic algorithm is also introduced to select the optimal subset of features and to estimate the performance of several classification algorithms (Neural network, SVM, Logistic regression…) both in terms of the number of selected features and misclassification error. Results show that the proposed methods are able to reduce the dimension of the data space and to remove almost all non-drone false targets with a suitable classification accuracy (higher than 95%).

Keywords: birds, classification, machine learning, UAVs

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207 Canada'S "Flattened Curve": A Geospatial Temporal Analysis Of Canada'S Amelioration Of The Sars-COV-2 Pandemic Through Coordinated Government Intervention

Authors: John Ahluwalia


As an affluent first-world nation, Canada took swift and comprehensive action during the outbreak of the SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) pandemic compared to other countries in the same socio-economic cohort. The United States has stumbled to overcome obstacles most developed nations have faced, which has led to significantly more per capita cases and deaths. The initial outbreaks of COVID-19 occurred in the US and Canada within days of each other and posed similar potentially catastrophic threats to public health, the economy, and governmental stability. On a macro level, events that take place in the US have a direct impact on Canada. For example, both countries tend to enter and exit economic recessions at approximately the same time, they are each other’s largest trading partners, and their currencies are inexorably linked. Why is it that Canada has not shared the same fate as the US (and many other nations) that have realized much worse outcomes relative to the COVID-19 pandemic? Variables intrinsic to Canada’s national infrastructure have been instrumental in the country’s efforts to flatten the curve of COVID-19 cases and deaths. Canada’s coordinated multi-level governmental effort has allowed it to create and enforce policies related to COVID-19 at both the national and provincial levels. Canada’s policy of universal healthcare is another variable. Health care and public health measures are enforced on a provincial level, and it is within each province’s jurisdiction to dictate standards for public safety based on scientific evidence. Rather than introducing confusion and the possibility of competition for resources such as PPE and vaccines, Canada’s multi-level chain of government authority has provided consistent policies supporting national public health and local delivery of medical care. This paper will demonstrate that the coordinated efforts on provincial and federal levels have been the linchpin in Canada’s relative success in containing the deadly spread of the COVID-19 virus.

Keywords: COVID-19, Canada, GIS, temporal analysis, ESRI

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206 Evaluating Classification with Efficacy Metrics

Authors: Guofan Shao, Lina Tang, Hao Zhang


The values of image classification accuracy are affected by class size distributions and classification schemes, making it difficult to compare the performance of classification algorithms across different remote sensing data sources and classification systems. Based on the term efficacy from medicine and pharmacology, we have developed the metrics of image classification efficacy at the map and class levels. The novelty of this approach is that a baseline classification is involved in computing image classification efficacies so that the effects of class statistics are reduced. Furthermore, the image classification efficacies are interpretable and comparable, and thus, strengthen the assessment of image data classification methods. We use real-world and hypothetical examples to explain the use of image classification efficacies. The metrics of image classification efficacy meet the critical need to rectify the strategy for the assessment of image classification performance as image classification methods are becoming more diversified.

Keywords: accuracy assessment, efficacy, image classification, machine learning, uncertainty

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205 Methodology of Personalizing Interior Spaces in Public Libraries

Authors: Baharak Mousapour


Creating public spaces which are tailored for the specific demands of the individuals is one of the challenges for the contemporary interior designers. Improving the general knowledge as well as providing a forum for all walks of life to exploit is one of the objectives of a public library. In this regard, interior design in consistent with the demands of the individuals is of paramount importance. Seemingly, study spaces, in particular, those in close relation to the personalized sector, have proven to be challenging, according to the literature. To address this challenge, attributes of individuals, namely, perception of people from public spaces and their interactions with the so-called spaces, should be analyzed to provide interior designers with something to work on. This paper follows the analytic-descriptive research methodology by outlining case study libraries which have personalized public libraries with the investigation of the type of personalization as its primary objective and (I) recognition of physical schedule and the know-how of the spatial connection in indoor design of a library and (II) analysis of each personalized space in relation to other spaces of the library as its secondary objectives. The significance of the current research lies in the concept of personalization as one of the most recent methods of attracting people to libraries. Previous research exists in this regard, but the lack of data concerning personalization makes this topic worth investigating. Hence, this study aims to put forward approaches through real-case studies for the designers to deal with this concept.

