Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 19

Search results for: Edén Bojórquez

19 Prediction of Structural Response of Reinforced Concrete Buildings Using Artificial Intelligence

Authors: Juan Bojórquez, Henry E. Reyes, Edén Bojórquez, Alfredo Reyes-Salazar

Abstract:

This paper addressed the use of Artificial Intelligence to obtain the structural reliability of reinforced concrete buildings. For this purpose, artificial neuronal networks (ANN) are developed to predict seismic demand hazard curves. In order to have enough input-output data to train the ANN, a set of reinforced concrete buildings (low, mid, and high rise) are designed, then a probabilistic seismic hazard analysis is made to obtain the seismic demand hazard curves. The results are then used as input-output data to train the ANN in a feedforward backpropagation model. The predicted values of the seismic demand hazard curves found by the ANN are then compared. Finally, it is concluded that the computer time analysis is significantly lower and the predictions obtained from the ANN were accurate in comparison to the values obtained from the conventional methods.

Keywords: structural reliability, seismic design, machine learning, artificial neural network, probabilistic seismic hazard analysis, seismic demand hazard curves

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18 Optimal Load Factors for Seismic Design of Buildings

Authors: Juan Bojórquez, Sonia E. Ruiz, Edén Bojórquez, David de León Escobedo

Abstract:

A life-cycle optimization procedure to establish the best load factors combinations for seismic design of buildings, is proposed. The expected cost of damage from future earthquakes within the life of the structure is estimated, and realistic cost functions are assumed. The functions include: Repair cost, cost of contents damage, cost associated with loss of life, cost of injuries and economic loss. The loads considered are dead, live and earthquake load. The study is performed for reinforced concrete buildings located in Mexico City. The buildings are modeled as multiple-degree-of-freedom frame structures. The parameter selected to measure the structural damage is the maximum inter-story drift. The structural models are subjected to 31 soft-soil ground motions recorded in the Lake Zone of Mexico City. In order to obtain the annual structural failure rates, a numerical integration method is applied.

Keywords: load factors, life-cycle analysis, seismic design, reinforced concrete buildings

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17 Effects of the Mass and Damping Matrix Model in the Non-Linear Seismic Response of Steel Frames

Authors: Alfredo Reyes-Salazar, Mario D. Llanes-Tizoc, Eden Bojorquez, Federico Valenzuela-Beltran, Juan Bojorquez, Jose R. Gaxiola-Camacho, Achintya Haldar

Abstract:

Seismic analysis of steel buildings is usually based on the use of the concentrated mass (ML) matrix and the Rayleigh damping matrix (C). Similarly, the initial stiffness matrix (KO) and the first two modes associated with lateral vibrations are commonly used to develop matrix C. The evaluation of the accuracy of these practices for the particular case of steel buildings with moment-resisting steel frames constitutes the main objective of this research. For this, the non-linear seismic responses of three models of steel frames, representing low-, medium- and high-rise steel buildings, are considered. Results indicate that if the ML matrix is used, shears and bending moments in columns are underestimated by up to 30% and 65%, respectively when compared to the corresponding results obtained with the consistent mass matrix (MC). It is also shown that if KO is used in C instead of the tangent stiffness matrix (Kt), axial loads in columns are underestimated by up to 80%. It is concluded that the consistent mass matrix should be used in the structural modelling of moment-resisting steel frames and that the tangent stiffness matrix should be used to develop the Rayleigh damping matrix.

Keywords: moment-resisting steel frames, consistent and concentrated mass matrices, non-linear seismic response, Rayleigh damping

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16 On Space Narrative and American Dream in Martin Eden

Authors: Yangyang Zhang

Abstract:

