Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1610

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Bioengineering and Life Sciences]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

1610 An Exploratory Survey Questionnaire to Understand What Emotions Are Important and Difficult to Communicate for People with Dysarthria and Their Methodology of Doing That

Authors: Lubna Alhinti, Heidi Christensen, Stuart Cunningham

Abstract:

People with speech disorders may rely on augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) technologies to help them communicate. However, the limitations of the current AAC technologies act as barriers to the optimal use of these technologies in daily communication settings. The ability to communicate effectively relies on a number of factors that are not limited to the intelligibility of the spoken words. In fact, non-verbal cues play a critical role in the correct comprehension of messages, and having to rely on verbal communication only, as is the case with current AAC technology, may contribute to problems in communication. This is especially true for people’s ability to express their feelings and emotions, which are communicated to a large part through non-verbal cues. This paper focuses on understanding more about the non- verbal communication ability of people with dysarthria, with the overarching aim of this research being to improve AAC technology by allowing people with dysarthria to better communicate emotions. Preliminary survey results are presented that give an understanding of how people with dysarthria convey emotions, what emotions that are important for them to get across, what emotions that are difficult for them to convey, and whether there is a difference in communicating emotions when speaking to familiar versus unfamiliar people.

Keywords: alternative and augmentative communication technology, dysarthria, speech emotion recognition, VIVOCA

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1609 Impact of Transgenic Adipose Derived Stem Cells in the Healing of Spinal Cord Injury of Dogs

Authors: Imdad Ullah Khan, Yongseok Yoon, Kyeung Uk Choi, Kwang Rae Jo, Namyul Kim, Eunbee Lee, Wan Hee Kim, Oh-Kyeong Kweon

Abstract:

The primary spinal cord injury (SCI) causes mechanical damage to the neurons and blood vessels. It leads to secondary SCI, which activates multiple pathological pathways, which expand neuronal damage at the injury site. It is characterized by vascular disruption, ischemia, excitotoxicity, oxidation, inflammation, and apoptotic cell death. It causes nerve demyelination and disruption of axons, which perpetuate a loss of impulse conduction through the injured spinal cord. It also leads to the production of myelin inhibitory molecules, which with a concomitant formation of an astroglial scar, impede axonal regeneration. The pivotal role regarding the neuronal necrosis is played by oxidation and inflammation. During an early stage of spinal cord injury, there occurs an abundant expression of reactive oxygen species (ROS) due to defective mitochondrial metabolism and abundant migration of phagocytes (macrophages, neutrophils). ROS cause lipid peroxidation of the cell membrane, and cell death. Abundant migration of neutrophils, macrophages, and lymphocytes collectively produce pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1beta (IL-1β), matrix metalloproteinase, superoxide dismutase, and myeloperoxidases which synergize neuronal apoptosis. Therefore, it is crucial to control inflammation and oxidation injury to minimize the nerve cell death during secondary spinal cord injury. Therefore, in response to oxidation and inflammation, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is induced by the resident cells to ameliorate the milieu. In the meanwhile, neurotrophic factors are induced to promote neuroregeneration. However, it seems that anti-stress enzyme (HO-1) and neurotrophic factor (BDNF) do not significantly combat the pathological events during secondary spinal cord injury. Therefore, optimum healing can be induced if anti-inflammatory and neurotrophic factors are administered in a higher amount through an exogenous source. During the first experiment, the inflammation and neuroregeneration were selectively targeted. HO-1 expressing MSCs (HO-1 MSCs) and BDNF expressing MSCs (BDNF MSC) were co-transplanted in one group (combination group) of dogs with subacute spinal cord injury to selectively control the expression of inflammatory cytokines by HO-1 and induce neuroregeneration by BDNF. We compared the combination group with the HO-1 MSCs group, BDNF MSCs group, and GFP MSCs group. We found that the combination group showed significant improvement in functional recovery. It showed increased expression of neural markers and growth-associated proteins (GAP-43) than in other groups, which depicts enhanced neuroregeneration/neural sparing due to reduced expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-alpha, IL-6 and COX-2; and increased expression of anti-inflammatory markers such as IL-10 and HO-1. Histopathological study revealed reduced intra-parenchymal fibrosis in the injured spinal cord segment in the combination group than in other groups. Thus it was concluded that selectively targeting the inflammation and neuronal growth with the combined use of HO-1 MSCs and BDNF MSCs more favorably promote healing of the SCI. HO-1 MSCs play a role in controlling the inflammation, which favors the BDNF induced neuroregeneration at the injured spinal cord segment of dogs.

Keywords: HO-1 MSCs, BDNF MSCs, neuroregeneration, inflammation, anti-inflammation, spinal cord injury, dogs

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1608 Identification and Quantification of Sesquiterpene Lactones of Sagebrush (Artemisia Tridentate) and Its Chemical Modification

Authors: Rosemary Anibogwu, Kavita Sharma, Karl De Jesus

Abstract:

Sagebrush is an abundant and naturally occurring plant in the Intermountain West region of the United States. The plant contains an array of bioactive compounds such as flavonoids, terpenoids, sterols, and phenolic acids. It is important to identify and characterize these compounds because Native Americans use sagebrush as herbal medicine. These compounds are also utilized for preventing infection in wounds, treating headaches and colds, and possess antitumor properties. This research is an exploratory study on the sesquiterpene present in the leaves of sagebrush. The leaf foliage was extracted with 100 % chloroform and 100 % methanol. The percentage yield for the crude was considerably higher in chloroform. The Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) analysis of the crude extracted unveiled a brown band at Rf = 0.25 and a dark brown band at Rf = 0.74, along with three unknown faint bands the 254 nm UV lamp. Furthermore, the two distinct brown (Achillin) and dark brown band (Hydroxyachillin) in TLC were further utilized in the isolation of pure compounds with column chromatography. The structures of Achillin and Hydroxyachillin were elucidated based on extensive spectroscopic analysis, including TLC, High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), 1D- and 2D-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), and Mass Spectroscopy (MS). The antioxidant activities of crude extract and three pure compounds were evaluated in terms of their peroxyl radical scavenging by Ferric Reducing Ability of Plasma (FRAP) and 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) methods. The crude extract showed the antioxidant activity of 18.99 ± 0.51 µmol TEg -1 FW for FRAP and 11.59 ± 0.38 µmol TEg -1 FW for DPPH. The activities of Achillin, Hydroxyachillin, and Quercetagetin trimethyl ether were 13.03, 15.90 and 14.02 µmol TEg -1 FW respectively for the FRAP assay. The three purified compounds have been submitted to the National Cancer Institute 60 cancer cell line for further study.

