Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7879

Search results for: direct vs. indirect values

7879 Comparison of Direct and Indirect Tensile Strength of Brittle Materials and Accurate Estimate of Tensile Strength

Authors: M. Etezadi, A. Fahimifar

Abstract:

In many geotechnical designs in rocks and rock masses, tensile strength of rock and rock mass is needed. The difficulties associated with performing a direct uniaxial tensile test on a rock specimen have led to a number of indirect methods for assessing the tensile strength that in the meantime the Brazilian test is more popular. Brazilian test is widely applied in rock engineering because specimens are easy to prepare, the test is easy to conduct and uniaxial compression test machines are quite common. This study compares experimental results of direct and Brazilian tensile tests carried out on two rock types and three concrete types using 39 cylindrical and 28 disc specimens. The tests are performed using Servo-Control device. The relationship between direct and indirect tensile strength of specimens is extracted using linear regression. In the following, tensile strength of direct and indirect test is evaluated using finite element analysis. The results are analyzed and effective factors on results are studied. According to the experimental results Brazilian test is shown higher tensile strength than direct test. Because of decreasing the contact surface of grains and increasing the uniformity in concrete specimens with fine aggregate (largest grain size= 6mm), higher tensile strength in direct test is shown. The experimental and numerical results of tensile strength are compared and empirical relationship witch is obtained from experimental tests is validated.

Keywords: tensile strength, brittle materials, direct and indirect tensile test, numerical modeling

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7878 Large Herbivores Benefit Plant Growth via Diverse and Indirect Pathways in a Temperate Grassland

Authors: Xiaofei Li, Zhiwei Zhong, Deli Wang

Abstract:

Large herbivores affect plant growth not only through their direct, consumptive effects, but also through indirect effects that alter species interactions. Indirect effects can be either positive or negative, therefore having the potential to mitigate or enhance the direct impacts of herbivores. However, until recently, we know considerably less about the indirect effects than the direct effects of large herbivores on plants, and few studies have explored multiple indirect pathways simultaneously. Here, we investigated how large domestic herbivores, cattle (Bos taurus), can shape population growth of an intermediately preferred forb species, Artemsisa scoparia, through diverse pathways in a temperate grassland of northeast China. We found that, although exposure to direct consumption of cattle, A. scoparia growth was not inhibited, but rather showed a significant increase in the grazed than ungrazed areas. This unexpected result was due to grazing-induced multiple indirect, positive effects overwhelmed the direct, negative consumption effects of cattle on plant growth. The much more intensive consumption on the dominant Leymus chinensis grass, ground litter removal, and increases in ant nest abundance induced by cattle, exerted significant indirect, positive effects on A. scoparia growth. These pathways benefited A.scoparia growth by lessening interspecific competition, mitigating negative effects of litter accumulation, and increasing soil nutrient availability, respectively. Our results highlight the need to integrate indirect effects into the traditional food web theory, which is based primary on direct, trophic linkages, to fully understand community organization and dynamics. Large herbivores are important conservation and management targets, our results suggest that these mammals should be managed with the understanding that they can affect primary producers through diverse paths.

Keywords: grasslands, large herbivores, plant growth, indirect effects

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7877 The Relationship between Military Expenditure, Military Personnel, Economic Growth, and the Environment

Authors: El Harbi Sana, Ben Afia Neila

Abstract:

In this paper, we study the relationship between the military effort and pollution. A distinction is drawn between the direct and indirect impact of the military effort (military expenditure and military personnel) on pollution, which operates through the impact of military effort on per capita income and the resultant impact of income on pollution. Using the data of 121 countries covering the period 1980–2011, both the direct and indirect impacts of military effort on air pollution emissions are estimated. Our results show that the military effort is estimated to have a positive direct impact on per capita emissions. Indirect effects are found to be positive, the total effect of military effort on emissions is positive for all countries.

Keywords: military endeavor, income, emissions of CO2, panel data

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7876 English Learning Strategy and Proficiency Level of the First Year Students, International College, Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University

Authors: Kanokrat Kunasaraphan

Abstract:

The purpose of the study was to identify whether English language learning strategies commonly used by the first year students at International College, Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University include six direct and indirect strategies. The study served to explore whether there was a difference in these students’ use of six direct and indirect English learning strategies between the different levels of their English proficiency. The questionnaire used as a research instrument was comprised of two parts: General information of participants and the Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL). The researcher employed descriptive statistics and one-way ANOVA (F-test) to analyze the data. The results of the analysis revealed that English learning strategies commonly used by the first year students include six direct and indirect strategies, including differences in strategy use of the students with different levels of English proficiency. Recommendations for future research include the study of language learning strategy use with other research methods focusing on other languages, specific language skills, and/or the relationship of language learning strategy use and other factors in other programs and/or institutions.

Keywords: English learning strategies, direct strategies, indirect strategies, proficiency level

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7875 Study of Components and Effective Factors on Organizational Commitment of Khoramabad Branchs Islamic Azad University’s Faculty Members

Authors: Mehry Daraei

Abstract:

The goal of this study was to survey the components and affective factors on organizational commitment of Islamic Azad university Khoramabad Baranch’s faculty members. The research method was correlation by causal modeling and data were gathered by questionnaire. Statistical society consisted of 147 faculty members in Islamic Azad University Khoramabad Branch and sample size was determined as 106 persons by Morgan’s sample table that were selected by class sampling. Correlation test, T-single group test and path analysis test were used for analysis of data. Data were analyzed by Lisrel software. The results showed that organizational corporate was the most effective element on organizational commitment and organizational corporate, experience work and organizational justice were only in direct relation with organizational commitment. Also, job security had direct and indirect effect on OC. Job security had effect on OC by gender. Gender variable had direct and indirect effect on OC. Gender had effect on OC by organizational corporate. Job opportunities out of university also had direct and indirect effect on OC, which means job opportunities had indirect effect on OC by organizational corporate.