Martin Eden tells about the tragedy of the protagonist Martin Eden’s suicide after his disillusion about American dream. The author Jack London presents various spatial routines of Martin Eden and reveals the involvement of space in realizing American dream: on the one hand, the Berkeley and Oakland cities contribute to Martin’s material success, making his American dream practical, and on the other hand, the two cities involve in the oppression of bourgeoisie ideology to Martin, promoting the domestic imperialization of bourgeoisie ideology represented by American dream. Molded by bourgeoisie ideology in the city, Martin constructed the oriental South Sea, revealing the oversea imperialization of bourgeoisie ideology behind American dream. By exploring the social, historical and political aspects of space, Martin Eden tries to demonstrate the mere material success and imperialism represented by American dream, revealing the fact of the involvement of American dreamin ideological oppression. When Jack London wrote Martin Eden, he had become a famous writer and realized his personal "American dream". He integrated his struggle experience into the protagonist Martin Eden, and also put his critique of the nature of "American dream" in the novel. The concept of the "American Dream" made the United States the land of dreams, and it also made many Americans believe that through personal struggle, they could climb the social ladder. Under the context of rapid growth in economy in the late 19 th century, American dream was reduced to the satisfaction on a material level. When material wealth was fulfilled, many people felt shattered for a variety of reasons, and such a phenomenon was reflected in the literature of disillusionment in 19th-century America.Martin Eden is such a work about disillusion, in which the geographical space becomes the witness of the realization and disillusionment of the protagonist Martin's "American dream". By analyzing the spatial narrative in Martin Eden, this paper reveals that the "American dream" only represents material success for individuals and the imperialization of capitalist ideology, and exposes the ideological nature of the "American Dream".

Keywords: Martin Eden, space, American dream, ideology of imperialism

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15 Comparison of the Seismic Response of Planar Regular and Irregular Steel Frames

Authors: Robespierre Chavez, Eden Bojorquez, Alfredo Reyes-Salazar

Abstract:

This study compares the seismic response of regular and vertically irregular steel frames determined by nonlinear time history analysis and by using several sets of earthquake records, which are divided in two categories: The first category having 20 stiff-soil ground motion records obtained from the NGA database, and the second category having 30 soft-soil ground motions recorded in the Lake Zone of Mexico City and exhibiting a dominant period (Ts) of two seconds. The steel frames in both format regular and irregular were designed according to the Mexico City Seismic Design Provisions (MCSDP). The effects of irregularity throught the height on the maximum interstory drifts are estimated.

Keywords: irregular steel frames, maximum interstory drifts, seismic response, seismic records

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14 Prediction of Maximum Inter-Story Drifts of Steel Frames Using Intensity Measures

Authors: Edén Bojórquez, Victor Baca, Alfredo Reyes-Salazar, Jorge González

Abstract:

In this paper, simplified equations to predict maximum inter-story drift demands of steel framed buildings are proposed in terms of two ground motion intensity measures based on the acceleration spectral shape. For this aim, the maximum inter-story drifts of steel frames with 4, 6, 8 and 10 stories subjected to narrow-band ground motion records are estimated and compared with the spectral acceleration at first mode of vibration Sa(T1) which is commonly used in earthquake engineering and seismology, and with a new parameter related with the structural response known as INp. It is observed that INp is the parameter best related with the structural response of steel frames under narrow-band motions. Finally, equations to compute maximum inter-story drift demands of steel frames as a function of spectral acceleration and INp are proposed.

Keywords: intensity measures, spectral shape, steel frames, peak demands

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13 Seismic Behavior of Three-Dimensional Steel Buildings with Post-Tensioned Connections

Authors: Manuel E. Soto-López, Israel Gaxiola-Avendaño, Alfredo Reyes-Salazar, Eden Bojórquez, Sonia E. Ruiz

Abstract:

The seismic responses of steel buildings with semi-rigid post-tensioned connections (PC) are estimated and compared with those of steel buildings with typical rigid (welded) connections (RC). The comparison is made in terms of global and local response parameters. The results indicate that the seismic responses in terms of interstory shears, roof displacements, axial load and bending moments are smaller for the buildings with PC connection. The difference is larger for global than for local parameters, which in turn varies from one column location to another. The reason for this improved behavior is that the buildings with PC dissipate more hysteretic energy than those with RC. In addition, unlike the case of buildings with WC, for the PC structures the hysteretic energy is mostly dissipated at the connections, which implies that structural damage in beams and columns is not significant. According to this results, steel buildings with PC are a viable option in highseismicity areas because of their smaller response and self-centering connection capacity as well as the fact that brittle failure is avoided.