Keywords: HPLC, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, sagebrush, sesquiterpene lactones

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1607 Sexual Dimorphism in the Insertion Sites of the Palmar Radiocarpal Ligaments in Hominoid Primates

Authors: Aroa Casado, Josep Maria Potau, Juan Francisco Pastor, Miquel Llorente, David Riba, Felix Jesús de Paz

Abstract:

Sexual dimorphism has been studied extensively throughout history in many different ways. In anatomy studies, there are several studies based on the sexual dimorphism that exists in the general morphology of the species. However, there is a lack of studies on the difference between sexes in specific anatomical structures that are associated with certain functions. In the studies of primates upper limb, we find it interesting to explore whether the uses that chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans have made of their wrist are different according to their sex. If we observe that there are differences between males and females at these levels, we would like to check if this changes the locomotor behavior. To explore this, we will study the sexual dimorphism in the insertion sites of the palmar radiocarpal ligaments in different species of wild hominoid primates. For doing it, we have used 3D geometric morphometrics (3D GM) to analyze the distal radius ligament insertion sites in 25 Pan troglodytes, 31 Gorilla gorilla, and 15 Pongo pygmaeus raised in a wild context. The results that we have found throughout the study, once the allometric factor has been eliminated, is that there are no significant differences between any of the species studied based on sex. In conclusion, it cannot be said that there are different locomotor behaviors conditioned by the sex of the individual that affect the wrist ligaments in the different species studied.

Keywords: dimorphism, great apes, radiocarpal ligaments

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1606 Significant Influence of Land Use Type on Earthworm Communities but Not on Soil Microbial Respiration in Selected Soils of Hungary

Authors: Tsedekech Gebremeskel Weldmichael, Tamas Szegi, Barbara Simon, Lubangakene Denish, Erika Micheli, Ravi Kumar Gangwar

Abstract:

Following the 1992 Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro, soil biodiversity has been recognized globally as a crucial player in guaranteeing the functioning of soil and a provider of several ecosystem services essential for human well-being. The microbial fraction of the soil is a vital component of soil fertility as soil microbes play key roles in soil aggregate formation, nutrient cycling, humification, and degradation of pollutants. Soil fauna, such as earthworms, have huge impacts on soil organic matter dynamics, nutrient cycling, and infiltration and distribution of water in the soil. Currently, land-use change has been a global concern as evidence accumulates that it adversely affects soil biodiversity and the associated ecosystem goods and services. In this study, we examined the patterns of soil microbial respiration (SMR) and earthworm (abundance, biomass, and species richness) across three land-use types (grassland, arable land, and forest) in Hungary. The objectives were i) to investigate whether there is a significant difference in SMR and earthworm (abundance, biomass, and species richness) among land-use types. ii) to determine the key soil properties that best predict the variation in SMR and earthworm communities. Soil samples, to a depth of 25 cm, were collected from the surrounding areas of seven soil profiles. For physicochemical parameters, soil organic matter (SOM), pH, CaCO₃, E₄/E₆, available nitrogen (NH₄⁺-N and NO₃⁻-N), potassium (K₂O), phosphorus (P₂O₅), exchangeable Ca²⁺, Mg²⁺, soil moisture content (MC) and bulk density were measured. The analysis of SMR was determined by basal respiration method, and the extraction of earthworms was carried out by hand sorting method as described by ISO guideline. The results showed that there was no statistically significant difference among land-use types in SMR (p > 0.05). However, the highest SMR was observed in grassland soils (11.77 mgCO₂ 50g⁻¹ soil 10 days⁻¹) and lowest in forest soils (8.61 mgCO₂ 50g⁻¹ soil 10 days⁻¹). SMR had strong positive correlations with exchangeable Ca²⁺ (r = 0.80), MC (r = 0.72), and exchangeable Mg²⁺(r = 0.69). We found a pronounced variation in SMR among soil texture classes (p < 0.001), where the highest value in silty clay loam soils and the lowest in sandy soils. This study provides evidence that agricultural activities can negatively influence earthworm communities, in which the arable land had significantly lower earthworm communities compared to forest and grassland respectively. Overall, in our study, land use type had minimal effects on SMR whereas, earthworm communities were profoundly influenced by land-use type particularly agricultural activities related to tillage. Exchangeable Ca²⁺, MC, and texture were found to be the key drivers of the variation in SMR.

Keywords: earthworm community, land use, soil biodiversity, soil microbial respiration, soil property

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1605 Characterization of the Microorganisms Associated with Pleurotus ostractus and Pleurotus tuber-Regium Spent Mushroom Substrate

Authors: Samuel E. Okere, Anthony E. Ataga

Abstract:

Introduction: The microbial ecology of Pleurotus osteratus and Pleurotus tuber–regium spent mushroom substrate (SMS) were characterized to determine other ways of its utilization. Materials and Methods: The microbiological properties of the spent mushroom substrate were determined using standard methods. This study was carried out at the Microbiology Laboratory University of Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria. Results: Quantitative microbiological analysis revealed that Pleurotus osteratus spent mushroom substrate (POSMS) contained 7.9x10⁵ and 1.2 x10³ cfu/g of total heterotrophic bacteria and total fungi count respectively while Pleurotus tuber-regium spent mushroom substrate (PTSMS) contained 1.38x10⁶ and 9.0 x10² cfu/g of total heterotrophic bacteria count and total fungi count respectively. The fungi species encountered from Pleurotus tuber-regium spent mushroom substrate (PTSMS) include Aspergillus and Cladosporum species, while Aspergillus and Penicillium species were encountered from Pleurotus osteratus spent mushroom substrate (POSMS). However, the bacteria species encountered from Pleurotus tuber-regium spent mushroom substrate include Bacillus, Acinetobacter, Alcaligenes, Actinobacter, and Pseudomonas species while Bacillus, Actinobacteria, Aeromonas, Lactobacillus and Aerococcus species were encountered from Pleurotus osteratus spent mushroom substrate (POSMS). Conclusion: Therefore based on the findings from this study, it can be concluded that spent mushroom substrate contain microorganisms that can be utilized both in bioremediation of oil-polluted soils as they contain important hydrocarbon utilizing microorganisms such as Penicillium, Aspergillus and Bacillus species and also as sources of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) such as Pseudomonas and Bacillus species which can induce resistance on plants. However, further studies are recommended, especially to molecularly characterize these microorganisms.

Keywords: characterization, microorganisms, mushroom, spent substrate

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1604 Characterization of Minerals, Elicitors in Spent Mushroom Substrate Extract and Effects on Growth, Yield and the Management of Massava Mosaic Diseases

Authors: Samuel E. Okere, Anthony E. Ataga

Abstract:

