Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 31

Search results for: wind farm

31 Maximum Wind Power Extraction Strategy and Decoupled Control of DFIG Operating in Variable Speed Wind Generation Systems

Authors: Abdellatif Kasbi, Abderrafii Rahali

Abstract:

This paper appraises the performances of two control scenarios, for doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) operating in wind generation system (WGS), which are the direct decoupled control (DDC) and indirect decoupled control (IDC). Both control scenarios studied combines vector control and Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) control theory so as to maximize the captured power through wind turbine. Modeling of DFIG based WGS and details of both control scenarios have been presented, a proportional integral controller is employed in the active and reactive power control loops for both control methods. The performance of the both control scenarios in terms of power reference tracking and robustness against machine parameters inconstancy has been shown, analyzed and compared, which can afford a reference to the operators and engineers of a wind farm. All simulations have been implemented via MATLAB/Simulink.

Keywords: DFIG, WGS, DDC, IDC, vector control, MPPT.

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30 Seismic Behavior of Suction Caisson Foundations

Authors: Mohsen Saleh Asheghabadi, Alireza Jafari Jebeli

Abstract:

Increasing population growth requires more sustainable development of energy. This non-contaminated energy has an inexhaustible energy source. One of the vital parameters in such structures is the choice of foundation type. Suction caissons are now used extensively worldwide for offshore wind turbine. Considering the presence of a number of offshore wind farms in earthquake areas, the study of the seismic behavior of suction caisson is necessary for better design. In this paper, the results obtained from three suction caisson models with different diameter (D) and skirt length (L) in saturated sand were compared with centrifuge test results. All models are analyzed using 3D finite element (FE) method taking account of elasto-plastic Mohr–Coulomb constitutive model for soil which is available in the ABAQUS library. The earthquake load applied to the base of models with a maximum acceleration of 0.65g. The results showed that numerical method is in relative good agreement with centrifuge results. The settlement and rotation of foundation decrease by increasing the skirt length and foundation diameter. The sand soil outside the caisson is prone to liquefaction due to its low confinement.

Keywords: Liquefaction, suction caisson foundation, offshore wind turbine, numerical analysis, seismic behavior.

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29 A Geographical Spatial Analysis on the Benefits of Using Wind Energy in Kuwait

Authors: Obaid AlOtaibi, Salman Hussain

Abstract:

Wind energy is associated with many geographical factors including wind speed, climate change, surface topography, environmental impacts, and several economic factors, most notably the advancement of wind technology and energy prices. It is the fastest-growing and least economically expensive method for generating electricity. Wind energy generation is directly related to the characteristics of spatial wind. Therefore, the feasibility study for the wind energy conversion system is based on the value of the energy obtained relative to the initial investment and the cost of operation and maintenance. In Kuwait, wind energy is an appropriate choice as a source of energy generation. It can be used in groundwater extraction in agricultural areas such as Al-Abdali in the north and Al-Wafra in the south, or in fresh and brackish groundwater fields or remote and isolated locations such as border areas and projects away from conventional power electricity services, to take advantage of alternative energy, reduce pollutants, and reduce energy production costs. The study covers the State of Kuwait with an exception of metropolitan area. Climatic data were attained through the readings of eight distributed monitoring stations affiliated with Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research (KISR). The data were used to assess the daily, monthly, quarterly, and annual available wind energy accessible for utilization. The researchers applied the Suitability Model to analyze the study by using the ArcGIS program. It is a model of spatial analysis that compares more than one location based on grading weights to choose the most suitable one. The study criteria are: the average annual wind speed, land use, topography of land, distance from the main road networks, urban areas. According to the previous criteria, the four proposed locations to establish wind farm projects are selected based on the weights of the degree of suitability (excellent, good, average, and poor). The percentage of areas that represents the most suitable locations with an excellent rank (4) is 8% of Kuwait’s area. It is relatively distributed as follows: Al-Shqaya, Al-Dabdeba, Al-Salmi (5.22%), Al-Abdali (1.22%), Umm al-Hayman (0.70%), North Wafra and Al-Shaqeeq (0.86%). The study recommends to decision-makers to consider the proposed location (No.1), (Al-Shqaya, Al-Dabdaba, and Al-Salmi) as the most suitable location for future development of wind farms in Kuwait, this location is economically feasible.