Keywords: inter-story drift, nonlinear time-history analysis, post-tensioned connections, steel buildings

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12 Reliability-Based Ductility Seismic Spectra of Structures with Tilting

Authors: Federico Valenzuela-Beltran, Sonia E. Ruiz, Alfredo Reyes-Salazar, Juan Bojorquez

Abstract:

A reliability-based methodology which uses structural demand hazard curves to consider the increment of the ductility demands of structures with tilting is proposed. The approach considers the effect of two orthogonal components of the ground motions as well as the influence of soil-structure interaction. The approach involves the calculation of ductility demand hazard curves for symmetric systems and, alternatively, for systems with different degrees of asymmetry. To get this objective, demand hazard curves corresponding to different global ductility demands of the systems are calculated. Next, Uniform Exceedance Rate Spectra (UERS) are developed for a specific mean annual rate of exceedance value. Ratios between UERS corresponding to asymmetric and to symmetric systems located in soft soil of the valley of Mexico are obtained. Results indicate that the ductility demands corresponding to tilted structures may be several times higher than those corresponding to symmetric structures, depending on several factors such as tilting angle and vibration period of structure and soil.

Keywords: asymmetric yielding, seismic performance, structural reliability, tilted structures

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11 The Arabian Financial Framework in the Pre-Islamic Times: Do We Need a New Paradigm

Authors: Fahad Ahmed Qureshi

Abstract:

There were abundant renowned financial markets in Pre-Islamic Arabs. Most of those were patterned and settled during pre-particularized sunshine. Those markets were classified either as vernacular markets helping the neighboring clans, or habitual markets that people sojourned to from all articulations of the Arabian Peninsula, such as Okaz near Mecca. Some of those markets had leading significance due to their geographical positions, such as Prime market of Eden, because of their entanglement in international trade i.e. with the markets of Sub-Continent, Abyssinia, Persia and China. Other markets such as Market of Yamamah annex its gist from being situated on the caravan crossroads. Islamic worldview and Islamic epistemology base of Financial Market’s realistic theory, pragmatic model and operative approach is moderately constrained in terms of its growth. The existent situation only parasol the form of accommodative-modification and splendid-methodologies, which due to depleted and decorous endeavor in explaining Islamic financial market theoretically. This is the demand of time that particular studies should be conduct to magnify the devours in developing theoretical framework for Islamic Financial Market.

Keywords: Islam, financial market, history, research, product development

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10 Multi-Sensor Target Tracking Using Ensemble Learning

Authors: Bhekisipho Twala, Mantepu Masetshaba, Ramapulana Nkoana

Abstract:

Multiple classifier systems combine several individual classifiers to deliver a final classification decision. However, an increasingly controversial question is whether such systems can outperform the single best classifier, and if so, what form of multiple classifiers system yields the most significant benefit. Also, multi-target tracking detection using multiple sensors is an important research field in mobile techniques and military applications. In this paper, several multiple classifiers systems are evaluated in terms of their ability to predict a system’s failure or success for multi-sensor target tracking tasks. The Bristol Eden project dataset is utilised for this task. Experimental and simulation results show that the human activity identification system can fulfill requirements of target tracking due to improved sensors classification performances with multiple classifier systems constructed using boosting achieving higher accuracy rates.

Keywords: single classifier, ensemble learning, multi-target tracking, multiple classifiers

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9 Interaction Tasks of CUE Model in Virtual Language Learning in Travel English for Taiwanese College EFL Learners

Authors: Kuei-Hao Li, Eden Huang

Abstract:

Motivation suggests the willingness one person has towards taking action. Learners’ motivation has frequently been regarded as the most crucial factor in successful language acquisition. Without sufficient motivation, learners cannot achieve long-term learning goals despite remarkable abilities. Therefore, the study aims to investigate motivation of interaction tasks designed by the researchers for college EFL learners in Travel English class in virtual reality environment, integrating CUE model, Cognition, Usage and Expansion in the course. Thirty college learners were asked to join the virtual language learning website designed by the researchers. Data was collected via feedback questionnaire, interview, and learner interactions. The findings indicated that the course in the CUE model in language learning website of virtual reality environment was effective at motivating EFL learners and improving their oral communication and social interactions in the learning process. Some pedagogical implications are also provided in helping both language instructors and EFL learners in virtual reality environment.