Introduction: This paper evaluated the mineral compositions, disease resistance elicitors in Pleurotus ostratus (POWESMS), and Pleurotus tuber-regium water extract spent mushroom substrate (PTWESMS) on the growth, yield, and management of cassava mosaic disease. Materials and Methods: The cassava plantlet (tms 98/0505) were generated through meristem tip culture at the Tissue Culture Laboratory, National Root Crop Research Institute, Umudike before they were transferred to the screen house, University of Port Harcourt Research Farm. The minerals and elicitors contained in the two spent mushroom substrates were evaluated using standard procedures. The treatments for this investigation comprised cassava plants treated with POWESMS, PTWESMS, and untreated cassava as control, which were inoculated with viral inoculum seven days after treatment application. The experiment was laid out in a completely randomized block design with 3 replicates. The data generated were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA). Means were separated using Fishers Least Significant Difference at p=0.05. Results: The results obtained revealed that POWESMS contained 19.3, 0.52, and 0.1g/200g substrate of carbohydrate polymers, glycoproteins, and lipid molecules elicitors respectively while it also contained 3.17, 212.1, 17.9,21.8, 58.8 and 111.0 mg/100g substrate for N, P, K, Na, Mg and Ca respectively. Further, PTWESMS contain 1.6, 0.04, and 0.2g/200g of the substrate as carbohydrate polymers, glycoprotein, and lipid respectively; the minerals contained in this substrate were 3.4, 204.8, 8.9, 24.2, 32.2 and 105.5 mg respectively for N, P, K, Na, and Ca. There were also significant differences in the mean values of the number of storage roots, root length, fresh root weight, fresh weight plant biomass, root girth, and whole plant dry biomass, but no significant difference was recorded for harvest index. The result also revealed significant differences in mean values of disease severity index evaluated at 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, and 28 weeks after inoculation (WAI). Conclusion: The aqueous extract of these spent mushrooms substrate have shown outstanding prospect in managing cassava mosaic disease and also improvement in growth and yield of cassava due to the high level of the minerals and elicitors they contain when compared with the control. However, more work is recommended, especially in understanding the mechanism of this induced resistance.

Keywords: characterization, elicitors, mosaic, mushroom

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1603 Chronological Skin System Aging: Improvements in Reversing Markers with Different Routes of Green Tea Extract Administration

Authors: Aliaa Mahmoud Issa

Abstract:

Green tea may provide an alternative treatment for many skin system disorders. Intrinsic or chronological aging represents the structural, functional, and metabolic changes in the skin, which depend on the passage of time per se. The aim of the present study is to compare the effect of green tea extract administration, in drinking water or topically, on the chronological changes of the old Swiss albino mice skin. A total number of forty Swiss albino female mice (Mus musculus) were used; thirty were old females, 50-52 weeks old and the remaining ten young females were about 10 weeks old. The skin of the back of all the studied mice was dehaired with a topical depilatory cream. Treatment with green tea extract was applied in two different ways: in the drinking water (0.5mg/ml/day) or topically, applied to the skin of the dorsal side (6mg/ml water). They were divided into four main groups each of 10 animals: Group I: young untreated, Group II: old untreated groups, Group III: tea-drinking (TD) group, and Group IV: topical tea (TT) group. The animals were euthanized after 3 and 6 weeks from the beginning of green tea extract treatment. The skin was subject to morphometric (epidermal, dermal, and stratum corneum thicknesses; collagen and elastin content) studies. The skin ultrastructure of the groups treated for 6 weeks with the green tea extract was also examined. The old mouse skin was compared to the young one to investigate the chronological changes of the tissue. The results revealed that the skin of mice treated with green tea extract, either topically or to less extent in drinking water, showed a reduction in the aging features manifested by a numerical but statistically insignificant improvement in the morphometric measurements. A remarkable amelioration in the ultrastructure of the old skin was also observed. Generally, green tea extract in the drinking water revealed inconsistent results. The topical application of green tea extract to the skin revealed that the epidermal, dermal and stratum corneum thicknesses and the elastin content, that were statistically significant, approach those of the young group. The ultrastructural study revealed the same observations. The disjunction of the lower epidermal keratinocytes was reduced. It could be concluded that the topical application of green tea extract to the skin of old mice showed improvement in reversing markers of skin system aging more than using the extract in the drinking water.

Keywords: aging, green tea extract, morphometry, skin, ultrastructure

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1602 The Effects of Cow Manure Treated by Fruit Beetle Larvae, Waxworms and Tiger Worms on Plant Growth in Relation to Its Use as Potting Compost

Authors: Waleed S. Alwaneen

Abstract:

Dairy industry is flourishing in world to provide milk and milk products to local population. Besides milk products, dairy industries also generate a substantial amount of cow manure that significantly affects the environment. Moreover, heat produced during the decomposition of the cow manure adversely affects the crop germination. Different companies are producing vermicompost using different species of worms/larvae to overcome the harmful effects using fresh manure. Tiger worm treatment enhanced plant growth, especially in the compost-manure ratio (75% compost, 25% cow manure), followed by a ratio of 50% compost, 50% cow manure.  Results also indicated that plant growth in Waxworm treated manure was weak as compared to plant growth in compost treated with Fruit Beetle (FB), Waxworms (WW), and Control (C) especially in the compost (25% compost, 75% cow manure) and 100% cow manure where there was no growth at all. Freshplant weight, fresh leaf weight and fresh root weight were significantly higher in the compost treated with Tiger worms in (75% compost, 25% cow manure); no evidence was seen for any significant differences in the dry root weight measurement between FB, Tiger worms (TW), WW, Control (C) in all composts. TW produced the best product, especially at the compost ratio of 75% compost, 25% cow manure followed by 50% compost, 50% cow manure.

Keywords: fruit beetle, tiger worms, waxworms, control

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1601 Bacterial Causes of Cerebral Abscess and Impact on Long Term Patient Outcomes

Authors: Umar Rehman, Holly Roy, K. T. Tsang, D. S. Jeyaretna, W Singleton, B. Fisher, P. A. Glew, J. Greig, Peter C. Whitfield

Abstract:

Introduction: A brain abscess is a life-threatening condition, carrying significant mortality. It requires rapid identification and treatment. Management involves a combination of antibiotics and surgery. The aim of the current study was to identify common bacteria responsible for cerebral abscesses as well as the long term functional and neurological outcomes of patients following treatment in a retrospective series at a single UK neurosurgical centre. Methodology: We analysed patients that had received a diagnosis of 'cerebral abscess' or 'subdural empyema' between June 2002 and June 2018. This was done in the form of a retrospective review. The search resulted in a total of 180 patients; with 37 patients being excluded (spinal abscess, below 18 or non-abscess related admissions). Data were collected from medical case notes including information about demographics, comorbidities, immunosuppression, presentation, size/location of lesions, pathogens, treatment, and outcomes. Results: In total, we analysed 143 patients between the ages of 18-90. Focal neurological deficit and headaches were seen in 84% and 68% of patients respectively. 108 positive brain cultures were seen; with the largest proportion, 59.2% being gram-positive cocci, with strep intermedius being the most common pathogen identified in 13.9% of patients. Of the patients with positive blood cultures (n=11), 72.7% showed the same organism both in the blood and on the brain cultures. Long term outcomes (n=72) revealed that 48% of patients seizure-free without requiring anti-epileptics, 51.3% of patients had full recovery of their neurological symptoms. There was a mortality rate of 13.9% in the series. Conclusion: In conclusion, the largest bacterial cause of abscess within our population was due to gram-positive cocci. The majority of the patient demonstrated full neurological recovery with close to half of patients not requiring anti-epileptics following discharge.