Keywords: Kuwait, renewable energy, spatial analysis, wind energy.

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28 Wind Farm Power Performance Verification Using Non-Parametric Statistical Inference

Authors: M. Celeska, K. Najdenkoski, V. Dimchev, V. Stoilkov

Abstract:

Accurate determination of wind turbine performance is necessary for economic operation of a wind farm. At present, the procedure to carry out the power performance verification of wind turbines is based on a standard of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). In this paper, nonparametric statistical inference is applied to designing a simple, inexpensive method of verifying the power performance of a wind turbine. A statistical test is explained, examined, and the adequacy is tested over real data. The methods use the information that is collected by the SCADA system (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) from the sensors embedded in the wind turbines in order to carry out the power performance verification of a wind farm. The study has used data on the monthly output of wind farm in the Republic of Macedonia, and the time measuring interval was from January 1, 2016, to December 31, 2016. At the end, it is concluded whether the power performance of a wind turbine differed significantly from what would be expected. The results of the implementation of the proposed methods showed that the power performance of the specific wind farm under assessment was acceptable.

Keywords: Canonical correlation analysis, power curve, power performance, wind energy.

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27 Electromagnetic Assessment of Submarine Power Cable Degradation Using Finite Element Method and Sensitivity Analysis

Authors: N. Boutra, N. Ravot, J. Benoit, O. Picon

Abstract:

Submarine power cables used for offshore wind farms electric energy distribution and transmission are subject to numerous threats. Some of the risks are associated with transport, installation and operating in harsh marine environment. This paper describes the feasibility of an electromagnetic low frequency sensing technique for submarine power cable failure prediction. The impact of a structural damage shape and material variability on the induced electric field is evaluated. The analysis is performed by modeling the cable using the finite element method, we use sensitivity analysis in order to identify the main damage characteristics affecting electric field variation. Lastly, we discuss the results obtained.

Keywords: Electromagnetism, defect, finite element method, sensitivity analysis, submarine power cables.

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26 Comparative Performance of Artificial Bee Colony Based Algorithms for Wind-Thermal Unit Commitment

Authors: P. K. Singhal, R. Naresh, V. Sharma

Abstract:

This paper presents the three optimization models, namely New Binary Artificial Bee Colony (NBABC) algorithm, NBABC with Local Search (NBABC-LS), and NBABC with Genetic Crossover (NBABC-GC) for solving the Wind-Thermal Unit Commitment (WTUC) problem. The uncertain nature of the wind power is incorporated using the Weibull probability density function, which is used to calculate the overestimation and underestimation costs associated with the wind power fluctuation. The NBABC algorithm utilizes a mechanism based on the dissimilarity measure between binary strings for generating the binary solutions in WTUC problem. In NBABC algorithm, an intelligent scout bee phase is proposed that replaces the abandoned solution with the global best solution. The local search operator exploits the neighboring region of the current solutions, whereas the integration of genetic crossover with the NBABC algorithm increases the diversity in the search space and thus avoids the problem of local trappings encountered with the NBABC algorithm. These models are then used to decide the units on/off status, whereas the lambda iteration method is used to dispatch the hourly load demand among the committed units. The effectiveness of the proposed models is validated on an IEEE 10-unit thermal system combined with a wind farm over the planning period of 24 hours.

Keywords: Artificial bee colony algorithm, economic dispatch, unit commitment, wind power.