Keywords: interior design, library, library design, personalization

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204 Behavior of Cold Formed Steel in Trusses

Authors: Reinhard Hermawan Lasut, Henki Wibowo Ashadi


The use of materials in Indonesia's construction sector requires engineers and practitioners to develop efficient construction technology, one of the materials used in cold-formed steel. Generally, the use of cold-formed steel is used in the construction of roof trusses found in houses or factories. The failure of the roof truss structure causes errors in the calculation analysis in the form of cross-sectional dimensions or frame configuration. The roof truss structure, vertical distance effect to the span length at the edge of the frame carries the compressive load. If the span is too long, local buckling will occur which causes problems in the frame strength. The model analysis uses various shapes of roof trusses, span lengths and angles with analysis of the structural stiffness matrix method. Model trusses with one-fifth shortened span and one-sixth shortened span also The trusses model is reviewed with increasing angles. It can be concluded that the trusses model by shortening the span in the compression area can reduce deflection and the model by increasing the angle does not get good results because the higher the roof, the heavier the load carried by the roof so that the force is not channeled properly. The shape of the truss must be calculated correctly so the truss is able to withstand the working load so that there is no structural failure.

Keywords: cold-formed, trusses, deflection, stiffness matrix method

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203 Effectiveness of Damping Devices on Coupling Beams of 15-story Building Based on Nonlinear Analysis Procedures

Authors: Galih Permana, Yuskar Lase


In recent years, damping device has been experimentally studied to replace diagonally reinforced coupling beams, to mitigate rebar congestion problem. This study focuses on evaluating the effectiveness of various damping devices in a high-rise building. The type of damping devices evaluated is Viscoelastic Damper (VCD) and Rotational Friction Damper (RFD), with study case of a 15-story reinforced concrete apartment building with a dual system (column-beam and shear walls). The analysis used is a nonlinear time history analysis with 11 pairs of ground motions matched to the Indonesian response spectrum based on ASCE 41-17 and ASCE 7-16. In this analysis, each damper will be varied with a different position, namely the first model, the damper will be installed on the entire floor and in the second model, the damper will be installed on the 5th floor to the 9th floor, which is the floor with the largest drift. The results show that the model using both dampers increases the level of structural performance both globally and locally in the building, which will reduce the level of damage to the structural elements. But between the two dampers, the coupling beam that uses RFD is more effective than using VCD in improving building performance. The damper on the coupling beam has a good role in dissipating earthquakes and also in terms of ease of installation.

Keywords: building, coupling beam, damper, nonlinear time history analysis

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202 Numerical Simulation of Unsteady Cases of Fluid Flow Using Modified Dynamic Boundary Condition (mDBC) in Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics Models

Authors: Exa Heydemans, Jessica Sjah, Dwinanti Rika Marthanty


This paper presents numerical simulations using an open boundary algorithm with modified dynamic boundary condition (mDBC) for weakly compressible smoothed particle hydrodynamics models from particle-based code Dualsphysics. The problems of piping erosion in dams and dikes are aimed for studying the algorithm. The case 2D model of unsteady fluid flow past around a fixed cylinder is simulated, where various values of Reynold’s numbers (Re40, Re60, Re80, and Re100) and different model’s resolution are considered. A constant velocity with different values of viscosity for generating various Reynold’s numbers and different numbers of particles over a cylinder for the resolution are modeled. The interaction between solid particles of the cylinder and fluid particles is concerned. The cylinder is affected by the hydrodynamics force caused by the flow of fluid particles. The solid particles of the cylinder are the observation points to obtain force and pressure due to the hydrodynamics forces. As results of the simulation, which is to show the capability to model 2D unsteady with various Reynold’s numbers, the pressure coefficient, drag coefficient, lift coefficient, and Strouhal number are compared to the previous work from literature.

Keywords: hydrodynamics, internal erosion, dualsphysics, viscous fluid flow

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201 Determination of Geogrid Reinforced Ballast Behavior Using Finite Element Modeling