Keywords: bacteria, cerebral abscess, long term outcome, neurological deficit

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1600 Gauging Floral Resources for Pollinators Using High Resolution Drone Imagery

Authors: Nicholas Anderson, Steven Petersen, Tom Bates, Val Anderson

Abstract:

Under the multiple-use management regime established in the United States for federally owned lands, government agencies have come under pressure from commercial apiaries to grant permits for the summer pasturing of honeybees on government lands. Federal agencies have struggled to integrate honeybees into their management plans and have little information to make regulations that resolve how many colonies should be allowed in a single location and at what distance sets of hives should be placed. Many conservation groups have voiced their concerns regarding the introduction of honeybees to these natural lands, as they may outcompete and displace native pollinating species. Assessing the quality of an area in regard to its floral resources, pollen, and nectar can be important when attempting to create regulations for the integration of commercial honeybee operations into a native ecosystem. Areas with greater floral resources may be able to support larger numbers of honeybee colonies, while poorer resource areas may be less resilient to introduced disturbances. Attempts are made in this study to determine flower cover using high resolution drone imagery to help assess the floral resource availability to pollinators in high elevation, tall forb communities. This knowledge will help in determining the potential that different areas may have for honeybee pasturing and honey production. Roughly 700 images were captured at 23m above ground level using a drone equipped with a Sony QX1 RGB 20-megapixel camera. These images were stitched together using Pix4D, resulting in a 60m diameter high-resolution mosaic of a tall forb meadow. Using the program ENVI, a supervised maximum likelihood classification was conducted to calculate the percentage of total flower cover and flower cover by color (blue, white, and yellow). A complete vegetation inventory was taken on site, and the major flowers contributing to each color class were noted. An accuracy assessment was performed on the classification yielding an 89% overall accuracy and a Kappa Statistic of 0.855. With this level of accuracy, drones provide an affordable and time efficient method for the assessment of floral cover in large areas. The proximal step of this project will now be to determine the average pollen and nectar loads carried by each flower species. The addition of this knowledge will result in a quantifiable method of measuring pollen and nectar resources of entire landscapes. This information will not only help land managers determine stocking rates for honeybees on public lands but also has applications in the agricultural setting, aiding producers in the determination of the number of honeybee colonies necessary for proper pollination of fruit and nut crops.

Keywords: honeybee, flower, pollinator, remote sensing

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1599 Impacts of Commercial Honeybees on Native Butterflies in High-Elevation Meadows in Utah, USA

Authors: Jacqueline Kunzelman, Val Anderson, Robert Johnson, Nicholas Anderson, Rebecca Bates

Abstract:

In an effort to protect honeybees from colony collapse disorder, beekeepers are filing for government permits to use natural lands as summer pasture for honeybees under the multiple-use management regime in the United States. Utilizing natural landscapes in high mountain ranges may help strengthen honeybee colonies, as this natural setting is generally void of chemical pollutants and pesticides that are found in agricultural and urban settings. However, the introduction of a competitive species could greatly impact the native species occupying these natural landscapes. While honeybees and butterflies have different life histories, behavior, and foraging strategies, they compete for the same nectar resources. Few, if any, studies have focused on the potential population effects of commercial honeybees on native butterfly abundance and diversity. This study attempts to observe this impact using a paired before-after control-impact (BACI) design. Over the course of two years, malaise trap samples were collected every week during the months of the flowering season in two similar areas separated by 11 kilometers. Each area contained nine malaise trap sites for replication. In the first year, samples were taken to analyze and establish trends within the pollinating communities. In the second year, honeybees were introduced to only one of the two areas, and a change in trends between the two areas was assessed. Contrary to the original hypothesis, the resulting observation was an overall significant increase in the mean butterfly abundance in the impact areas after honeybees were introduced, while control areas remained relatively stable. This overall increase in abundance over the season can be attributed to an increase in butterflies during the first and second periods of the data collection when populations were near their peak. Several potential theories are 1) Honeybees are deterring a natural predator/competitor of butterflies that previously limited population growth. 2) Honeybees are consuming resources regularly used by butterflies, which may extend the foraging time and consequent capture rates of butterflies. 3) Environmental factors such as number of rainy days were inconsistent between control and impact areas, biasing capture rates. This ongoing research will help determine the suitability of high mountain ranges for the summer pasturing of honeybees and the population impacts on many different pollinators.

Keywords: butterfly, competition, honeybee, pollinator

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1598 A Foundation for the Loewe Additivity Reference Model for Drug Combinations in Terms of Complementary Doses and Equivalent Doses

Authors: Wim De Mulder, Martin Kuiper

Abstract:

Treating patients with combinations of drugs that have synergistic effects has become widespread practice in the clinic. Drugs work synergistically when the observed effect of a drug combination is larger than the effect predicted by the reference model. The reference model is a theoretical null model that returns the combined effect of given doses of drugs under the assumption that these drugs do not interact. There is ongoing debate on what it means for drugs to not interact. The controversy transcends mathematical punctuality, as different non-interaction principles result in different reference models. A famous reference model that has been in existence for already a long time is Loewe’s reference model. Loewe’s vision on non-interaction was purely intuitive: two drugs do not interact if all combinations of doses that result in a certain given effect lie on a straight line. We show that Loewe’s reference model can be obtained from a much more fundamental non-interaction principle. The introduced non-interaction principle relies on the notion of complementary doses, and on a concept that has already been introduced before but for which we provide an improved formulation, namely the concept of equivalent doses. The improved formulation of equivalent doses is obtained from a beautiful connection with the change-of-basis matrix in linear algebra. We show how to derive Loewe’s reference model from the introduced non-interaction principle. Furthermore, we prove several properties of the model, thereby showing that a recent claim describing a severe limitation of Loewe’s reference model is flawed.

Keywords: complementary dose, drug combinations, equivalent dose, Loewe, reference model

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1597 The Cleavage of DNA by the Anti-Tumor Drug Bleomycin at the Transcription Start Sites of Human Genes Using Genome-Wide Techniques

Authors: Vincent Murray

Abstract:

The glycopeptide bleomycin is used in the treatment of testicular cancer, Hodgkin's lymphoma, and squamous cell carcinoma. Bleomycin damages and cleaves DNA in human cells, and this is considered to be the main mode of action for bleomycin's anti-tumor activity. In particular, double-strand breaks are thought to be the main mechanism for the cellular toxicity of bleomycin. Using Illumina next-generation DNA sequencing techniques, the genome-wide sequence specificity of bleomycin-induced double-strand breaks was determined in human cells. The degree of bleomycin cleavage was also assessed at the transcription start sites (TSSs) of actively transcribed genes and compared with non-transcribed genes. It was observed that bleomycin preferentially cleaved at the TSSs of actively transcribed human genes. There was a correlation between the degree of this enhanced cleavage at TSSs and the level of transcriptional activity. Bleomycin cleavage is also affected by chromatin structure and at TSSs, the peaks of bleomycin cleavage were approximately 200 bp apart. This indicated that bleomycin was able to detect phased nucleosomes at the TSSs of actively transcribed human genes. The genome-wide cleavage pattern of the bleomycin analogues 6′-deoxy-BLM Z and zorbamycin was also investigated in human cells. As found for bleomycin, these bleomycin analogues also preferentially cleaved at the TSSs of actively transcribed human genes. The cytotoxicity (IC₅₀ values) of these bleomycin analogues was determined. It was found that the degree of enhanced cleavage at TSSs was inversely correlated with the IC₅₀ values of the bleomycin analogues. This suggested that the level of cleavage at the TSSs of actively transcribed human genes was important for the cytotoxicity of bleomycin and analogues. Hence this study provided a deeper understanding of the cellular processes involved in the cancer chemotherapeutic activity of bleomycin.