Keywords: organization, commitment, job security, Islamic Azad University

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7874 Direct and Indirect Impacts of Predator Conflict in Kanha National Park, India

Authors: Diane H. Dotson, Shari L. Rodriguez

Abstract:

Habitat for predators is on the decline worldwide, which often brings humans and predators into conflict over remaining shared space and common resources. While the direct impacts of human predator conflict on humans (i.e., attacks on livestock or humans resulting in injury or death) are well documented, the indirect impacts of conflict on humans (i.e., downstream effects such as fear, stress, opportunity costs, PTSD) have not been addressed. We interviewed 437 people living in 54 villages on the periphery of Kanha National Park, India, to assess the amount and severity of direct and indirect impacts of predator conflict. ​While 58% of livestock owners believed that predator attacks on livestock guards occurred frequently and 62% of those who collect forest products believed that predator attacks on those collecting occurred frequently, less than 20% of all participants knew of someone who had experienced an attack. Data related to indirect impacts suggest that such impacts are common; 76% of participants indicated they were afraid a predator will physically injure them. Livestock owners reported that livestock guarding took time away from their primary job (61%) and getting enough sleep (73%), and believed that it increased their vulnerability to illnesses (80%). These results suggest that the perceptions of risk of predator attack are likely inflated, yet the costs of human predator impacts may be substantially higher than previously estimated, particularly related to human well-being, making the implementation of appropriate and effective conservation and conflict mitigation strategies and policies increasingly urgent.

Keywords: direct impacts, indirect impacts, human-predator conflict, India

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7873 The Impact of Direct and Indirect Pressure Measuring Systems on the Pressure Mapping for the Medical Compression Garments

Authors: Arash M. Shahidi, Tilak Dias, Gayani K. Nandasiri

Abstract:

While graduated compression is the foundation of treatment and management of many medical complications such as leg ulcer, varicose veins, and lymphedema, monitoring the interface pressure has been conducted using different sensors that operate based on diverse approaches. The variations existed from the pressure readings collected using different interface pressure measurement systems would cause difficulties in taking a decision regarding the compression therapy. It is crucial to acknowledge the differences existing between direct and indirect pressure measurement systems while considering the commercially available systems such as AMI, Picopress and OPM which are under direct measurements systems, and HATRA (BSI), HOSY (RAL-GZ) and FlexiForce which comes under the indirect measurement system. Furthermore, Piezo-resistive sensors (Flexiforce) can measure the changes in resistance corresponding to the applied force on the sensing area. Direct pressure measuring systems are capable of measuring interface pressure on the three-dimensional states, while the indirect pressure measuring systems stretch the fabric in the two-dimensional direction and extrapolate pressure from surface tension measured on the device and neglect the vital factor which is the radius of curvature. In this study, a leg mannequin of known dimensions is selected with a knitted class 3 compression stocking. It has been decided to evaluate the data collected from different available systems (AMI, PicoPress, FlexiForce, and HATRA) and compare the results. The results showed a discrepancy between Hatra, AMI, Picopress, and Flexiforce against the pressure standard used to generate class 3 compression stocking. As predicted a higher pressure value with direct interface measuring systems were monitored against HATRA due to the effect of the radius of curvature.

Keywords: AMI, FlexiForce, graduated compression, HATRA, interface pressure, PicoPress

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7872 The New Contemporary Cross-Cultural Buddhist Woman and Her Attitude and Perception toward Motherhood

Authors: Szerena Vajkovszki

Abstract:

Among the relatively large volume of literature, the role and perception of women in Buddhism have been examined from various perspectives such as theology, history, anthropology, and feminism. When Buddhism spread to the West, women had a major role in its adaption and development. The meeting of different cultures and social structures had the fruit of a necessity to change. As Buddhism gained attention in the West, it produced a Buddhist feminist identity across national and ethnic boundaries. So globalization produced a contemporary cross-cultural Buddhist Women. The aim of the research is to find out the new role of such a Buddhist woman in aging societies. More precisely to understand what effect this contemporary Buddhist religion may have, direct or indirect, on fertility. Our worldwide aging society, especially in developed countries, including members of EU, raise sophisticated sociological and economic issues and challenges to be met. As declining fertility has outstanding influence underlying this trend, numerous studies have attempted to identify, describe, measure and interpret contributing factors of the fertility rate, out of which relatively few revealed the impact of religion. Among many religious guidelines, we can separate two major categories: direct and indirect. The aim of this research was to understand what are the most crucial identified (family values, gender related behaviors, religious sentiments) and not yet identified most influential contributing contemporary Buddhist religious factors. Above identifying these direct or indirect factors, it is also important to understand to what extent and how do they influence fertility, which requires a wider (inter-discipline) perspective. As proved by previous studies religion has also an influential role in health, mental state, well-being, working activity and many other components that are also related to fertility rates. All these components are inter-related, hence direct and indirect religious effects can only be well understood, if we figure out all necessary fields and their interaction. With the help of semi-structured opened interviews taking place in different countries, it was showed that indeed Buddhism has significant direct and indirect effect on fertility, hence the initial hypothesis was proved. However, the interviews showed an overall positive effect, the results could only serve for a general understanding about how Buddhism affects fertility. Evolution of Buddhism’s direct and indirect influence may vary in different nations and circumstances according to their specific environmental attributes. According to the local patterns, with special regard to women’s position and role in the society, outstandingly indirect influences could show diversifications. So it is advisory to investigate more for a deeper and clearer understanding of how Buddhism function in different socioeconomic circumstances. For example, in Hungary after the period of secularization more and more people tended to be attracted toward some transcendent values which could be an explanation for the rising number of Buddhists in the country. The present research could serve as a general starting point or a common basis for further specific national investigations how contemporary Buddhism affects fertility.