Authors: Buğra Sinmez


In some countries, such as China, Turkey, andseveralEuropeanUnionnations, the therailwaypavementstructuralsystem has recently undergonerapid growth as a vital element of the transportation infrastructure, particularlyfortheuse of high-speed trains. It is vitaltoconsiderthe High-SpeedInfrastructureDemandwhendevelopingandconstructingtherailwaypavementstructure. HSRL can create more substantial ldifficultiestotheballastorbaselayer of regularlyusedballastedrailwaypavementsthanstandardrailwaytrains. The deterioration of the theballastorbaselayermayleadtosubstructuredegradation, which might lead to safety concerns and catastrophicincidents. As a result, the efficiency of railways will be impactedbylargecargoesorhigh-speed trains. A railwaypavement construction can be strengthened using geosyntheticmaterials in theballastorfoundationlayer as a countermeasure. However, there is still a need in the literature to quantifytheinfluence of geosynthetic materials, particularlygeogrid, on the mechanical responses of railwaypavementstructuresto HSRL loads which is essential knowledge in supporting the selection of appropriate material and geogridinstallationposition. As a result, the purpose of this research is to see how a geogridreinforcementlayermayaffectthekeyfeatures of a ballastedrailwaypavementstructure, with a particular focus on the materialtypeandgeogridplacementpositionthatmayassistreducethe rate of degradation of the therailwaypavementstructuresystem. Thisstudyusesnumericalmodeling in a genuinerailwaycontexttovalidatethebenefit of geogrid reinforcement. The usage of geogrids in the railway system has been thoroughly researched in the technical literature. Three distinct types of geogrid installed at two distinct positions (i.e.,withintheballastlayer, betweentheballastandthesub-ballast layer) within a railwaypavementconstructionwereevaluatedunder a variety of verticalwheelloadsusing a three-dimensional (3D) finite element model. As a result, fouralternativegeogridreinforcementsystemsweremodeledtoreflectdifferentconditions in the ballastedrailwaysystems (G0: no reinforcement; G1: reinforcedwithgeogridhavingthelowestdensityandYoung'smodulus; G2: reinforcedwithgeogridhavingtheintermediateYoung'smodulusanddensity; G3: reinforcedwithgeogridhavingthegreatestdensityandYoung'smodulus). Themechanicalreactions of the railway, such as verticalsurfacedeflection, maximumprimarystressandstrain, andmaximumshearstress, werestudiedandcomparedbetweenthefourgeogridreinforcementscenariosandfourverticalwheelloadlevels (i.e., 75, 100, 150, and 200 kN). Differences in the mechanical reactions of railwaypavementconstructionsowingtotheuse of differentgeogridmaterialsdemonstratethebenefits of suchgeosynthetics in ballast. In comparison to a non-reinforcedrailwaypavementconstruction, thereinforcedconstructionsfeaturedecreasedverticalsurfacedeflection, maximum shear stress at the sleeper-ballast contact, and maximum main stress at the bottom of the ballast layer. As a result, addinggeogridtotheballastlayerandbetweentheballastandsub-ballast layer in a ballastedrailwaypavementconstruction has beenfoundtolowercriticalshearand main stresses as well as verticalsurfacedeflection.

Keywords: geosynthetics, geogrid, railway, transportation

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200 Assembly Solution for Modular Buildings: Development of a Plug-In Self-Locking Device Designed for Light-Framed Structures

Authors: Laurence Picard, André Bégin-Drolet, Pierre Blanchet


The prefabricated construction industry has been operating in North America for several years now and differs from traditional construction by its much shorter project timelines, lower costs, and increased build quality. Faced with the global housing crisis, prefabrication should be the first choice for erecting buildings quickly and at a low cost. However, the reality is quite different; manufacturers focus their operations mainly on single-home construction. This is explained by the lack of a suitable and efficient assembly solution for erecting large-scale buildings. Indeed, it is difficult to maintain the coveted advantages of prefabrication with a laborious on-site assembly and a colossal load of additional operations such as the installation of fasteners and the internal finishing. In the desire to maximize the benefits of prefabrication and make it a smart choice even for large buildings, an automated connection solution is developed. The plug-in self-locking device was developed accordingly to the product design phases: on-site observations, the definition of the problem and product requirements, solution generation, prototyping, fabricating and testing.

Keywords: assembly solution, automation, construction productivity, modular connection, modular buildings, plug-in device, self-lock mechanism

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199 A Comparative Study of the Alternatives to Land Acquisition: India

Authors: Aparna Soni


The much-celebrated foretold story of Indian city engines driving the growth of India has been scrutinized to have serious consequences. A wide spectrum of scholarship has brought to light the un-equalizing effects and the need to adopt a rights-based approach to development planning in India. Notably, these concepts and discourses ubiquitously entail the study of land struggles in the making of Urban. In fact, the very progression of the primitive accumulation theory to accumulation by dispossession, followed by ‘dispossession without development,’ thereafter Development without dispossession and now as Dispossession by financialization noticeably the last three developing in a span of mere three decades, is evidence enough to trace the centrality and evolving role of land in the making of urban India. India, in the last decade, has seen its regional governments actively experimenting with alternative models of land assembly (Amaravati and Delhi land pooling models, the loudly advertised ones). These are publicized as a replacement to the presumably cost and time antagonistic, prone to litigation land acquisition act of 2013. It has been observed that most of the literature treats these models as a generic large bracket of land expropriation and do not, in particular, try to differentially analyse to granularly find a pattern in these alternatives. To cater to this gap, this research comparatively studies these alternative land, assembly models. It categorises them based on their basic architecture, spatial and sectoral application, and governance frameworks. It is found that these alternatives are ad-hoc and fragmented pieces of legislation. These are fit for profit models commodifying land to ease its access by the private sector for real estate led growth. The research augments the literature on the privatization of land use planning in India. Further, it attempts to discuss the increasing role a landowner is expected to play in the future and suggests a way forward to safeguard them from market risks. The study involves a thematic analysis of the policy elements contained in legislative/policy documents, notifications, office orders. The study also derives from the various widely circulated print media information. With the present field-visit limitations, the study relies on documents accessed open-source in the public domain.