Keywords: motivation, virtual reality, virtual language learning, second language acquisition

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8 Estimating the Probability of Winning the Best Actor/Actress Award Conditional on the Best Picture Nomination with Bayesian Hierarchical Models

Authors: Svetlana K. Eden

Abstract:

Movies and TV shows have long become part of modern culture. We all have our preferred genre, story, actors, and actresses. However, can we objectively discern good acting from the bad? As laymen, we are probably not objective, but what about the Oscar academy members? Are their votes based on objective measures? Oscar academy members are probably also biased due to many factors, including their professional affiliations or advertisement exposure. Heavily advertised films bring more publicity to their cast and are likely to have bigger budgets. Because a bigger budget may also help earn a Best Picture (BP) nomination, we hypothesize that best actor/actress (BA) nominees from BP-nominated movies would have higher chances of winning the award than those BA nominees from non-BP-nominated films. To test this hypothesis, three Bayesian hierarchical models are proposed, and their performance is evaluated. The results from all three models largely support our hypothesis. Depending on the proportion of BP nominations among BA nominees, the odds ratios (estimated over expected) of winning the BA award conditional on BP nomination vary from 2.8 [0.8-7.0] to 4.3 [2.0, 15.8] for actors and from 1.5 [0.0, 12.2] to 5.4 [2.7, 14.2] for actresses.

Keywords: Oscar, best picture, best actor/actress, bias

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7 Effect of Addition of Surfactant to the Surface Hydrophilicity and Photocatalytic Activity of Immobilized Nano TiO2 Thin Films

Authors: Eden G. Mariquit, Winarto Kurniawan, Masahiro Miyauchi, Hirofumi Hinode

Abstract:

This research studied the effect of adding surfactant to the titanium dioxide (TiO2) sol-gel solution that was used to immobilize TiO2 on glass substrates by dip coating technique using TiO2 sol-gel solution mixed with different types of surfactants. After dipping into the TiO2 sol, the films were calcined and produced pure anatase crystal phase. The thickness of the thin film was varied by repeating the dip and calcine cycle. The prepared films were characterized using FE-SEM, TG-DTA, and XRD, and its photocatalytic performances were tested on degradation of an organic dye, methylene blue. Aside from its phocatalytic performance, the photo-induced hydrophilicity of thin TiO2 films surface was also studied. Characterization results showed that the addition of surfactant gave rise to characteristic patterns on the surface of the TiO2 thin film which also affects the photocatalytic activity. The addition of CTAB to the TiO2 dipping solution had a negative effect because the calcination temperature was not high enough to burn all the surfactants off. As for the surface wettability, the addition of surfactant also affected the induced surface hydrophilicity of the TiO2 films when irradiated under UV light.

Keywords: photocatalysis, surface hydrophilicity, TiO2 thin films, surfactant

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6 Synthesis of Iron-Modified Montmorillonite as Filler for Electrospun Nanocomposite Fibers

Authors: Khryslyn Araño, Dela Cruz, Michael Leo, Dela Pena, Eden May, Leslie Joy Diaz

Abstract:

Montmorillonite (MMT) is a very abundant clay mineral and is versatile such that it can be chemically or physically altered by changing the ions between the sheets of its layered structure. This clay mineral can be prepared into functional nanoparticles that can be used as fillers in other nanomaterials such as nanofibers to achieve special properties. In this study, two types of iron-modified MMT, Iron-MMT (FeMMT) and Zero Valent Iron-MMT (ZVIMMT) were synthesized via ion exchange technique. The modified clay was incorporated in polymer nanofibers which were produced using a process called electrospinning. ICP analysis confirmed that clay modification was successful where there is an observed decrease in the concentration of Na and an increase in the concentration of Fe after ion exchange. XRD analysis also confirmed that modification took place because of the changes in the d-spacing of Na-MMT from 11.5 Å to 13.6 Å and 12.6 Å after synthesis of FeMMT and ZVIMMT, respectively. SEM images of the electrospun nanofibers revealed that the ZVIMMT-filled fibers have a smaller average diameter than the FeMMT-filled fibers because of the lower resistance of the suspensions of the former to the elongation force from the applied electric field. The resistance to the electric field was measured by getting the bulk voltage of the suspensions.