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25 Comparative Performance of Artificial Bee Colony Based Algorithms for Wind-Thermal Unit Commitment

Authors: P. K. Singhal, R. Naresh, V. Sharma

Abstract:

This paper presents the three optimization models, namely New Binary Artificial Bee Colony (NBABC) algorithm, NBABC with Local Search (NBABC-LS), and NBABC with Genetic Crossover (NBABC-GC) for solving the Wind-Thermal Unit Commitment (WTUC) problem. The uncertain nature of the wind power is incorporated using the Weibull probability density function, which is used to calculate the overestimation and underestimation costs associated with the wind power fluctuation. The NBABC algorithm utilizes a mechanism based on the dissimilarity measure between binary strings for generating the binary solutions in WTUC problem. In NBABC algorithm, an intelligent scout bee phase is proposed that replaces the abandoned solution with the global best solution. The local search operator exploits the neighboring region of the current solutions, whereas the integration of genetic crossover with the NBABC algorithm increases the diversity in the search space and thus avoids the problem of local trappings encountered with the NBABC algorithm. These models are then used to decide the units on/off status, whereas the lambda iteration method is used to dispatch the hourly load demand among the committed units. The effectiveness of the proposed models is validated on an IEEE 10-unit thermal system combined with a wind farm over the planning period of 24 hours.

Keywords: Artificial bee colony algorithm, economic dispatch, unit commitment, wind power.

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24 Optimal Type and Installation Time of Wind Farm in a Power System, Considering Service Providers

Authors: M. H. Abedi, A. Jalilvand

Abstract:

The economic development benefits of wind energy may be the most tangible basis for the local and state officials’ interests. In addition to the direct salaries associated with building and operating wind projects, the wind energy industry provides indirect jobs and benefits. The optimal planning of a wind farm is one most important topic in renewable energy technology. Many methods have been implemented to optimize the cost and output benefit of wind farms, but the contribution of this paper is mentioning different types of service providers and also time of installation of wind turbines during planning horizon years. Genetic algorithm (GA) is used to optimize the problem. It is observed that an appropriate layout of wind farm can cause to minimize the different types of cost.

Keywords: Renewable energy, wind farm, optimization, planning.

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23 The Impact of Large-Scale Wind Energy Development on Islands’ Interconnection to the Mainland System

Authors: Marina Kapsali, John S. Anagnostopoulos

Abstract:

Greek islands’ interconnection (IC) with larger power systems, such as the mainland grid, is a crucial issue that has attracted a lot of interest; however, the recent economic recession that the country undergoes together with the highly capital intensive nature of this kind of projects have stalled or sifted the development of many of those on a more long-term basis. On the other hand, most of Greek islands are still heavily dependent on the lengthy and costly supply chain of oil imports whilst the majority of them exhibit excellent potential for wind energy (WE) applications. In this respect, the main purpose of the present work is to investigate −through a parametric study which varies both in wind farm (WF) and submarine IC capacities− the impact of large-scale WE development on the IC of the third in size island of Greece (Lesbos) with the mainland system. The energy and economic performance of the system is simulated over a 25-year evaluation period assuming two possible scenarios, i.e. S(a): without the contribution of the local Thermal Power Plant (TPP) and S(b): the TPP is maintained to ensure electrification of the island. The economic feasibility of the two options is investigated in terms of determining their Levelized Cost of Energy (LCOE) including also a sensitivity analysis on the worst/reference/best Cases. According to the results, Lesbos island IC presents considerable economic interest for covering part of island’s future electrification needs with WE having a vital role in this challenging venture.

Keywords: Electricity generation cost, levelized cost of energy, mainland grid, wind energy rejection.

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22 Concept, Modules and Objectives of the Syllabus Course: Small Power Plants and Renewable Energy Sources

Authors: Rade M. Ciric, Nikola L. J. Rajakovic

Abstract:

This paper presents a curriculum of the subject small power plants and renewable energy sources, dealing with the concept of distributed generation, renewable energy sources, hydropower, wind farms, geothermal power plants, cogeneration plants, biogas plants of agriculture and animal origin, solar power and fuel cells. The course is taught the manner of connecting small power plants to the grid, the impact of small generators on the distribution system, as well as economic, environmental and legal aspects of operation of distributed generators.