Keywords: anti-tumour activity, bleomycin analogues, chromatin structure, genome-wide study, Illumina DNA sequencing

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1596 Generalized Correlation Coefficient in Genome-Wide Association Analysis of Cognitive Ability in Twins

Authors: Afsaneh Mohammadnejad, Marianne Nygaard, Jan Baumbach, Shuxia Li, Weilong Li, Jesper Lund, Jacob v. B. Hjelmborg, Lene Christensen, Qihua Tan

Abstract:

Cognitive impairment in the elderly is a key issue affecting the quality of life. Despite a strong genetic background in cognition, only a limited number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been found. These explain a small proportion of the genetic component of cognitive function, thus leaving a large proportion unaccounted for. We hypothesize that one reason for this missing heritability is the misspecified modeling in data analysis concerning phenotype distribution as well as the relationship between SNP dosage and the phenotype of interest. In an attempt to overcome these issues, we introduced a model-free method based on the generalized correlation coefficient (GCC) in a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of cognitive function in twin samples and compared its performance with two popular linear regression models. The GCC-based GWAS identified two genome-wide significant (P-value < 5e-8) SNPs; rs2904650 near ZDHHC2 on chromosome 8 and rs111256489 near CD6 on chromosome 11. The kinship model also detected two genome-wide significant SNPs, rs112169253 on chromosome 4 and rs17417920 on chromosome 7, whereas no genome-wide significant SNPs were found by the linear mixed model (LME). Compared to the linear models, more meaningful biological pathways like GABA receptor activation, ion channel transport, neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction, and the renin-angiotensin system were found to be enriched by SNPs from GCC. The GCC model outperformed the linear regression models by identifying more genome-wide significant genetic variants and more meaningful biological pathways related to cognitive function. Moreover, GCC-based GWAS was robust in handling genetically related twin samples, which is an important feature in handling genetic confounding in association studies.

Keywords: cognition, generalized correlation coefficient, GWAS, twins

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1595 Potential of Intercropping Corn and Cowpea to Ratooned Sugarcane for Food and Forage

Authors: Maricon E. Gepolani, Edna A. Aguilar, Pearl B. Sanchez, Enrico P. Supangco

Abstract:

Intercropping farming system and biofertilizer application are sustainable agricultural practices that increase farm productivity by improving the yield performance of the components involved in the production system. Thus, this on-farm trial determined the yield and forage quality of corn and cowpea with and without biofertilizer application when intercropped with ratooned sugarcane. Intercropping corn and cowpea without biofertilizer application had no negative effect on the vegetative growth of sugarcane. However, application of biofertilizer on intercrops decreased tiller production at 117 days after stubble shaving (DASS), consequently reducing the estimated tonnage yield of sugarcane. The yield of intercrops and forage production of Cp3 cowpea variety increased when intercropped to ratooned sugarcane. In contrast, intercropping PSB 97-92 corn variety to ratooned sugarcane reduced its forage production, but when biofertilizer was applied to intercropped Cp5 cowpea variety, the forage production increased. Profitability (income equivalent ratio) of intercropping for both corn and cowpea are higher than monocropping and are thus suitable intercrops to ratooned sugarcane. Unaffected tiller count (a determinant of sugarcane tonnage yield) when biofertilizer was not applied to intercrops and a reduced tiller count with biofertilizer application to intercrops implies the need to develop a nutrient management practices specific for intercropping systems.

Keywords: biofertilizer, corn, cowpea, intercropping system, ratooned sugarcane

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1594 Evaluation of Different Inoculation Methods of Entomopathogenic Fungi on Their Endophytism and Pathogenicity against Chilo partellus (Swinhoe)

Authors: Mubashar Iqbal, Iqra Anjum, Muhammad Dildar Gogi, Muhammad Jalal Arif

Abstract:

The present study was carried to screen out the effective entomopathogenic fungi (EPF) inoculation method in maize and to evaluate pathogenicity and oviposition-choice in C. partellus. Three entomopathogenic fungi (EPF) formulations Pacer® (Metarhizium anisopliae), Racer® (Beauveria bassiana) and Meailkil® (Verticillium lecanii) were evaluated at three concentrations (5000, 10000 and 20000 ppm) for their endophytism in maize and pathogenicity in C. partellus. The stock solution of the highest concentration (20,000 ppm) was prepared and next lower from stock solution. In the first experiment, three EPF was inoculated in maize plant by four methods, i.e., leaf-inoculation (LI), whorl-inoculation (WI), shoot-inoculation (SI) and root-inoculation (RI). Leaf-discs and stem-cutting were sampled in all four inoculation methods and placed on fungus growth media in Petri dishes. In the second experiment, pathogenicity, pupal formation, adult emergence, sex ratio, oviposition-choice, and growth index of C. partellus were calculated. The leaves and stem of the inoculated plants were given to the counted number of larvae of C. Partellus. The mortality of larvae was recorded on daily basis till the pupation. The result shows that maximum percent mortality (86.67%) was recorded at high concentration (20000ppm) of Beauveria bassiana by leaf inoculation method. For oviposition choice bioassay, the newly emerged adults were fed on diet (water, honey and yeast in 9:1:1) for 48 hours. One pair of C. Partellus were aspirated from the rearing cages and were detained in large test tube plugged with diet soaked cotton. A set of four plants for each treatment were prepared and randomized inside the large oviposition chamber. The test tubes were opened and fitted in the hole made in the wall of oviposition chamber in front of each treatment. The oviposition chamber was placed in a completely dark laboratory to eliminate the effect of light on moth’s behavior. The plants were removed from the oviposition chamber after the death of adults. The number of eggs deposited on the plant was counted. The results of 2nd experiment revealed that in all EPF and inoculation methods, the fecundity, egg fertility and growth index of C. partellus decreased with the increase in concentration being significantly higher at low concentration (5000ppm) and lower at higher concentration (20000ppm). Application of B. bassiana demonstrated that minimum fecundity (126.83), egg fertility (119.52) and growth index (15%) in C. partellus followed by M. anisopliae with fecundity (135.93), egg fertility (132.29) and growth index (17.50%) while V. lecanii show higher values of fecundity (137.37), egg fertility (1135.42) and growth index (20%). Overall leaf inoculation method showed least fecundity (123.89) with egg fertility (115.36) and growth index (14%) followed by whorl, shoot inoculation method and root inoculation method show higher values of fecundity, egg fertility and growth index.