Keywords: commodification, dispossession, land acquisition, landowner

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198 Investigation of Dynamic Heat Transfer in Masonry Walls

Authors: Joelle Al Fakhoury, Emilio Sassine, Yassine Cherif, Joseph Dgheim, Emmanuel Antczak


Hollow block masonry is the most used building technology in the Lebanese context. These blocks are manufactured in an artisanal way and have unknown thermal properties; their overall thermos-physical performance is thus unknown and also poorly investigated scientifically in both single wall and also double wall configurations. In this work, experimental measurements and numerical simulations are performed for a better understanding of the heat transfer in masonry walls. This study was realized using an experimental setup consisting of a masonry hollow block wall (0.1m x 1m x 1m) and two heat boxes, such that each covers one side of the wall. The first is a reference box having a constant interior temperature, and the other is a control box having an adjustable interior temperature. At first, the numerical model is validated using an experimental setup; then 3D numerical analyzes are held in order to investigate the effect of the air gap, the mortar joints, and the plastering on the thermal performance of masonry walls for a better understanding of the heat transfer process and the recommendation of suitable thermal improvements.

Keywords: masonry wall, hollow blocks, heat transfer, wall instrumentation, thermal improvement

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197 Urban Transport Demand Management Multi-Criteria Decision Using AHP and SERVQUAL Models: Case Study of Nigerian Cities

Authors: Suleiman Hassan Otuoze, Dexter Vernon Lloyd Hunt, Ian Jefferson


Urbanization has continued to widen the gap between demand and resources available to provide resilient and sustainable transport services in many fast-growing developing countries' cities. Transport demand management is a decision-based optimization concept for both benchmarking and ensuring efficient use of transport resources. This study assesses the service quality of infrastructure and mobility services in the Nigerian cities of Kano and Lagos through five dimensions of quality (i.e., Tangibility, Reliability, Responsibility, Safety Assurance and Empathy). The methodology adopts a hybrid AHP-SERVQUAL model applied on questionnaire surveys to gauge the quality of satisfaction and the views of experts in the field. The AHP results prioritize tangibility, which defines the state of transportation infrastructure and services in terms of satisfaction qualities and intervention decision weights in the two cities. The results recorded ‘unsatisfactory’ indices of quality of performance and satisfaction rating values of 48% and 49% for Kano and Lagos, respectively. The satisfaction indices are identified as indicators of low performances of transportation demand management (TDM) measures and the necessity to re-order priorities and take proactive steps towards infrastructure. The findings pilot a framework for comparative assessment of recognizable standards in transport services, best ethics of management and a necessity of quality infrastructure to guarantee both resilient and sustainable urban mobility.

Keywords: transportation demand management, multi-criteria decision support, transport infrastructure, service quality, sustainable transport

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196 GIS Data Governance: GIS Data Submission Process for Build-in Project, Replacement Project at Oman Electricity Transmission Company

Authors: Rahma Al Balushi


Oman Electricity Transmission Company's (OETC) vision is to be a renowned world-class transmission grid by 2025, and one of the indications of achieving the vision is obtaining Asset Management ISO55001 certification, which required setting out a documented Standard Operating Procedures (SOP). Hence, documented SOP for the Geographical information system data process has been established. Also, to effectively manage and improve OETC power transmission, asset data and information need to be governed as such by Asset Information & GIS dept. This paper will describe in detail the GIS data submission process and the journey to develop the current process. The methodology used to develop the process is based on three main pillars, which are system and end-user requirements, Risk evaluation, data availability, and accuracy. The output of this paper shows the dramatic change in the used process, which results subsequently in more efficient, accurate, updated data. Furthermore, due to this process, GIS has been and is ready to be integrated with other systems as well as the source of data for all OETC users. Some decisions related to issuing No objection certificates (NOC) and scheduling asset maintenance plans in Computerized Maintenance Management System (CMMS) have been made consequently upon GIS data availability. On the Other hand, defining agreed and documented procedures for data collection, data systems update, data release/reporting, and data alterations salso aided to reduce the missing attributes of GIS transmission data. A considerable difference in Geodatabase (GDB) completeness percentage was observed between the year 2017 and the year 2021. Overall, concluding that by governance, asset information & GIS department can control GIS data process; collect, properly record, and manage asset data and information within OETC network. This control extends to other applications and systems integrated with/related to GIS systems.