Keywords: Distributed generation, renewable energy sources, techno-economic analysis, energy policy, curriculum.

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21 Dynamic Modeling of Wind Farms in the Jeju Power System

Authors: Dae-Hee Son, Sang-Hee Kang, Soon-Ryul Nam

Abstract:

In this paper, we develop a dynamic modeling of wind farms in the Jeju power system. The dynamic model of wind farms is developed to study their dynamic effects on the Jeju power system. PSS/E is used to develop the dynamic model of a wind farm composed of 1.5-MW doubly fed induction generators. The output of a wind farm is regulated based on pitch angle control, in which the two controllable parameters are speed and power references. The simulation results confirm that the pitch angle is successfully controlled, regardless of the variation in wind speed and output regulation.

Keywords: Dynamic model, Jeju power system, pitch angle control, PSS/E, wind farm.

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20 Transient Analysis and Mitigation of Capacitor Bank Switching on a Standalone Wind Farm

Authors: Ajibola O. Akinrinde, Andrew Swanson, Remy Tiako

Abstract:

There exist significant losses on transmission lines due to distance, as power generating stations could be located far from some isolated settlements. Standalone wind farms could be a good choice of alternative power generation for such settlements that are far from the grid due to factors of long distance or socio-economic problems. However, uncompensated wind farms consume reactive power since wind turbines are induction generators. Therefore, capacitor banks are used to compensate reactive power, which in turn improves the voltage profile of the network. Although capacitor banks help improving voltage profile, they also undergo switching actions due to its compensating response to the variation of various types of load at the consumer’s end. These switching activities could cause transient overvoltage on the network, jeopardizing the end-life of other equipment on the system. In this paper, the overvoltage caused by these switching activities is investigated using the IEEE bus 14-network to represent a standalone wind farm, and the simulation is done using ATP/EMTP software. Scenarios involving the use of pre-insertion resistor and pre-insertion inductor, as well as controlled switching was also carried out in order to decide the best mitigation option to reduce the overvoltage.

Keywords: Capacitor banks, IEEE bus 14-network, Pre-insertion resistor, Standalone wind farm.

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19 Assessing the Effect of Grid Connection of Large-Scale Wind Farms on Power System Small-Signal Angular Stability

Authors: Wenjuan Du, Jingtian Bi, Tong Wang, Haifeng Wang

Abstract:

Grid connection of a large-scale wind farm affects power system small-signal angular stability in two aspects. Firstly, connection of the wind farm brings about the change of load flow and configuration of a power system. Secondly, the dynamic interaction is introduced by the wind farm with the synchronous generators (SGs) in the power system. This paper proposes a method to assess the two aspects of the effect of the wind farm on power system small-signal angular stability. The effect of the change of load flow/system configuration brought about by the wind farm can be examined separately by displacing wind farms with constant power sources, then the effect of the dynamic interaction of the wind farm with the SGs can be also computed individually. Thus, a clearer picture and better understanding on the power system small-signal angular stability as affected by grid connection of the large-scale wind farm are provided. In the paper, an example power system with grid connection of a wind farm is presented to demonstrate the proposed approach.