Keywords: Beauveria bassiana, Chilo partellus, entomopathoganic, Metarhizium anisopliae, Verticillium lecanii

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1593 Development and Validation of HPLC Method on Determination of Acesulfame-K in Jelly Drink Product

Authors: Candra Irawan, David Yudianto, Ahsanu Nadiyya, Dewi Anna Br Sitepu, Hanafi, Erna Styani

Abstract:

Jelly drink was produced from a combination of both natural and synthetic materials, such as acesulfame potassium (acesulfame-K) as synthetic sweetener material. Acesulfame-K content in jelly drink could be determined by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), but this method needed validation due to having a change on the reagent addition step which skips the carrez addition and comparison of mix mobile phase (potassium dihydrogen phosphate and acetonitrile) with ratio from 75:25 to 90:10 to be more efficient and cheap. This study was conducted to evaluate the performance of determination method for acesulfame-K content in the jelly drink by HPLC. The method referred to Deutsches Institut fur Normung European Standard International Organization for Standardization (DIN EN ISO):12856 (1999) about Foodstuffs, Determination of acesulfame-K, aspartame and saccharin. The result of the correlation coefficient value (r) on the linearity test was 0.9987 at concentration range 5-100 mg/L. Detection limit value was 0.9153 ppm, while the quantitation limit value was 1.1932 ppm. The recovery (%) value on accuracy test for sample concentration by spiking 100 mg/L was 102-105%. Relative Standard Deviation (RSD) value for precision and homogenization tests were 2.815% and 4.978%, respectively. Meanwhile, the comparative and stability tests were tstat (0.136) < ttable (2.101) and |µ1-µ2| (1.502) ≤ 0.3×CV Horwitz. Obstinacy test value was tstat < ttable. It can be concluded that the HPLC  method for the determination of acesulfame-K in jelly drink product by HPLC has been valid and can be used for analysis with good performance.

Keywords: acesulfame-K, jelly drink, HPLC, validation

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1592 Functional Gene Expression in Human Cells Using Linear Vectors Derived from Bacteriophage N15 Processing

Authors: Kumaran Narayanan, Pei-Sheng Liew

Abstract:

This paper adapts the bacteriophage N15 protelomerase enzyme to assemble linear chromosomes as vectors for gene expression in human cells. Phage N15 has the unique ability to replicate as a linear plasmid with telomeres in E. coli during its prophage stage of life-cycle. The virus-encoded protelomerase enzyme cuts its circular genome and caps its ends to form hairpin telomeres, resulting in a linear human-chromosome-like structure in E. coli. In mammalian cells, however, no enzyme with TelN-like activities has been found. In this work, we show for the first-time transfer of the protelomerase from phage into human and mouse cells and demonstrate recapitulation of its activity in these hosts. The function of this enzyme is assayed by demonstrating cleavage of its target DNA, followed by detecting telomere formation based on its resistance to recBCD enzyme digestion. We show protelomerase expression persists for at least 60 days, which indicates limited silencing of its expression. Next, we show that an intact human β-globin gene delivered on this linear chromosome accurately retains its expression in the human cellular environment for at least 60 hours, demonstrating its stability and potential as a vector. These results demonstrate that the N15 protelomerse is able to function in mammalian cells to cut and heal DNA to create telomeres, which provides a new tool for creating novel structures by DNA resolution in these hosts.

Keywords: chromosome, beta-globin, DNA, gene expression, linear vector

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1591 Electrochemical Biosensor for the Detection of Botrytis spp. in Temperate Legume Crops

Authors: Marzia Bilkiss, Muhammad J. A. Shiddiky, Mostafa K. Masud, Prabhakaran Sambasivam, Ido Bar, Jeremy Brownlie, Rebecca Ford

Abstract:

A greater achievement in the Integrated Disease Management (IDM) to prevent the loss would result from early diagnosis and quantitation of the causal pathogen species for accurate and timely disease control. This could significantly reduce costs to the growers and reduce any flow on impacts to the environment from excessive chemical spraying. Necrotrophic fungal disease botrytis grey mould, caused by Botrytis cinerea and Botrytis fabae, significantly reduce temperate legume yield and grain quality during favourable environmental condition in Australia and worldwide. Several immunogenic and molecular probe-type protocols have been developed for their diagnosis, but these have varying levels of species-specificity, sensitivity, and consequent usefulness within the paddock. To substantially improve speed, accuracy, and sensitivity, advanced nanoparticle-based biosensor approaches have been developed. For this, two sets of primers were designed for both Botrytis cinerea and Botrytis fabae which have shown the species specificity with initial sensitivity of two genomic copies/µl in pure fungal backgrounds using multiplexed quantitative PCR. During further validation, quantitative PCR detected 100 spores on artificially infected legume leaves. Simultaneously an electro-catalytic assay was developed for both target fungal DNA using functionalised magnetic nanoparticles. This was extremely sensitive, able to detect a single spore within a raw total plant nucleic acid extract background. We believe that the translation of this technology to the field will enable quantitative assessment of pathogen load for future accurate decision support of informed botrytis grey mould management.

Keywords: biosensor, botrytis grey mould, sensitive, species specific

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1590 Ecosystem Restoration: Remediation of Crude Oil-Polluted Soil by Leuceana leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit

Authors: Ayodele Adelusi Oyedeji

Abstract:

The study was carried out under a controlled environment with the aim of examining remediation of crude oil polluted soil. The germination rate, heights and girths, number of leaves and nodulation was determined following standard procedures. Some physicochemical (organic matter, pH, nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium, calcium, magnesium and sodium) characteristics of soil used were determined using standard protocols. Results showed that at varying concentration of crude oil i.e 0 ml, 25 ml, 50 ml, 75 ml and 100 ml, Leuceana leucocephala had germination rate of 92%, 90%, 84%, 62% and 56% respectively, mean height of 73.70cm, 58.30cm, 49.50cm, 46.45cm and 41.80cm respectively after 16 weeks after planting (WAP), mean girth of 0.54mm, 0.34mm, 0.33mm, 0.21mm and 0.19mm respectively at 16 WAP, number of nodules 18, 10, 10, 6 and 2 respectively and number of leaves 24.00, 16.00, 13.00, 10.00 and 6.00 respectively. The organic matter, pH, nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium, calcium, magnesium, and sodium decreased with the increase in the concentration of crude oil. Furthermore, as the concentration of crude oil increased the germination rate, height, girth, and number of leaves and nodules decreased, suggesting the effect of crude oil on Leuceana leucocephala. The plant withstands the varying concentration of the crude oil means that it could be used for the remediation of crude oil contaminated soil in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria.

Keywords: ecosystem conservation, Leuceana leucocephala, phytoremediation, soil pollution

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1589 Oral Biofilm and Stomatitis Denture: Local Implications and Cardiovascular Risks

Authors: Adriana B. Ribeiro, Camila B. Araujo, Frank L. Bueno, Luiz Eduardo V. Silva, Caroline V. Fortes, Helio C. Salgado, Rubens Fazan Jr., Claudia H. L. da Silva

Abstract:

Denture-related stomatitis (DRS) has recently been associated with deleterious cardiovascular effects, including hypertension. This study evaluated salivary parameters, blood pressure (BP) and heart rate variability (HRV), before and after DRS treatment in edentulous patients (n=14). Collection of unstimulated and stimulated saliva, as well as blood pressure (BP) measurements and electrocardiogram recordings were performed before and after 10 days of DRS treatment. The salivary flow (mL/min) was found similar at both times while pH was smaller (more neutral) after treatment (7.3 ± 2.2 vs. 7.1 ± 0.24). Systolic BP (mmHg) showed a trend, but not a significant reduction after DRS treatment (158 ± 25.68 vs. 148 ± 16,72, p=0,062) while diastolic BP was found similar in both times (86 ± 13.93 and 84 ± 9.38). Overall HRV, measured by standard deviation of RR intervals was not affected by DRS treatment (24 ± 4 vs 18 ± 2 ms), but differences of successive RR intervals (an index of parasympathetic cardiac modulation) increased after the treatment (26 ± 4 vs 19 ± 2 ms). Moreover, another index of vagal modulation of the heart, the power of RR interval spectra at high-frequency, was also markedly higher after DRS treatment (236 ± 63 vs 135 ± 32 ms²). Such findings strongly suggest that DRS is linked to an autonomic imbalance with sympathetic overactivity, which is markedly deleterious, increasing cardiovascular risk and the incidence of diseases such as hypertension. Acknowledgment: This study is supported by FAPESP, CNPq.