Keywords: contemporary Buddhism, cross-cultural woman, fertility, gender roles, religion

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7871 The Direct and Indirect Effects of Buddhism on Fertility Rates in General and in Specific Socioeconomic Circumstances of Women

Authors: Szerena Vajkovszki

Abstract:

Our worldwide aging society, especially in developed countries, including members of EU, raise sophisticated sociological and economic issues and challenges to be met. As declining fertility has outstanding influence underlying this trend, numerous studies have attempted to identify, describe, measure and interpret contributing factors of the fertility rate, out of which relatively few revealed the impact of religion. Identified, examined and influential factors affecting birth rate as stated by the present scientific publications are more than a dozen out of which religious beliefs, traditions, and cultural norms were examined first with a special focus on abortion and forms of birth control. Nevertheless, connected to religion, not only these topics are crucial regarding fertility, but many others as well. Among many religious guidelines, we can separate two major categories: direct and indirect. The aim of this research was to understand what are the most crucial identified (family values, gender related behaviors, religious sentiments) and not yet identified most influential contributing religious factors. Above identifying these direct or indirect factors, it is also important to understand to what extent and how do they influence fertility, which requires a wider (inter-discipline) perspective. As proved by previous studies religion has also an influential role on health, mental state, well-being, working activity and many other components that are also related to fertility rates. All these components are inter-related. Hence direct and indirect religious effects can only be well understood if we figure out all necessary fields and their interaction. With the help of semi-structured opened interviews taking place in different countries, it was showed that indeed Buddhism has significant direct and indirect effect on fertility. Hence the initial hypothesis was proved. However, the interviews showed an overall positive effect; the results could only serve for a general understanding of how Buddhism affects fertility. Evolution of Buddhism’s direct and indirect influence may vary in different nations and circumstances according to their specific environmental attributes. According to the local patterns, with special regard to women’s position and role in the society, outstandingly indirect influences could show diversifications. So it is advisory to investigate more for a deeper and clearer understanding of how Buddhism function in different socioeconomic circumstances. For this purpose, a specific and detailed analysis was developed from recent related researches about women’s position (including family roles and economic activity) in Hungary with the intention to be able to have a complex vision of crucial socioeconomic factors influencing fertility. Further interviews and investigations are to be done in order to show a complex vision of Buddhism’s direct and indirect effect on fertility in Hungary to be able to support recommendations and policies pointing to higher fertility rates in the field of social policies. The present research could serve as a general starting point or a common basis for further specific national investigations.

Keywords: Buddhism, children, fertility, gender roles, religion, women

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7870 Addressing Cultural Discrimination in Research Design: The Responsibilities of Ethics Committees

Authors: Elspeth McInnes

Abstract:

Research design is central to ethical research. Discriminatory research design is a key risk for researchers examining diverse cultural groups without conscious commitment to anti-discrimination values or knowledge of their culture. Culturally discriminatory research design is defined here as research proceeding from negative assumptions about people on the basis of race, colour, ethnicity, nationality or religion. Such discrimination can be direct or indirect. Direct discrimination is the uncritical mobilization of dominant group negative stereotypes of cultural minorities. Indirect discrimination is the examination of policies or programs grounded in dominant culture negative stereotypes that have been uncritically accepted by the researchers. This paper draws on anonymized elements of planned research projects and considers both direct and indirect cultural discrimination in research design and the responsibilities of ethics committees. Human research ethics committees provide a point of scrutiny with responsibility to alert researchers to risks of basing research on negative cultural stereotypes, as well as protecting participants from being subjected to negative discourses about them. This issue has become an increasing concern in a globalizing world of human displacement and migration creating a rise in the presence of minority cultures in host countries. As a nation established through colonization and immigration Australia has a long history of negative cultural stereotypes of Indigenous Australians as well as a legacy of the White Australia policy, which still echoes in attitudes to each wave of non-European immigration. The task of eliminating cultural discrimination in research design is vital to sustaining research integrity and ensuring that research is not used to reinforce or justify cultural discrimination.

Keywords: cultural discrimination, cultural stereotypes, participant risk, research design

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7869 Causal-Explanatory Model of Academic Performance in Social Anxious Adolescents

Authors: Beatriz Delgado

Abstract:

Although social anxiety is one of the most prevalent disorders in adolescents and causes considerable difficulties and social distress in those with the disorder, to date very few studies have explored the impact of social anxiety on academic adjustment in student populations. The aim of this study was analyze the effect of social anxiety on school functioning in Secondary Education. Specifically, we examined the relationship between social anxiety and self-concept, academic goals, causal attributions, intellectual aptitudes, and learning strategies, personality traits, and academic performance, with the purpose of creating a causal-explanatory model of academic performance. The sample consisted of 2,022 students in the seven to ten grades of Compulsory Secondary Education in Spain (M = 13.18; SD = 1.35; 51.1% boys). We found that: (a) social anxiety has a direct positive effect on internal attributional style, and a direct negative effect on self-concept. Social anxiety also has an indirect negative effect on internal causal attributions; (b) prior performance (first academic trimester) exerts a direct positive effect on intelligence, achievement goals, academic self-concept, and final academic performance (third academic trimester), and a direct negative effect on internal causal attributions. It also has an indirect positive effect on causal attributions (internal and external), learning goals, achievement goals, and study strategies; (c) intelligence has a direct positive effect on learning goals and academic performance (third academic trimester); (d) academic self-concept has a direct positive effect on internal and external attributional style. Also, has an indirect effect on learning goals, achievement goals, and learning strategies; (e) internal attributional style has a direct positive effect on learning strategies and learning goals. Has a positive but indirect effect on achievement goals and learning strategies; (f) external attributional style has a direct negative effect on learning strategies and learning goals and a direct positive effect on internal causal attributions; (g) learning goals have direct positive effect on learning strategies and achievement goals. The structural equation model fit the data well (CFI = .91; RMSEA = .04), explaining 93.8% of the variance in academic performance. Finally, we emphasize that the new causal-explanatory model proposed in the present study represents a significant contribution in that it includes social anxiety as an explanatory variable of cognitive-motivational constructs.