Keywords: power system small-signal angular stability, power system low-frequency oscillations, electromechanical oscillation modes, wind farms, double fed induction generator (DFIG)

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18 Selection of Wind Farms to Add Virtual Inertia Control to Assist the Power System Frequency Regulation

Authors: W. Du, X. Wang, Jun Cao, H. F. Wang

Abstract:

Due to the randomness and uncertainty of wind energy, modern power systems integrating large-scale wind generation will be significantly impacted in terms of system performance and technical challenges. System inertia with high wind penetration is decreasing when conventional thermal generators are gradually replaced by wind turbines, which do not naturally contribute to inertia response. The power imbalance caused by wind power or demand fluctuations leads to the instability of system frequency. Accordingly, the need to attach the supplementary virtual inertia control to wind farms (WFs) strongly arises. When multi-wind farms are connected to the grid simultaneously, the selection of which critical WFs to install the virtual inertia control is greatly important to enhance the stability of system frequency. By building the small signal model of wind power systems considering frequency regulation, the installation locations are identified by the geometric measures of the mode observability of WFs. In addition, this paper takes the impacts of grid topology and selection of feedback control signals into consideration. Finally, simulations are conducted on a multi-wind farms power system and the results demonstrate that the designed virtual inertia control method can effectively assist the frequency regulation.

Keywords: Frequency regulation, virtual inertia control, installation locations, observability, wind farms.

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17 Improvement of Voltage Profile of Grid Integrated Wind Distributed Generation by SVC

Authors: Fariba Shavakhi Zavareh, Hadi Fotoohabadi, Reza Sedaghati

Abstract:

Due to the continuous increment of the load demand, identification of weaker buses, improvement of voltage profile and power losses in the context of the voltage stability problems has become one of the major concerns for the larger, complex, interconnected power systems. The objective of this paper is to review the impact of Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS) controller in Wind generators connected electrical network for maintaining voltage stability. Wind energy could be the growing renewable energy due to several advantages. The influence of wind generators on power quality is a significant issue; non uniform power production causes variations in system voltage and frequency. Therefore, wind farm requires high reactive power compensation; the advances in high power semiconducting devices have led to the development of FACTS. The FACTS devices such as for example SVC inject reactive power into the system which helps in maintaining a better voltage profile. The performance is evaluated on an IEEE 14 bus system, two wind generators are connected at low voltage buses to meet the increased load demand and SVC devices are integrated at the buses with wind generators to keep voltage stability. Power flows, nodal voltage magnitudes and angles of the power network are obtained by iterative solutions using MIPOWER.

Keywords: Voltage Profile, FACTS Device, SVC, Distributed Generation.

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16 Robust Fault Diagnosis for Wind Turbine Systems Subjected to Multi-Faults

Authors: Sarah Odofin, Zhiwei Gao, Sun Kai

Abstract:

Operations, maintenance and reliability of wind turbines have received much attention over the years due to the rapid expansion of wind farms. This paper explores early fault diagnosis technique for a 5MW wind turbine system subjected to multiple faults, where genetic optimization algorithm is employed to make the residual sensitive to the faults, but robust against disturbances. The proposed technique has a potential to reduce the downtime mostly caused by the breakdown of components and exploit the productivity consistency by providing timely fault alarms. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the robust fault detection methods used under Matlab/Simulink/Gatool environment.

Keywords: Disturbance robustness, fault monitoring and detection, genetic algorithm and observer technique.

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15 A Study on Method for Identifying Capacity Factor Declination of Wind Turbines

Authors: Dongheon Shin, Kyungnam Ko, Jongchul Huh

Abstract:

The investigation on wind turbine degradation was carried out using the nacelle wind data. The three Vestas V80-2MW wind turbines of Sungsan wind farm in Jeju Island, South Korea were selected for this work. The SCADA data of the wind farm for five years were analyzed to draw power curve of the turbines. It is assumed that the wind distribution is the Rayleigh distribution to calculate the normalized capacity factor based on the drawn power curve of the three wind turbines for each year. The result showed that the reduction of power output from the three wind turbines occurred every year and the normalized capacity factor decreased to 0.12%/year on average.

Keywords: Wind energy, Power curve, Capacity factor, Annual energy production.