Keywords: biofilm, denture stomatitis, HRV, blood pressure

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1588 Control of Lymphatic Remodelling by miR-132

Authors: Valeria Arcucci, Musarat Ishaq, Steven A. Stacker, Greg J. Goodall, Marc G. Achen

Abstract:

Metastasis is the lethal aspect of cancer for most patients. Remodelling of lymphatic vessels associated with a tumour is a key initial step in metastasis because it facilitates the entry of cancer cells into the lymphatic vasculature and their spread to lymph nodes and distant organs. Although it is clear that vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs), such as VEGF-C and VEGF-D, are key drivers of lymphatic remodelling, the means by which many signaling pathways in endothelial cells are coordinately regulated to drive growth and remodelling of lymphatics in cancer is not understood. We seek to understand the broader molecular mechanisms that control cancer metastasis, and are focusing on microRNAs, which coordinately regulate signaling pathways involved in complex biological responses in health and disease. Here, using small RNA sequencing, we found that a specific microRNA, miR-132, is upregulated in expression in lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) in response to the lymphangiogenic growth factors. Interestingly, ectopic expression of miR-132 in LECs in vitro stimulated proliferation and tube formation of these cells. Moreover, miR-132 is expressed in lymphatic vessels of a subset of human breast tumours which were previously found to express high levels of VEGF-D by immunohistochemical analysis on tumour tissue microarrays. In order to dissect the complexity of regulation by miR-132 in lymphatic biology, we performed Argonaute HITS-CLIP, which led us to identify the miR-132-mRNA interactome in LECs. We found that this microRNA in LECs is involved in the control of many different pathways mainly involved in cell proliferation and regulation of the extracellular matrix and cell-cell junctions. We are now exploring the functional significance of miR-132 targets in the biology of LECs using biochemical techniques, functional in vitro cell assays and in vivo lymphangiogenesis assays. This project will ultimately define the molecular regulation of lymphatic remodelling by miR-132, and thereby identify potential therapeutic targets for drugs designed to restrict the growth and remodelling of tumour lymphatics resulting in metastatic spread.

Keywords: argonaute HITS-CLIP, cancer, lymphatic remodelling, miR-132, VEGF

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1587 Rgeneration Natuare of Rumex Species Root Fragment as Affected by Desiccation

Authors: Khalid Alshallash

Abstract:

Small fragments of the roots of some Rumex species including R. obtusifolius and R. crispus have been found to regenerate readily, contributing to the severity of infestations by these very common, widespread and difficult to control perennial weeds of agricultural crops and grasslands. Their root fragments are usually created during routine agricultural practices. We found that fresh root fragments of both species containing 65-70 % of moisture, progressively lose their moisture content when desiccated under controlled growth room conditions matching summer weather of southeast England, with the greatest reduction occurring in the first 48 hours. Probability of shoot emergence and the time taken for emergence in glasshouse conditions were also reduced significantly by desiccation, with R. obtusifolius least affected up to 48-hour. However, the effects converged after 120 hours. In contrast, R. obtusifolius was significantly slower to emerge after up to 48 hours desiccation, again effects converging after longer periods, R. crispus entirely failed to emerge at 120 hours. The dry weight of emerged shoots was not significantly different between the species, until desiccated for 96 hours when R. obtusifolius was significantly reduced. At 120 hours, R. obtusifolius did not emerge. In outdoor trials, desiccation for 24 or 48 hours had less effect on emergence when planted at the soil surface or up to 10 cm of depth, compared to deeper plantings. In both species, emergence was significantly lower when desiccated fragments were planted at 15 or 20 cm. Time taken for emergence was not significantly different between the species until planted at 15 or 20 cm when R. obtusifolius was slower than R. crispus and reduced further by increasing desiccation. Similar variation in effects of increasing soil depth interacting with increasing desiccation was found in reductions in dry weight, the number of tillers and leaf area, with R obtusifolius generally but not exclusively better able to withstand more extreme trial conditions. Our findings suggest that infestations of these highly troublesome weeds may be partly controlled by appropriate agricultural practices, notably exposing cut fragments to drying environmental conditions followed by deep burial.

Keywords: regeneration, root fragment, rumex crispus, rumex obtusifolius

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1586 A Dual Channel Optical Sensor for Norepinephrine via Situ Generated Silver Nanoparticles

Authors: Shalini Menon, K. Girish Kumar

Abstract:

Norepinephrine (NE) is one of the naturally occurring catecholamines which act both as a neurotransmitter and a hormone. Catecholamine levels are used for the diagnosis and regulation of phaeochromocytoma, a neuroendocrine tumor of the adrenal medulla. The development of simple, rapid and cost-effective sensors for NE still remains a great challenge. Herein, a dual-channel sensor has been developed for the determination of NE. A mixture of AgNO₃, NaOH, NH₃.H₂O and cetrimonium bromide in appropriate concentrations was taken as the working solution. To the thoroughly vortexed mixture, an appropriate volume of NE solution was added. After a particular time, the fluorescence and absorbance were measured. Fluorescence measurements were made by exciting at a wavelength of 400 nm. A dual-channel optical sensor has been developed for the colorimetric as well as the fluorimetric determination of NE. Metal enhanced fluorescence property of nanoparticles forms the basis of the fluorimetric detection of this assay, whereas the appearance of brown color in the presence of NE leads to colorimetric detection. Wide linear ranges and sub-micromolar detection limits were obtained using both the techniques. Moreover, the colorimetric approach was applied for the determination of NE in synthetic blood serum and the results obtained were compared with the classic high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. Recoveries between 97% and 104% were obtained using the proposed method. Based on five replicate measurements, relative standard deviation (RSD) for NE determination in the examined synthetic blood serum was found to be 2.3%. This indicates the reliability of the proposed sensor for real sample analysis.