Keywords: asset management ISO55001, standard procedures process, governance, geodatabase, NOC, CMMS

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195 A Study on Factors Affecting (Building Information Modelling) BIM Implementation in European Renovation Projects

Authors: Fatemeh Daneshvartarigh


New technologies and applications have radically altered construction techniques in recent years. In order to anticipate how the building will act, perform, and appear, these technologies encompass a wide range of visualization, simulation, and analytic tools. These new technologies and applications have a considerable impact on completing construction projects in today's (architecture, engineering and construction)AEC industries. The rate of changes in BIM-related topics is different worldwide, and it depends on many factors, e.g., the national policies of each country. Therefore, there is a need for comprehensive research focused on a specific area with common characteristics. Therefore, one of the necessary measures to increase the use of this new approach is to examine the challenges and obstacles facing it. In this research, based on the Delphi method, at first, the background and related literature are reviewed. Then, using the knowledge obtained from the literature, a primary questionnaire is generated and filled by experts who are selected using snowball sampling. It covered the experts' attitudes towards implementing BIM in renovation projects and their view of the benefits and obstacles in this regard. By analyzing the primary questionnaire, the second group of experts is selected among the participants to be interviewed. The results are analyzed using Theme analysis. Six themes, including Management support, staff resistance, client willingness, Cost of software and implementation, the difficulty of implementation, and other reasons, are obtained. Then a final questionnaire is generated from the themes and filled by the same group of experts. The result is analyzed by the Fuzzy Delphi method, showing the exact ranking of the obtained themes. The final results show that management support, staff resistance, and client willingness are the most critical barrier to BIM usage in renovation projects.

Keywords: building information modeling, BIM, BIM implementation, BIM barriers, BIM in renovation

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194 Volunteered Geographic Information Coupled with Wildfire Fire Progression Maps: A Spatial and Temporal Tool for Incident Storytelling

Authors: Cassandra Hansen, Paul Doherty, Chris Ferner, German Whitley, Holly Torpey


Wildfire is a natural and inevitable occurrence, yet changing climatic conditions have increased the severity, frequency, and risk to human populations in the wildland/urban interface (WUI) of the Western United States. Rapid dissemination of accurate wildfire information is critical to both the Incident Management Team (IMT) and the affected community. With the advent of increasingly sophisticated information systems, GIS can now be used as a web platform for sharing geographic information in new and innovative ways, such as virtual story map applications. Crowdsourced information can be extraordinarily useful when coupled with authoritative information. Information abounds in the form of social media, emergency alerts, radio, and news outlets, yet many of these resources lack a spatial component when first distributed. In this study, we describe how twenty-eight volunteer GIS professionals across nine Geographic Area Coordination Centers (GACC) sourced, curated, and distributed Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI) from authoritative social media accounts focused on disseminating information about wildfires and public safety. The combination of fire progression maps with VGI incident information helps answer three critical questions about an incident, such as: where the first started. How and why the fire behaved in an extreme manner and how we can learn from the fire incident's story to respond and prepare for future fires in this area. By adding a spatial component to that shared information, this team has been able to visualize shared information about wildfire starts in an interactive map that answers three critical questions in a more intuitive way. Additionally, long-term social and technical impacts on communities are examined in relation to situational awareness of the disaster through map layers and agency links, the number of views in a particular region of a disaster, community involvement and sharing of this critical resource. Combined with a GIS platform and disaster VGI applications, this workflow and information become invaluable to communities within the WUI and bring spatial awareness for disaster preparedness, response, mitigation, and recovery. This study highlights progression maps as the ultimate storytelling mechanism through incident case studies and demonstrates the impact of VGI and sophisticated applied cartographic methodology make this an indispensable resource for authoritative information sharing.

Keywords: storytelling, wildfire progression maps, volunteered geographic information, spatial and temporal

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193 National Digital Soil Mapping Initiatives in Europe: A Review and Some Examples