Keywords: academic performance, adolescence, cognitive-motivational variables, social anxiety

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7868 Economic Cost of Malaria: A Threat to Household Income in Nigeria

Authors: Nsikan Affiah, Kayode Osungbade, Williams Uzoma

Abstract:

Malaria remains one of the major killers of humans worldwide, threatening the lives of more than one-third of the world’s population. Some people refers it to; a disease of poverty because it contributes towards national poverty through its impact on foreign direct investment, tourism, labour productivity, and trade. At the micro level, it may cause poverty through spending on health care, income losses, and premature deaths. Unfortunately, malaria is a disease that affects both low-income household and its high-income counterpart, but low-income households are still at greater risk because significant part of the available monthly income is dedicated to various preventive and treatment measures. The objective of this study is to estimate direct and indirect cost of malaria treatment in households in a section of South-South Region (Akwa Ibom State) of Nigeria. A cross-sectional study of Six Hundred and Forty (640) heads of households or any adult representative of households in three local government areas of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria from May 1-31, 2015 were ascertained through interviewer-administered questionnaire adapted from Nigerian Malaria Indicator Survey Report. The clustering technique was used to select 640 households with the help of Primary Health Care (PHC) house numbering system. Using exchange rate of 197 Naira/USD, result shows that direct cost of malaria treatment was 8,894.44 USD while the indirect cost of malaria treatment was 11,012.81 USD. Total cost of treatment made up of 44.7% direct cost and 55.3% indirect cost, with average direct cost of malaria treatment per household estimated at 20.6 USD and the average indirect cost of treatment per household estimated at 25.1 USD. Average total cost for each episode (888) of malaria was estimated at 22.4 USD. While at household level, the average total cost was estimated at 45.5 USD. From the average total cost, low-income households would spend 36% of monthly household income on treating malaria and the impact could be said to be catastrophic, compared to high-income households where only 1.2% of monthly household income is spent on malaria treatment. It could be concluded that the cost of malaria treatment is well beyond the means of households and given the reality of repeated bouts of malaria and its contribution to the impoverishment of households, there is a need for urgent action.

Keywords: direct cost, indirect cost, low income households, malaria

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7867 Values Education in Military Schools and Işıklar Air Force High School Sample

Authors: Mehmet Eren Çelik

Abstract:

Values are notions that help people to decide what is good or not and to direct their attitude. Teaching values has always been very important throughout the history. Values should be thought in younger ages to get more efficiency. Therefore military schools are the last stop to learn values effectively. That’s why values education in military schools has vital importance. In this study the military side of values education is examined. The purpose of the study is to show how important values education is and why military students need values education. First of all what value is and what values education means is clearly explained and values education in schools and specifically in military schools is stated. Then values education in Işıklar Air Force High School exemplifies the given information.

Keywords: Işıklar Air Force High School, military school, values, values education

Procedia PDF Downloads 189
7866 Development of a Direct Immunoassay for Human Ferritin Using Diffraction-Based Sensing Method

Authors: Joel Ballesteros, Harriet Jane Caleja, Florian Del Mundo, Cherrie Pascual

Abstract:

Diffraction-based sensing was utilized in the quantification of human ferritin in blood serum to provide an alternative to label-based immunoassays currently used in clinical diagnostics and researches. The diffraction intensity was measured by the diffractive optics technology or dotLab™ system. Two methods were evaluated in this study: direct immunoassay and direct sandwich immunoassay. In the direct immunoassay, human ferritin was captured by human ferritin antibodies immobilized on an avidin-coated sensor while the direct sandwich immunoassay had an additional step for the binding of a detector human ferritin antibody on the analyte complex. Both methods were repeatable with coefficient of variation values below 15%. The direct sandwich immunoassay had a linear response from 10 to 500 ng/mL which is wider than the 100-500 ng/mL of the direct immunoassay. The direct sandwich immunoassay also has a higher calibration sensitivity with value 0.002 Diffractive Intensity (ng mL-1)-1) compared to the 0.004 Diffractive Intensity (ng mL-1)-1 of the direct immunoassay. The limit of detection and limit of quantification values of the direct immunoassay were found to be 29 ng/mL and 98 ng/mL, respectively, while the direct sandwich immunoassay has a limit of detection (LOD) of 2.5 ng/mL and a limit of quantification (LOQ) of 8.2 ng/mL. In terms of accuracy, the direct immunoassay had a percent recovery of 88.8-93.0% in PBS while the direct sandwich immunoassay had 94.1 to 97.2%. Based on the results, the direct sandwich immunoassay is a better diffraction-based immunoassay in terms of accuracy, LOD, LOQ, linear range, and sensitivity. The direct sandwich immunoassay was utilized in the determination of human ferritin in blood serum and the results are validated by Chemiluminescent Magnetic Immunoassay (CMIA). The calculated Pearson correlation coefficient was 0.995 and the p-values of the paired-sample t-test were less than 0.5 which show that the results of the direct sandwich immunoassay was comparable to that of CMIA and could be utilized as an alternative analytical method.

Keywords: biosensor, diffraction, ferritin, immunoassay

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7865 Energy Saving Potential of a Desiccant-Based Indirect-Direct Evaporative Cooling System

Authors: Amirreza Heidari, Akram Avami, Ehsan Heidari

Abstract:

Evaporative cooling systems are known as energy efficient cooling systems, with much lower electricity consumption than conventional vapor compression systems. A serious limitation of these systems, however, is that they are not applicable in humid regions. Combining a desiccant wheel with these systems, known as desiccant-based evaporative cooling systems, makes it possible to use evaporative cooling in humid climates. This paper evaluates the performane of a cooling system combining desiccant wheel, direct and indirect evaporative coolers (called desiccant-based indirect-direct evaporative cooling (DIDE) system) and then evaluates the energy saving potential of this system over the conventional vapor compression cooling and drying system. To illustrate the system ability of providing comfort conditions, a dynamic hourly simulation of this system is performed for a typical 60 m² building in Sydney, Australia. To evaluate the energy saving potential of this system, a conventional cooling and drying system is also simulated for the same cooling capacity. It has been found that the DIE system is able to provide comfort temperature and relative humidity in a subtropical humid climate like Sydney. The electricity and natural gas consumption of this system are respectively 39.2% and 2.6% lower than that of conventional system over a week. As the research has demonstrated, the innovative DIDE system is an energy efficient cooling system for subtropical humid regions.