Keywords: electrospinning, nanofibers, montmorillonite, materials science

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5 A Comparison of the Adsorption Mechanism of Arsenic on Iron-Modified Nanoclays

Authors: Michael Leo L. Dela Cruz, Khryslyn G. Arano, Eden May B. Dela Pena, Leslie Joy Diaz

Abstract:

Arsenic adsorbents were continuously being researched to ease the detrimental impact of arsenic to human health. A comparative study on the adsorption mechanism of arsenic on iron modified nanoclays was undertaken. Iron intercalated montmorillonite (Fe-MMT) and montmorillonite supported zero-valent iron (ZVI-MMT) were the adsorbents investigated in this study. Fe-MMT was produced through ion-exchange by replacing the sodium intercalated ions in montmorillonite with iron (III) ions. The iron (III) in Fe-MMT was later reduced to zero valent iron producing ZVI-MMT. Adsorption study was performed by batch technique. Obtained data were fitted to intra-particle diffusion, pseudo-first order, and pseudo-second-order models and the Elovich equation to determine the kinetics of adsorption. The adsorption of arsenic on Fe-MMT followed the intra-particle diffusion model with intra-particle rate constant of 0.27 mg/g-min0.5. Arsenic was found to be chemically bound on ZVI-MMT as suggested by the pseudo-second order and Elovich equation. The derived pseudo-second order rate constant was 0.0027 g/mg-min with initial adsorption rate computed from the Elovich equation was 113 mg/g-min.

Keywords: adsorption mechanism, arsenic, montmorillonite, zero valent iron

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4 Persian Garden Design and Climate Case Studies: Shahzadeh-Mahan and Shah Garden

Authors: Raheleh Saifiabolhassan

Abstract:

Gardens symbolize human effort to bring Eden to earth and are defined as the purest pleasures and the greatest inspiration for men. According to Persian mythology, a garden called "Paris" is a magical, perfumed place populated by beautiful and angelic creatures. "Pardis" comes from the word "paridaiza," which means "walled garden." Gardening has always been a worldwide attraction due to the abundance of green space, and desert gardens are no exception. Because most historical garden designs use a similar pattern, such as Chahar-Bagh, climate effects have not been considered. The purpose of studying these general designs was to determine whether location and weather conditions are affecting them. So, two gardens were chosen for comparison: a desert (Shahzadeh-Mahan) and a humid garden (Shah) and compared their geometry, irrigation system, entrances, and pavilions. The findings of the study revealed that there are several notable differences among their architectural principles. For example, the desert garden design is introverted with transparent surfaces and a single focal point, while the moderate garden is extraverted with high complexity and multiple perspectives. In conclusion, the study recognizes the richness and significance of the Persian garden concept, which can be applied in many different contexts.

Keywords: Pardis, Chahar-bagh, Persian garden, temperate, humid climate, geometry, pavilion, irrigations, culture

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3 Influence of Local Soil Conditions on Optimal Load Factors for Seismic Design of Buildings

Authors: Miguel A. Orellana, Sonia E. Ruiz, Juan Bojórquez

Abstract:

Optimal load factors (dead, live and seismic) used for the design of buildings may be different, depending of the seismic ground motion characteristics to which they are subjected, which are closely related to the type of soil conditions where the structures are located. The influence of the type of soil on those load factors, is analyzed in the present study. A methodology that is useful for establishing optimal load factors that minimize the cost over the life cycle of the structure is employed; and as a restriction, it is established that the probability of structural failure must be less than or equal to a prescribed value. The life-cycle cost model used here includes different types of costs. The optimization methodology is applied to two groups of reinforced concrete buildings. One set (consisting on 4-, 7-, and 10-story buildings) is located on firm ground (with a dominant period Ts=0.5 s) and the other (consisting on 6-, 12-, and 16-story buildings) on soft soil (Ts=1.5 s) of Mexico City. Each group of buildings is designed using different combinations of load factors. The statistics of the maximums inter-story drifts (associated with the structural capacity) are found by means of incremental dynamic analyses. The buildings located on firm zone are analyzed under the action of 10 strong seismic records, and those on soft zone, under 13 strong ground motions. All the motions correspond to seismic subduction events with magnitudes M=6.9. Then, the structural damage and the expected total costs, corresponding to each group of buildings, are estimated. It is concluded that the optimal load factors combination is different for the design of buildings located on firm ground than that for buildings located on soft soil.