Authors: Dominique Arrouays, Songchao Chen, Anne C. Richer-De-Forges


Soils are at the crossing of many issues such as food and water security, sustainable energy, climate change mitigation and adaptation, biodiversity protection, human health and well-being. They deliver many ecosystem services that are essential to life on Earth. Therefore, there is a growing demand for soil information on a national and global scale. Unfortunately, many countries do not have detailed soil maps, and, when existing, these maps are generally based on more or less complex and often non-harmonized soil classifications. An estimate of their uncertainty is also often missing. Thus, there are not easy to understand and often not properly used by end-users. Therefore, there is an urgent need to provide end-users with spatially exhaustive grids of essential soil properties, together with an estimate of their uncertainty. One way to achieve this is digital soil mapping (DSM). The concept of DSM relies on the hypothesis that soils and their properties are not randomly distributed, but that they depend on the main soil-forming factors that are climate, organisms, relief, parent material, time (age), and position in space. All these forming factors can be approximated using several exhaustive spatial products such as climatic grids, remote sensing products or vegetation maps, digital elevation models, geological or lithological maps, spatial coordinates of soil information, etc. Thus, DSM generally relies on models calibrated with existing observed soil data (point observations or maps) and so-called “ancillary co-variates” that come from other available spatial products. Then the model is generalized on grids where soil parameters are unknown in order to predict them, and the prediction performances are validated using various methods. With the growing demand for soil information at a national and global scale and the increase of available spatial co-variates national and continental DSM initiatives are continuously increasing. This short review illustrates the main national and continental advances in Europe, the diversity of the approaches and the databases that are used, the validation techniques and the main scientific and other issues. Examples from several countries illustrate the variety of products that were delivered during the last ten years. The scientific production on this topic is continuously increasing and new models and approaches are developed at an incredible speed. Most of the digital soil mapping (DSM) products rely mainly on machine learning (ML) prediction models and/or the use or pedotransfer functions (PTF) in which calibration data come from soil analyses performed in labs or for existing conventional maps. However, some scientific issues remain to be solved and also political and legal ones related, for instance, to data sharing and to different laws in different countries. Other issues related to communication to end-users and education, especially on the use of uncertainty. Overall, the progress is very important and the willingness of institutes and countries to join their efforts is increasing. Harmonization issues are still remaining, mainly due to differences in classifications or in laboratory standards between countries. However numerous initiatives are ongoing at the EU level and also at the global level. All these progress are scientifically stimulating and also promissing to provide tools to improve and monitor soil quality in countries, EU and at the global level.

Keywords: digital soil mapping, global soil mapping, national and European initiatives, global soil mapping products, mini-review

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192 Using Soil Texture Field Observations as Ordinal Qualitative Variables for Digital Soil Mapping

Authors: Anne C. Richer-De-Forges, Dominique Arrouays, Songchao Chen, Mercedes Roman Dobarco


Most of the digital soil mapping (DSM) products rely on machine learning (ML) prediction models and/or the use or pedotransfer functions (PTF) in which calibration data come from soil analyses performed in labs. However, many other observations (often qualitative, nominal, or ordinal) could be used as proxies of lab measurements or as input data for ML of PTF predictions. DSM and ML are briefly described with some examples taken from the literature. Then, we explore the potential of an ordinal qualitative variable, i.e., the hand-feel soil texture (HFST) estimating the mineral particle distribution (PSD): % of clay (0-2µm), silt (2-50µm) and sand (50-2000µm) in 15 classes. The PSD can also be measured by lab measurements (LAST) to determine the exact proportion of these particle-sizes. However, due to cost constraints, HFST are much more numerous and spatially dense than LAST. Soil texture (ST) is a very important soil parameter to map as it is controlling many of the soil properties and functions. Therefore, comes an essential question: is it possible to use HFST as a proxy of LAST for calibration and/or validation of DSM predictions of ST? To answer this question, the first step is to compare HFST with LAST on a representative set where both information are available. This comparison was made on ca 17,400 samples representative of a French region (34,000 km2). The accuracy of HFST was assessed, and each HFST class was characterized by a probability distribution function (PDF) of its LAST values. This enables to randomly replace HFST observations by LAST values while respecting the PDF previously calculated and results in a very large increase of observations available for the calibration or validation of PTF and ML predictions. Some preliminary results are shown. First, the comparison between HFST classes and LAST analyses showed that accuracies could be considered very good when compared to other studies. The causes of some inconsistencies were explored and most of them were well explained by other soil characteristics. Then we show some examples applying these relationships and the increase of data to several issues related to DSM. The first issue is: do the PDF functions that were established enable to use HSFT class observations to improve the LAST soil texture prediction? For this objective, we replaced all HFST for topsoil by values from the PDF 100 time replicates). Results were promising for the PTF we tested (a PTF predicting soil water holding capacity). For the question related to the ML prediction of LAST soil texture on the region, we did the same kind of replacement, but we implemented a 10-fold cross-validation using points where we had LAST values. We obtained only preliminary results but they were rather promising. Then we show another example illustrating the potential of using HFST as validation data. As in numerous countries, the HFST observations are very numerous; these promising results pave the way to an important improvement of DSM products in all the countries of the world.