Keywords: desiccant, evaporative cooling, dehumidification, indirect evaporative cooler

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7864 A Mediation Analysis of Social Capital: Direct and Indirect Effects of Community Influences on Civic Engagement among the Household-Header and Non-Household Header Volunteers in Thai Rural Communities

Authors: Aphiradee Wongsiri

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to investigate the role of social capital in the relationships between community influences consisting of community attachment and community support on civic engagement among the household-header and non-household header volunteers. The data were collected from 216 household header volunteers and 204 non-household header volunteers across rural communities in seven sub-districts in Nong Khai Province, Thailand. A good fit structural equation modeling (SEM) was tested for both groups. The findings indicate that the SEM model for the group of household header volunteers, social capital had a direct effect on civic engagement, while community support had an indirect effect on civic engagement through social capital. On the other hand, the SEM model for the group of non-household header volunteers shows that social capital had a direct effect on civic engagement. Also, community attachment and community support had indirect effects on civic engagement through social capital. Therefore, social capital in this study played an important role as a mediator in the relationships between community influences and civic engagement in both groups.

Keywords: social capital, civic engagement, volunteer, rural development

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7863 Calibration Methods of Direct and Indirect Reading Pressure Sensor and Uncertainty Determination

Authors: Sinem O. Aktan, Musa Y. Akkurt

Abstract:

Experimental pressure calibration methods can be classified into three areas: (1) measurements in liquid or gas systems, (2) measurements in static-solid media systems, and (3) measurements in dynamic shock systems. Fluid (liquid and gas) systems high accuracies can be obtainable and commonly used for the calibration method of a pressure sensor. Pressure calibrations can be performed for metrological traceability in two ways, which are on-site (field) and in the laboratory. Laboratory and on-site calibration procedures and the requirements of the DKD-R-6-1 and Euramet cg-17 guidelines will also be addressed. In this study, calibration methods of direct and indirect reading pressure sensor and measurement uncertainty contributions will be explained.

Keywords: pressure metrology, pressure calibration, dead-weight tester, pressure uncertainty

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7862 Construction Sustainability Improvement through Using Recycled Aggregates in Concrete Production

Authors: Zhiqiang Zhu, Khalegh Barati, Xuesong Shen

Abstract:

Due to the energy consumption caused by the construction industry, the public is paying more and more attention to the sustainability of the buildings. With the advancement of research on recycled aggregates, it has become possible to replace natural aggregates with recycled aggregates and to achieve a reduction in energy consumption of materials during construction. The purpose of this paper is to quantitatively compare the emergy consumption of natural aggregate concrete (NAC) and recycled aggregate concrete (RAC). To do so, the emergy analysis method is adopted. Using this technique, it can effectively analyze different forms of energy and substance. The main analysis object is the direct and indirect emergy consumption of the stages in concrete production. Therefore, for indirect energy, consumption of production machinery and transportation vehicle also need to be considered. Finally, the emergy values required to produce the two concrete types are compared to analyze whether the RAC can reduce emergy consumption.

Keywords: sustainable construction, NAC, RAC, emergy, concrete

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7861 Attribute Selection for Preference Functions in Engineering Design

Authors: Ali E. Abbas

Abstract:

Industrial Engineering is a broad multidisciplinary field with intersections and applications in numerous areas. When designing a product, it is important to determine the appropriate attributes of value and the preference function for which the product is optimized. This paper provides some guidelines on appropriate selection of attributes for preference and value functions for engineering design.

Keywords: decision analysis, industrial engineering, direct vs. indirect values, engineering management

Procedia PDF Downloads 196
7860 ESL Students’ Engagement with Written Corrective Feedback

Authors: Khaled Karim

Abstract:

Although a large number of studies have examined the effectiveness of written corrective feedback (WCF) in L2 writing, very few studies have investigated students’ attitudes towards the feedback and their perspectives regarding the usefulness of different types of feedback. Using prompted stimulated recall interviews, this study investigated ESL students’ perceptions and attitudes towards the CF they received as well as their preferences and reactions to the corrections. 24 ESL students first received direct (e.g., providing target forms after crossing out erroneous forms) and indirect (e.g., underlining and underline+metalinguistic) CF on four written tasks and then participated in an interview with the researcher. The analysis revealed that both direct and indirect CF were judged to be useful strategies for correction but in different ways. Underline only CF helped them think about the nature and type of the errors they made while metalinguistic CF was useful as it provided clues about the nature and type of the errors. Most participants indicated that indirect correction needed sufficient prior knowledge of the form to be effective. The majority of the students found the combination of underlining with metalinguistic information as the most effective method of providing feedback. Detailed findings will be presented, and pedagogical implications of the study will be discussed.