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14 A Proper Design of Wind Turbine Grounding Systems under Lightning

Authors: M. A. Abd-Allah, Mahmoud N. Ali, A. Said

Abstract:

Lightning protection systems (LPS) for wind power generation is becoming an important public issue. A serious damage of blades, accidents where low-voltage and control circuit breakdowns are frequently occur in many wind farms. A grounding system is one of the most important components required for appropriate LPSs in wind turbines WTs. Proper design of a wind turbine grounding system is demanding and several factors for the proper and effective implementation must taken into account. In this paper proposed procedure of proper design of grounding systems for a wind turbine was introduced. This procedure depends on measuring of ground current of simulated wind farm under lightning taking into consideration the soil ionization. The procedure also includes the Ground Potential Rise (GPR) and the voltage distributions at ground surface level and Touch potential. In particular, the contribution of mitigating techniques, such as rings, rods and the proposed design were investigated.

Keywords: WTs, LPS, GPR, Grounding System, Mitigating techniques.

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13 Power Reference Control of Wind Farms Based On the Operational Limit

Authors: Dae-Hee Son, Seung-Hwa Kang, Sang-Hee Kang, Soon-Ryul Nam

Abstract:

Wind farms usually produce power irregularly, due to  unpredictable change of wind speed. Accordingly, we should  determine the penetration limit of wind power to consider stability of  power system and build a facility to control the wind power. The  operational limit of wind power is determined as the minimum  between the technical limit and the dynamic limit of wind power. The  technical limit is calculated by the number of generators and the  dynamic limit is calculated by the constraint of frequency variation  when a wind farm is disconnected suddenly. According to the  determined operational limit of wind power, pitch angles of wind  generators are controlled. PSS/E simulation results show that the pitch  angles were correctly controlled when wind speeds are changed in  addition to loads.

Keywords: Pitch Angle, Dynamic limit, Operational limit, Technical limit.

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12 Wind Energy Resources Assessment and Micrositting on Different Areas of Libya: The Case Study in Darnah

Authors: F. Ahwide, Y. Bouker, K. Hatem

Abstract:

This paper presents long term wind data analysis in terms of annual and diurnal variations at different areas of Libya. The data of the wind speed and direction are taken each ten minutes for a period, at least two years, are used in the analysis. ‘WindPRO’ software and Excel workbook were used for the wind statistics and energy calculations. As for Darnah, average speeds are 10m, 20m and 40m and 6.57 m/s, 7.18 m/s, and 8.09 m/s, respectively. Highest wind speeds are observed at SSW, followed by S, WNW and NW sectors. Lowest wind speeds are observed between N and E sectors. Most frequent wind directions are NW and NNW. Hence, wind turbines can be installed against these directions. The most powerful sector is NW (31.3% of total expected wind energy), followed by 17.9% SSW, 11.5% NNW and 8.2% WNW

In Excel workbook, an estimation of annual energy yield at position of Derna, Al-Maqrun, Tarhuna and Al-Asaaba meteorological mast has been done, considering a generic wind turbine of 1.65 MW. (mtORRES, TWT 82-1.65MW) in position of meteorological mast. Three other turbines have been tested and a reduction of 18% over the net AEP. At 80m, the estimation of energy yield for Derna, Al- Maqrun, Tarhuna and Asaaba is 6.78 GWh or 3390 equivalent hours, 5.80 GWh or 2900 equivalent hours, 4.91 GWh or 2454 equivalent hours and 5.08 GWh or 2541 equivalent hours respectively. It seems a fair value in the context of a possible development of a wind energy project in the areas, considering a value of 2400 equivalent hours as an approximate limit to consider a wind warm economically profitable. Furthermore, an estimation of annual energy yield at positions of Misalatha, Azizyah and Goterria meteorological mast has been done, considering a generic wind turbine of 2 MW. We found that, at 80 m the estimation of energy yield is 3.12 GWh or 1557 equivalent hours, 4.47 GWh or 2235 equivalent hours and 4.07GWh or 2033 respectively.

It seems a very poor value in the context of possible development of a wind energy project in the areas, considering a value of 2400 equivalent hours as an approximate limit to consider a wind warm economically profitable. Anyway, more data and a detailed wind farm study would be necessary to draw conclusions.