Keywords: digital soil mapping, improvement of digital soil mapping predictions, potential of using hand-feel soil texture, soil texture prediction

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191 Geometric Simplification Method of Building Energy Model Based on Building Performance Simulation

Authors: Yan Lyu, Yiqun Pan, Zhizhong Huang


In the design stage of a new building, the energy model of this building is often required for the analysis of the performance on energy efficiency. In practice, a certain degree of geometric simplification should be done in the establishment of building energy models, since the detailed geometric features of a real building are hard to be described perfectly in most energy simulation engine, such as ESP-r, eQuest or EnergyPlus. Actually, the detailed description is not necessary when the result with extremely high accuracy is not demanded. Therefore, this paper analyzed the relationship between the error of the simulation result from building energy models and the geometric simplification of the models. Finally, the following two parameters are selected as the indices to characterize the geometric feature of in building energy simulation: the southward projected area and total side surface area of the building, Based on the parameterization method, the simplification from an arbitrary column building to a typical shape (a cuboid) building can be made for energy modeling. The result in this study indicates that this simplification would only lead to the error that is less than 7% for those buildings with the ratio of southward projection length to total perimeter of the bottom of 0.25~0.35, which can cover most situations.

Keywords: building energy model, simulation, geometric simplification, design, regression

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190 Facial Emotion Recognition Using Deep Learning

Authors: Ashutosh Mishra, Nikhil Goyal


A 3D facial emotion recognition model based on deep learning is proposed in this paper. Two convolution layers and a pooling layer are employed in the deep learning architecture. After the convolution process, the pooling is finished. The probabilities for various classes of human faces are calculated using the sigmoid activation function. To verify the efficiency of deep learning-based systems, a set of faces. The Kaggle dataset is used to verify the accuracy of a deep learning-based face recognition model. The model's accuracy is about 65 percent, which is lower than that of other facial expression recognition techniques. Despite significant gains in representation precision due to the nonlinearity of profound image representations.

Keywords: facial recognition, computational intelligence, convolutional neural network, depth map

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189 Enhancing the Spectral Resolution of Alsat-2b with Landsat-8 Based on Deep Learning

Authors: Achraf Djerida


ALSAT-2B is an earth observation satellite that has 4 spectral bands (RGB+NIR) with spatial resolution around 2.5m using its panchromatic band. Although these characteristics are important for several applications, yet its spectral resolution is very low. To solve this issue, the paper proposes a spectral super-resolution method based on deep learning which shows powerful performance on several applications. The proposed method learns the mapping between RGB and other bands using LANDSAT-8 images. Algeria is selected as a case study, where several LANDSAT-8 images covering different cities are used. The pixel-based approach is selected rather than patch-based in order to reduce the learning complexity. The learned model is then applied to ALSAT-2B images to boost its spectral resolution. To assess the impact of the results, land use/ land cover classification is employed. The experiments reveal that the classification accuracy is improved by more than 5%.

Keywords: spectral resolution, super-resolution, land use/ land cover classification, LANDSAT-8 , ALSAT-2B

Procedia PDF Downloads 63
188 Radar-Based Classification of Pedestrian and Dog Using High-Resolution Raw Range-Doppler Signatures

Authors: C. Mayr, J. Periya, A. Kariminezhad


In this paper, we developed a learning framework for the classification of vulnerable road users (VRU) by their range-Doppler signatures. The frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FMCW) radar raw data is first pre-processed to obtain robust object range-Doppler maps per coherent time interval. The complex-valued range-Doppler maps captured from our outdoor measurements are further fed into a convolutional neural network (CNN) to learn the classification. This CNN has gone through a hyperparameter optimization process for improved learning. By learning VRU range-Doppler signatures, the three classes 'pedestrian', 'dog', and 'noise' are classified with an average accuracy of almost 95%. Interestingly, this classification accuracy holds for a combined longitudinal and lateral object trajectories.

Keywords: machine learning, radar, signal processing, autonomous driving

Procedia PDF Downloads 66
187 Experimental Monitoring of the Parameters of the Ionosphere in the Local Area Using the Results of Multifrequency GNSS-Measurements