Keywords: norepinephrine, colorimetry, fluorescence, silver nanoparticles

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1585 Cartilage Mimicking Coatings to Increase the Life-Span of Bearing Surfaces in Joint Prosthesis

Authors: L. Sánchez-Abella, I. Loinaz, H-J. Grande, D. Dupin

Abstract:

Aseptic loosening remains as the principal cause of revision in total hip arthroplasty (THA). For long-term implantations, submicron particles are generated in vivo due to the inherent wear of the prosthesis. When this occurs, macrophages undergo phagocytosis and secretion of bone resorptive cytokines inducing osteolysis, hence loosening of the implanted prosthesis. Therefore, new technologies are required to reduce the wear of the bearing materials and hence increase the life-span of the prosthesis. Our strategy focuses on surface modification of the bearing materials with a hydrophilic coating based on cross-linked water-soluble (meth)acrylic monomers to improve their tribological behavior. These coatings are biocompatible, with high swelling capacity and antifouling properties, mimicking the properties of natural cartilage, i.e. wear resistance with a permanent hydrated layer that prevents prosthesis damage. Cartilage mimicking based coatings may be also used to protect medical device surfaces from damage and scratches that will compromise their integrity and hence their safety. However, there are only a few reports on the mechanical and tribological characteristics of this type of coatings. Clear beneficial advantages of this coating have been demonstrated in different conditions and different materials, such as Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE), Polyethylene (XLPE), Carbon-fiber-reinforced polyetheretherketone (CFR-PEEK), cobalt-chromium (CoCr), Stainless steel, Zirconia Toughened Alumina (ZTA) and Alumina. Using routine tribological experiments, the wear for UHMWPE substrate was decreased by 75% against alumina, ZTA and stainless steel. For PEEK-CFR substrate coated, the amount of material lost against ZTA and CrCo was at least 40% lower. Experiments on hip simulator allowed coated ZTA femoral heads and coated UHMWPE cups to be validated with a decrease of 80% of loss material. Further experiments on hip simulator adding abrasive particles (1 micron sized alumina particles) during 3 million cycles, on a total of 6 million, demonstrated a decreased of around 55% of wear compared to uncoated UHMWPE and uncoated XLPE. In conclusion, CIDETEC‘s hydrogel coating technology is versatile and can be adapted to protect a large range of surfaces, even in abrasive conditions.

Keywords: cartilage, hydrogel, hydrophilic coating, joint

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1584 Human Papillomavirus Type 16 E4 Gene Variation as Risk Factor for Cervical Cancer

Authors: Yudi Zhao, Ziyun Zhou, Yueting Yao, Shuying Dai, Zhiling Yan, Longyu Yang, Chuanyin Li, Li Shi, Yufeng Yao

Abstract:

HPV16 E4 gene plays an important role in viral genome amplification and release. Therefore, a variation of the E4 gene nucleic acid sequence may affect the carcinogenicity of HPV16. In order to understand the relationship between the variation of HPV16 E4 gene and cervical cancer, this study was to amplify and sequence the DNA sequences of E4 genes in 118 HPV16-positive cervical cancer patients and 151 HPV16-positive asymptomatic individuals. After obtaining E4 gene sequences, the phylogenetic trees were constructed by the Neighbor-joining method for gene variation analysis. The results showed that: 1) The distribution of HPV16 variants between the case group and the control group differed greatly (P = 0.015),and the Asian-American(AA)variant was likely to relate to the occurrence of cervical cancer. 2) DNA sequence analysis showed that there were significant differences in the distribution of 8 variants between the case group and the control group (P < 0.05). And 3) In European (EUR) variant, two variations, C3384T (L18L) and A3449G (P39P), were associated with the initiation and development of cervical cancer. The results suggested that the variation of HPV16 E4 gene may be a contributor affecting the occurrence as well as the development of cervical cancer, and different HPV16 variants may have different carcinogenic capability.

Keywords: cervical cancer, HPV16, E4 gene, variations

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1583 A Dynamic Model for Assessing the Advanced Glycation End Product Formation in Diabetes

Authors: Victor Arokia Doss, Kuberapandian Dharaniyambigai, K. Julia Rose Mary

Abstract:

Advanced Glycation End (AGE) products are the end products due to the reaction between excess reducing sugar present in diabetes and free amino group in protein lipids and nucleic acids. Thus, non-enzymic glycation of molecules such as hemoglobin, collagen, and other structurally and functionally important proteins add to the pathogenic complications such as diabetic retinopathy, neuropathy, nephropathy, vascular changes, atherosclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, rheumatoid arthritis, and chronic heart failure. The most common non-cross linking AGE, carboxymethyl lysine (CML) is formed by the oxidative breakdown of fructosyllysine, which is a product of glucose and lysine. CML is formed in a wide variety of tissues and is an index to assess the extent of glycoxidative damage. Thus we have constructed a mathematical and computational model that predicts the effect of temperature differences in vivo, on the formation of CML, which is now being considered as an important intracellular milieu. This hybrid model that had been tested for its parameter fitting and its sensitivity with available experimental data paves the way for designing novel laboratory experiments that would throw more light on the pathological formation of AGE adducts and in the pathophysiology of diabetic complications.

Keywords: advanced glycation end-products, CML, mathematical model, computational model

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1582 Reconsidering Taylor’s Law with Chaotic Population Dynamical Systems

Authors: Yuzuru Mitsui, Takashi Ikegami

Abstract:

The exponents of Taylor’s law in deterministic chaotic systems are computed, and their meanings are intensively discussed. Taylor’s law is the scaling relationship between the mean and variance (in both space and time) of population abundance, and this law is known to hold in a variety of ecological time series. The exponents found in the temporal Taylor’s law are different from those of the spatial Taylor’s law. The temporal Taylor’s law is calculated on the time series from the same locations (or the same initial states) of different temporal phases. However, with the spatial Taylor’s law, the mean and variance are calculated from the same temporal phase sampled from different places. Most previous studies were done with stochastic models, but we computed the temporal and spatial Taylor’s law in deterministic systems. The temporal Taylor’s law evaluated using the same initial state, and the spatial Taylor’s law was evaluated using the ensemble average and variance. There were two main discoveries from this work. First, it is often stated that deterministic systems tend to have the value two for Taylor’s exponent. However, most of the calculated exponents here were not two. Second, we investigated the relationships between chaotic features measured by the Lyapunov exponent, the correlation dimension, and other indexes with Taylor’s exponents. No strong correlations were found; however, there is some relationship in the same model, but with different parameter values, and we will discuss the meaning of those results at the end of this paper.

Keywords: chaos, density effect, population dynamics, Taylor’s law

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1581 The Effects of pH on p53 Phosphorylation by Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated Kinase

Authors: Serap Pektas

Abstract:

Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) is a serine-threonine kinase, which is the major regulator of the DNA damage response. ATM is activated upon the formation of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in the cells. ATM phosphorylates the proteins involved in apoptotic responses, cell cycle checkpoint control, DNA repair, etc. Tumor protein p53, known as p53 is one of these proteins that phosphorylated by ATM. Phosphorylation of p53 at Ser15 residue leads to p53 stabilization in the cells. Often enzymes activity is affected by hydrogen ion concentration (pH). In order to find the optimal pH range for ATM activity, steady-state kinetic assays were performed at acidic and basic pH ranges. Ser15 phosphorylation of p53 is determined by using ELISA. The results indicated that the phosphorylation rate was better at basic pH range compared with the acidic pH range. This could be due to enzyme stability, or enzyme-substrate interaction is pH dependent.

Keywords: ataxia telangiectasia mutated, DNA double strand breaks, DNA repair, tumor protein p53

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