Keywords: ESL writing, error correction, feedback, written corrective feedback

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7859 Structure of the Working Time of Nurses in Emergency Departments in Polish Hospitals

Authors: Jadwiga Klukow, Anna Ksykiewicz-Dorota

Abstract:

An analysis of the distribution of nurses’ working time constitutes vital information for the management in planning employment. The objective of the study was to analyze the distribution of nurses’ working time in an emergency department. The study was conducted in an emergency department of a teaching hospital in Lublin, in Southeast Poland. The catalogue of activities performed by nurses was compiled by means of continuous observation. Identified activities were classified into four groups: Direct care, indirect care, coordination of work in the department and personal activities. Distribution of nurses’ working time was determined by work sampling observation (Tippett) at random intervals. The research project was approved by the Research Ethics Committee by the Medical University of Lublin (Protocol 0254/113/2010). On average, nurses spent 31% of their working time on direct care, 47% on indirect care, 12% on coordinating work in the department and 10% on personal activities. The most frequently performed direct care tasks were diagnostic activities – 29.23% and treatment-related activities – 27.69%. The study has provided information on the complexity of performed activities and utilization of nurses’ working time. Enhancing the effectiveness of nursing actions requires working out a strategy for improved management of the time nurses spent at work. Increasing the involvement of auxiliary staff and optimizing communication processes within the team may lead to reduction of the time devoted to indirect care for the benefit of direct care.

Keywords: emergency nurses, nursing care, workload, work sampling

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7858 Food Composition Tables Used as an Instrument to Estimate the Nutrient Ingest in Ecuador

Authors: Ortiz M. Rocío, Rocha G. Karina, Domenech A. Gloria

Abstract:

There are several tools to assess the nutritional status of the population. A main instrument commonly used to build those tools is the food composition tables (FCT). Despite the importance of FCT, there are many error sources and variability factors that can be presented on building those tables and can lead to an under or over estimation of ingest of nutrients of a population. This work identified different food composition tables used as an instrument to estimate the nutrient ingest in Ecuador.The collection of data for choosing FCT was made through key informants –self completed questionnaires-, supplemented with institutional web research. A questionnaire with general variables (origin, year of edition, etc) and methodological variables (method of elaboration, information of the table, etc) was passed to the identified FCT. Those variables were defined based on an extensive literature review. A descriptive analysis of content was performed. Ten printed tables and three databases were reported which were all indistinctly treated as food composition tables. We managed to get information from 69% of the references. Several informants referred to printed documents that were not accessible. In addition, searching the internet was not successful. Of the 9 final tables, n=8 are from Latin America, and, n= 5 of these were constructed by indirect method (collection of already published data) having as a main source of information a database from the United States department of agriculture USDA. One FCT was constructed by using direct method (bromatological analysis) and has its origin in Ecuador. The 100% of the tables made a clear distinction of the food and its method of cooking, 88% of FCT expressed values of nutrients per 100g of edible portion, 77% gave precise additional information about the use of the table, and 55% presented all the macro and micro nutrients on a detailed way. The more complete FCT were: INCAP (Central America), Composition of foods (Mexico). The more referred table was: Ecuadorian food composition table of 1965 (70%). The indirect method was used for most tables within this study. However, this method has the disadvantage that it generates less reliable food composition tables because foods show variations in composition. Therefore, a database cannot accurately predict the composition of any isolated sample of a food product.In conclusion, analyzing the pros and cons, and, despite being a FCT elaborated by using an indirect method, it is considered appropriate to work with the FCT of INCAP Central America, given the proximity to our country and a food items list that is very similar to ours. Also, it is imperative to have as a reference the table of composition for Ecuadorian food, which, although is not updated, was constructed using the direct method with Ecuadorian foods. Hence, both tables will be used to elaborate a questionnaire with the purpose of assessing the food consumption of the Ecuadorian population. In case of having disparate values, we will proceed by taking just the INCAP values because this is an updated table.

Keywords: Ecuadorian food composition tables, FCT elaborated by direct method, ingest of nutrients of Ecuadorians, Latin America food composition tables

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7857 Direct Composite Veneers as Treatment of Anterior Teeth: Case Report

Authors: Amerah Alsalem

Abstract:

Aim: Laminate veneers are restorations which are envisioned to correct existing abnormalities, esthetic deficiencies, and discolorations. Laminate veneer restorations may be processed in two different ways: direct or indirect. Materials and methods: Direct composite laminate veneers require minimal preparation compared to indirect composite veneers, cost less and are easier to repair, so are useful in young patients. However, composites can have inherent limitations such as shrinkage, limited toughness; color instability and susceptibility to wear that reduce the lifespan of the restoration and cause postoperative complications. Every new material or method introduced to the field of dentistry aims to achieve esthetics and successful dental treatments with minimal invasiveness. Therefore, direct laminate veneer restorations have been developed for advanced esthetic problems of anterior teeth. Tooth discolorations, rotated teeth, coronal fractures, congenital or acquired malformations, diastemas, discolored restorations, palatally positioned teeth, the absence of lateral incisors, abrasions and erosions are the main indications for direct laminate veneer restorations. Result: Direct veneers, as esthetic procedures, have become treatment alternatives for patients with esthetic problems of anterior teeth in recent years. The cost, social and time factors have to be considered. Although ceramic laminate veneer restorations have some advantages like color stability and high resistance against abrasion, they have also some disadvantages, including high cost and long chair time. Moreover, they have some problems such as the necessity of an additional adhesive cement. Conclusion: Although there are still some disadvantages, especially discolorations and fragility, with the development of new composite resins, direct laminate veneer restorations can be a treatment option for patients with esthetic problems of anterior teeth, when applied judiciously with good patient hygiene motivation.