Authors: Andrey Kupriyanov


In recent years, much attention has been paid to the problems of ionospheric disturbances and their influence on the signals of global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) around the world. This is due to the increase in solar activity, the expansion of the scope of GNSS, the emergence of new satellite systems, the introduction of new frequencies and many others. The influence of the Earth's ionosphere on the propagation of radio signals is an important factor in many applied fields of science and technology. The paper considers the application of the method of transionospheric sounding using measurements from signals from Global Navigation Satellite Systems to determine the TEC distribution and scintillations of the ionospheric layers. To calculate these parameters, the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) model of the ionosphere, refined in the local area, is used. The organization of operational monitoring of ionospheric parameters is analyzed using several NovAtel GPStation6 base stations. It allows performing primary processing of GNSS measurement data, calculating TEC and fixing scintillation moments, modeling the ionosphere using the obtained data, storing data and performing ionospheric correction in measurements. As a result of the study, it was proved that the use of the transionospheric sounding method for reconstructing the altitude distribution of electron concentration in different altitude range and would provide operational information about the ionosphere, which is necessary for solving a number of practical problems in the field of many applications. Also, the use of multi-frequency multisystem GNSS equipment and special software will allow achieving the specified accuracy and volume of measurements.

Keywords: global navigation satellite systems (GNSS), GPstation6, international reference ionosphere (IRI), ionosphere, scintillations, total electron content (TEC)

Procedia PDF Downloads 45
186 Rapid Building Detection in Population-Dense Regions with Overfitted Machine Learning Models

Authors: V. Mantey, N. Findlay, I. Maddox


The quality and quantity of global satellite data have been increasing exponentially in recent years as spaceborne systems become more affordable and the sensors themselves become more sophisticated. This is a valuable resource for many applications, including disaster management and relief. However, while more information can be valuable, the volume of data available is impossible to manually examine. Therefore, the question becomes how to extract as much information as possible from the data with limited manpower. Buildings are a key feature of interest in satellite imagery with applications including telecommunications, population models, and disaster relief. Machine learning tools are fast becoming one of the key resources to solve this problem, and models have been developed to detect buildings in optical satellite imagery. However, by and large, most models focus on affluent regions where buildings are generally larger and constructed further apart. This work is focused on the more difficult problem of detection in populated regions. The primary challenge with detecting small buildings in densely populated regions is both the spatial and spectral resolution of the optical sensor. Densely packed buildings with similar construction materials will be difficult to separate due to a similarity in color and because the physical separation between structures is either non-existent or smaller than the spatial resolution. This study finds that training models until they are overfitting the input sample can perform better in these areas than a more robust, generalized model. An overfitted model takes less time to fine-tune from a generalized pre-trained model and requires fewer input data. The model developed for this study has also been fine-tuned using existing, open-source, building vector datasets. This is particularly valuable in the context of disaster relief, where information is required in a very short time span. Leveraging existing datasets means that little to no manpower or time is required to collect data in the region of interest. The training period itself is also shorter for smaller datasets. Requiring less data means that only a few quality areas are necessary, and so any weaknesses or underpopulated regions in the data can be skipped over in favor of areas with higher quality vectors. In this study, a landcover classification model was developed in conjunction with the building detection tool to provide a secondary source to quality check the detected buildings. This has greatly reduced the false positive rate. The proposed methodologies have been implemented and integrated into a configurable production environment and have been employed for a number of large-scale commercial projects, including continent-wide DEM production, where the extracted building footprints are being used to enhance digital elevation models. Overfitted machine learning models are often considered too specific to have any predictive capacity. However, this study demonstrates that, in cases where input data is scarce, overfitted models can be judiciously applied to solve time-sensitive problems.

Keywords: building detection, disaster relief, mask-RCNN, satellite mapping

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185 Destination Port Detection For Vessels: An Analytic Tool For Optimizing Port Authorities Resources

Authors: Lubna Eljabu, Mohammad Etemad, Stan Matwin


Port authorities have many challenges in congested ports to allocate their resources to provide a safe and secure loading/ unloading procedure for cargo vessels. Selecting a destination port is the decision of a vessel master based on many factors such as weather, wavelength and changes of priorities. Having access to a tool which leverages AIS messages to monitor vessel’s movements and accurately predict their next destination port promotes an effective resource allocation process for port authorities. In this research, we propose a method, namely, Reference Route of Trajectory (RRoT) to assist port authorities in predicting inflow and outflow traffic in their local environment by monitoring Automatic Identification System (AIS) messages. Our RRoT method creates a reference route based on historical AIS messages. It utilizes some of the best trajectory similarity measure to identify the destination of a vessel using their recent movement. We evaluated five different similarity measures such as Discrete Fr´echet Distance (DFD), Dynamic Time Warping (DTW), Partial Curve Mapping (PCM), Area between two curves (Area) and Curve length (CL). Our experiments show that our method identifies the destination port with an accuracy of 98.97% and an fmeasure of 99.08% using Dynamic Time Warping (DTW) similarity measure.

Keywords: spatial temporal data mining, trajectory mining, trajectory similarity, resource optimization

Procedia PDF Downloads 24