Keywords: life-cycle cost, optimal load factors, reinforced concrete buildings, total costs, type of soil

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2 Performance in the Delivery of Environmental Management Programs of the Local Government Unit of Malay, Aklan, Philippines

Authors: Tomas O. Ortega, Cecilia T. Reyes, Cecile O. Legaspi, Cylde G. Abayon, Anna Mae C. Relingo, Mary Eden M. Teruel

Abstract:

A study was conducted to evaluate the performance in the delivery of environmental management programs of the local government of Malay, Aklan, Philippines. The samples were determined by adopting the Multi-Stage Random Probability Sampling technique. The 150 respondents were drawn from barangays with larger shares of the population based on the Philippine Statistical Authority’s Data on Census Population and Housing for the year 2015. The qualified sample respondents were selected using the Kish Grid. Female respondents were targeted for even numbered questionnaires while male respondents were targeted for odd numbers. The four major core concepts namely awareness, availment, satisfaction and need for action were used in measuring the rating of the respondents and presented in frequency and percentage distributions. The reasons for their response were likewise gathered. The study inferred that a large portion of the respondents was profoundly aware of the environmental management programs implemented by their local government unit especially the solid waste management and the clean-up programs/projects. Programs to control air pollution and waste water management obtained the least awareness ratings from the respondents. A high percentage of respondents had availed of environmental management programs, particularly solid waste management. Overall, majority of the respondents were satisfied with the environmental management programs rendered by the local government unit and therefore needs less action. It is recommended that the local government unit must strengthen air pollution control program. Appropriate action must be taken to support the people’s interest in this program most particularly to the individuals who burn their garbage. Seminars and training-workshops about appropriate waste disposal will most likely help settle this issue.

Keywords: availment, awareness, environmental management, need for action, satisfaction

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1 Pre-Operative Psychological Factors Significantly Add to the Predictability of Chronic Narcotic Use: A Two Year Prospective Study

Authors: Dana El-Mughayyar, Neil Manson, Erin Bigney, Eden Richardson, Dean Tripp, Edward Abraham

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Use of narcotics to treat pain has increased over the past two decades and is a contributing factor to the current public health crisis. Understanding the pre-operative risks of chronic narcotic use may be aided through investigation of psychological measures. The objective of the reported study is to determine predictors of narcotic use two years post-surgery in a thoracolumbar spine surgery population, including an array of psychological factors. A prospective observational study of 191 consecutively enrolled adult patients having undergone thoracolumbar spine surgery is presented. Baseline measures of interest included the Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS), Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia, Multidimensional Scale for Perceived Social Support (MSPSS), Chronic Pain Acceptance Questionnaire (CPAQ-8), Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), Numeric Rating Scales for back and leg pain (NRS-B/L), SF-12’s Mental Component Summary (MCS), narcotic use and demographic variables. The post-operative measure of interest is narcotic use at 2-year follow-up. Narcotic use is collapsed into binary categories of use and no use. Descriptive statistics are run. Chi Square analysis is used for categorical variables and an ANOVA for continuous variables. Significant variables are built into a hierarchical logistic regression to determine predictors of post-operative narcotic use. Significance is set at α < 0.05. Results: A total of 27.23% of the sample were using narcotics two years after surgery. The regression model included ODI, NRS-Leg, time with condition, chief complaint, pre-operative drug use, gender, MCS, PCS subscale helplessness, and CPAQ subscale pain willingness and was significant χ² (13, N=191)= 54.99; p = .000. The model accounted for 39.6% of the variance in narcotic use and correctly predicted in 79.7% of cases. Psychological variables accounted for 9.6% of the variance over and above the other predictors. Conclusions: Managing chronic narcotic usage is central to the patient’s overall health and quality of life. Psychological factors in the preoperative period are significant predictors of narcotic use 2 years post-operatively. The psychological variables are malleable, potentially allowing surgeons to direct their patients to preventative resources prior to surgery.

Keywords: narcotics, psychological factors, quality of life, spine surgery

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