Keywords: direct, veneers, composite, anterior

Procedia PDF Downloads 165
7856 Financial Burden of Family for the Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

Authors: M. R. Bhuiyan, S. M. M. Hossain, M. Z. Islam

Abstract:

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is the fastest growing serious developmental disorder characterized by social deficits, communicative difficulties, and repetitive behaviors. ASD is an emerging public health issue globally which is associated with huge financial burden to the family, community and the nation. The aim of this study was to assess the financial burden of family for the children with Autism spectrum Disorder. This cross-sectional study was carried out from July 2015 to June 2016 among 154 children with ASD to assess the financial burden of family. Data were collected by face-to-face interview with semi-structured questionnaire following systematic random sampling technique. Majority (73.4%) children were male and mean (±SD) age was 6.66 ± 2.97 years. Most (88.8%) of the children were from urban areas with average monthly family income Tk. 41785.71±23936.45. Average monthly direct cost of the children was Tk.17656.49 ± 9984.35, while indirect cost was Tk. 13462.90 ± 9713.54 and total treatment cost was Tk. 23076.62 ± 15341.09. Special education cost (Tk. 4871.00), cost of therapy (Tk. 4124.07) and travel cost (Tk. 3988.31) were the major types of direct cost, while loss of income (Tk.14570.18) was the chief indirect cost incurred by the families. The study found that majority (59.8%) of the children attended special schools were incurred Tk.20001-78700 as total treatment cost, which were statistically significant (p<0.001). Again, families with higher monthly family income incurred higher treatment cost (r=0.526, p<0.05). Difference between mean direct and indirect cost was found significant (t=4.190, df=61, p<0.001). According to the analysis of variance, mean difference of father’s educational status among direct cost (F=10.337, p<0.001) and total treatment cost (F=7.841, p<0.001), which were statistically significant. The study revealed that maximum children with ASD were under five years, three-fourth were male. According to monthly family income, maximum family were in middle class. The study recommends cost effective interventions and financial safety-net measures to reduce the financial burden of families for the children with ASD.

Keywords: autism spectrum disorder, financial burden, direct cost, indirect cost, special education

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7855 An Investigation of Direct and Indirect Geo-Referencing Techniques on the Accuracy of Points in Photogrammetry

Authors: F. Yildiz, S. Y. Oturanc

Abstract:

Advances technology in the field of photogrammetry replaces analog cameras with reflection on aircraft GPS/IMU system with a digital aerial camera. In this system, when determining the position of the camera with the GPS, camera rotations are also determined by the IMU systems. All around the world, digital aerial cameras have been used for the photogrammetry applications in the last ten years. In this way, in terms of the work done in photogrammetry it is possible to use time effectively, costs to be reduced to a minimum level, the opportunity to make fast and accurate. Geo-referencing techniques that are the cornerstone of the GPS / INS systems, photogrammetric triangulation of images required for balancing (interior and exterior orientation) brings flexibility to the process. Also geo-referencing process; needed in the application of photogrammetry targets to help to reduce the number of ground control points. In this study, the use of direct and indirect geo-referencing techniques on the accuracy of the points was investigated in the production of photogrammetric mapping.

Keywords: photogrammetry, GPS/IMU systems, geo-referecing, digital aerial camera

Procedia PDF Downloads 292
7854 Influencing Factors and Mechanism of Patient Engagement in Healthcare: A Survey in China

Authors: Qing Wu, Xuchun Ye, Kirsten Corazzini

Abstract:

Objective: It is increasingly recognized that patients’ rational and meaningful engagement in healthcare could make important contributions to their health care and safety management. However, recent evidence indicated that patients' actual roles in healthcare didn’t match their desired roles, and many patients reported a less active role than desired, which suggested that patient engagement in healthcare may be influenced by various factors. This study aimed to analyze influencing factors on patient engagement and explore the influence mechanism, which will be expected to contribute to the strategy development of patient engagement in healthcare. Methods: On the basis of analyzing the literature and theory study, the research framework was developed. According to the research framework, a cross-sectional survey was employed using the behavior and willingness of patient engagement in healthcare questionnaire, Chinese version All Aspects of Health Literacy Scale, Facilitation of Patient Involvement Scale and Wake Forest Physician Trust Scale, and other influencing factor related scales. A convenience sample of 580 patients was recruited from 8 general hospitals in Shanghai, Jiangsu Province, and Zhejiang Province. Results: The results of the cross-sectional survey indicated that the mean score for the patient engagement behavior was (4.146 ± 0.496), and the mean score for the willingness was (4.387 ± 0.459). The level of patient engagement behavior was inferior to their willingness to be involved in healthcare (t = 14.928, P < 0.01). The influencing mechanism model of patient engagement in healthcare was constructed by the path analysis. The path analysis revealed that patient attitude toward engagement, patients’ perception of facilitation of patient engagement and health literacy played direct prediction on the patients’ willingness of engagement, and standard estimated values of path coefficient were 0.341, 0.199, 0.291, respectively. Patients’ trust in physician and the willingness of engagement played direct prediction on the patient engagement, and standard estimated values of path coefficient were 0.211, 0.641, respectively. Patient attitude toward engagement, patients’ perception of facilitation and health literacy played indirect prediction on patient engagement, and standard estimated values of path coefficient were 0.219, 0.128, 0.187, respectively. Conclusions: Patients engagement behavior did not match their willingness to be involved in healthcare. The influencing mechanism model of patient engagement in healthcare was constructed. Patient attitude toward engagement, patients’ perception of facilitation of engagement and health literacy posed indirect positive influence on patient engagement through the patients’ willingness of engagement. Patients’ trust in physician and the willingness of engagement had direct positive influence on the patient engagement. Patient attitude toward engagement, patients’ perception of physician facilitation of engagement and health literacy were the factors influencing the patients’ willingness of engagement. The results of this study provided valuable evidence on guiding the development of strategies for promoting patient rational and meaningful engagement in healthcare.

Keywords: healthcare, patient engagement, influencing factor, the mechanism

Procedia PDF Downloads 47
7853 National Culture, Personal Values, and Supervisors’ Ethical Behavior: Examining a Partial Mediation Model of Merton’s Anomie Theory

Authors: Kristine Tuliao

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Although it is of primary concern to ensure that supervisors behave appropriately, research shows that unethical behaviors are prevalent and may cost organizations’ economic and reputational damages. Nevertheless, few studies have considered the roles of the different levels of values in shaping one’s ethicality, and the examination of the possible mediation in the process of their influence has been rarely done. To address this gap, this research employs Merton’s anomie theory in designing a mediation analysis to test the direct impacts of national cultural values on supervisors’ justification of unethical behaviors as well as their indirect impacts through personal values. According to Merton’s writings, individual behaviors are affected by the society’s culture given its role in defining the members’ goals as well as the acceptable methods of attaining those goals. Also, Merton’s framework suggests that individuals develop their personal values depending on the assimilation of their society’s culture. Using data of 9,813 supervisors across 30 countries, results of hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) indicated that national cultural values, specifically assertiveness, performance orientation, in-group collectivism, and humane orientation, positively affect supervisors’ unethical inclination. Some cultural values may encourage unethical tendencies, especially if they urge and pressure individuals to attain purely monetary success. In addition, some of the influence of national cultural values went through personal monetary and non-monetary success values, indicating partial mediation. These findings substantiated the assertions of Merton’s anomie theory that national cultural values influence supervisors’ ethics through their integration with personal values. Given that some of the results contradict Merton’s anomie theory propositions, complementary arguments, such as incomplete assimilation of culture, and the probable impact of job position in perceptions, values, and behaviors, could be the plausible rationale for these outcomes. Consequently, this paper advances the understanding of differences in national and personal values and how these factors impact supervisors’ justification of unethical behaviors. Alongside these contributions, suggestions are presented for the public and organizations to craft policies and procedures that will minimize the tendency of supervisors to commit unethical acts.

Keywords: mediation model, national culture, personal values, supervisors' ethics

Procedia PDF Downloads 45
7852 Israeli Palestinian Adolescents' Exposure to Community Violence and their Academic Achievements: The Indirect Effects of Internalizing and Externalizing Symptoms and Parental Psychological Well-Being

Authors: Neveen Ali-Saleh Darawsha

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Exposure to community violence (CV) is alarmingly high and emphasizes negative consequences. The present study examines the rates and consequences of exposure to community violence, among Palestinian adolescents from Israel, age ranged 14-18. Specifically, it examines whether exposure to community violence is indirectly related to academic achievement through internalizing and externalizing symptoms among adolescents; and whether the indirect effects of exposure to CV and academic achievements will differ when the parents have different levels of psychological well-being. Method: Semi systematic random sample of 760 Palestinian adolescents in Israel, (320 boys, and 440 girls) filled out a self-administration questionnaire. Most of the adolescents had witnessed community violence during the last year and during their lifetime, and more than one third had directly experienced such violence during lifetime compared with 19.6% during the last year. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the indirect effects of exposure to CV and academic achievement. Results revealed that externalizing symptoms mediated the association between exposure to CV and academic achievement. There were no indirect effects through internalizing symptoms. Moreover, parental psychological well-being moderated the indirect effects between externalizing symptoms and academic achievements. Conclusion: Findings highlight the importance of targeting externalizing symptoms for adolescents that could improve their behaviors and also their academic achievements as well. limitations of the study, implications for the practice and recommendations for future research are discussed.

Keywords: community violence, witnessing violence, direct personal experiencing, academic achievement, psychological well-being, Palestinian adolescents

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7851 The Impact of Neonatal Methamphetamine on Spatial Learning and Memory of Females in Adulthood

Authors: Ivana Hrebickova, Maria Sevcikova, Romana Slamberova

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The present study was aimed at evaluation of cognitive changes following scheduled neonatal methamphetamine exposure in combination with long-term exposure in adulthood of female Wistar rats. Pregnant mothers were divided into two groups: group with indirect exposure (methamphetamine in dose 5 mg/ml/kg, saline in dose 1 ml/kg) during early lactation period (postnatal day 1–11) - progeny of these mothers were exposed to the effects of methamphetamine or saline indirectly via the breast milk; and the second group with direct exposure – all mothers were left intact for the entire lactation period, while progeny was treated with methamphetamine (5 mg/ml/kg) by injection or the control group, which was received needle pick (shame, not saline) at the same time each day of period of application (postnatal day 1–11). Learning ability and memory consolidation were tested in the Morris Water Maze, which consisted of three types of tests: ‘Place Navigation Test ‘; ‘Probe Test ‘; and ‘Memory Recall Test ‘. Adult female progeny were injected daily, after completion last trial with saline or methamphetamine (1 mg/ml/kg). We compared the effects of indirect/direct neonatal methamphetamine exposure and adult methamphetamine treatment on cognitive function of female rats. Statistical analyses showed that neonatal methamphetamine exposure worsened spatial learning and ability to remember the position of the platform. The present study demonstrated that direct methamphetamine exposure has more significant impact on process of learning and memory than indirect exposure. Analyses of search strategies (thigmotaxis, scanning) used by females during the Place Navigation Test and Memory Recall Test confirm all these results.

Keywords: methamphetamine, Morris water maze, neonatal exposure, strategies, Wistar rats

Procedia PDF Downloads 117
7850 Influence Analysis of Profit Sharing Agreement and Financing Risk to Profitability in Islamic Bank of Indonesia

Authors: Irena Paramita Pramono

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Islamic bank is a financial industry with huge potential to grow in Indonesia. Profit-sharing agreement in the operations of Islamic banks distinguishes Islamic banks with conventional banks. Profit-sharing agreement allows sharing of benefits and risks between shahibul maal and mudharib in islamic bank. This study aimed to observe the patterns of influence between the risk-sharing agreement, financing risk and Profitability in Islamic banks. This research used several Islamic banks as sample and path analysis method. The empirical results of this research shows that the profit-sharing agreement in deposits structure has no direct significant effect to ROA, but it has indirect effect to ROA through profit-sharing financing. On the other hand, profit-sharing financing has direct and indirect influence to ROA through financing risk. This research shows that profit-sharing financing has a positive significant effect to the financing risk and also to the ROA. The research recommends Islamic banks to continue using and developing profit-sharing agreement in its operational activities, hence to create value.

Keywords: Islamic bank, profit-loss sharing agreement, financing risk, profitability

Procedia PDF Downloads 406