Keywords: Wind turbines, wind data, energy yield, micrositting.

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11 Linear Programming Application in Unit Commitment of Wind Farms with Considering Uncertainties

Authors: M. Esmaeeli Shahrakht, A. Kazemi

Abstract:

Due to uncertainty of wind velocity, wind power generators don’t have deterministic output power. Utilizing wind power generation and thermal power plants together create new concerns for operation engineers of power systems. In this paper, a model is presented to implement the uncertainty of load and generated wind power which can be utilized in power system operation planning. Stochastic behavior of parameters is simulated by generating scenarios that can be solved by deterministic method. A mixed-integer linear programming method is used for solving deterministic generation scheduling problem. The proposed approach is applied to a 12-unit test system including 10 thermal units and 2 wind farms. The results show affectivity of piecewise linear model in unit commitment problems. Also using linear programming causes a considerable reduction in calculation times and guarantees convergence to the global optimum. Neglecting the uncertainty of wind velocity causes higher cost assessment of generation scheduling.

Keywords: Load uncertainty, linear programming, scenario generation, unit commitment, wind farm.

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10 Sustainable Development and Kish Island Environment Protection, using Wind Energy

Authors: Amir Gandomkar

Abstract:

Kish Islands in South of Iran is located in coastal water near Hormozgan Province. Based on the wind 3-hour statistics in Kish station, the mean annual windspeed in this Island is 8.6 knot (4.3 m/s). The maximum windspeed recorded in this stations 47 knot (23.5 m/s). In 45.7 percent of recorded times, windspeed has been Zero or less than 8 knot which is not suitable to use the wind energy. But in 54.3 percent of recorded times, windspeed has been more than 8 knot and suitable to use wind energy to run turbines. In 40.2 percent of recorded times, windspeed has been between 8 to 16 knot, in 13 percent of times between 16 to 24 knot and in 1 percent of times it has been higher than 24 knot. In this station, the direction of winds higher than 8 is west and wind direction in Kish station is stable in most times of the year.With regard to high – speed and stable direction winds during the year and also shallow coasts near this is land, it is possible to build offshore wind farms near Kish Island and utilize wind energy produce the electricity required in this Island during most of the year.

Keywords: Kish Island, Wind energy, Offshore wind farm, Windspeed, Wind direction

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9 Development of Condition Monitoring System with Control Functions for Wind Turbines

Authors: Joon-Young Park, Beom-Joo Kim, Jae-Kyung Lee

Abstract:

As an effort to promote wind power industry in Korea, Korea South-East Power Corporation has been developing 22MW YeungHeung wind farm consisting of nine 2 to 3MW wind turbines supplied by three manufacturers. To maximize its availability and reliability and to solve the difficulty of operating three kinds of SCADA systems, Korea Electric Power Corporation has been developing a condition monitoring system integrated with control functions. This paper presents the developed condition monitoring system and its application to YeungHeung wind test bed, and the design of its control functions.

Keywords: condition monitoring, control function, reliability, wind turbine

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8 Probabilistic Method of Wind Generation Placement for Congestion Management

Authors: S. Z. Moussavi, A. Badri, F. Rastegar Kashkooli

Abstract:

Wind farms (WFs) with high level of penetration are being established in power systems worldwide more rapidly than other renewable resources. The Independent System Operator (ISO), as a policy maker, should propose appropriate places for WF installation in order to maximize the benefits for the investors. There is also a possibility of congestion relief using the new installation of WFs which should be taken into account by the ISO when proposing the locations for WF installation. In this context, efficient wind farm (WF) placement method is proposed in order to reduce burdens on congested lines. Since the wind speed is a random variable and load forecasts also contain uncertainties, probabilistic approaches are used for this type of study. AC probabilistic optimal power flow (P-OPF) is formulated and solved using Monte Carlo Simulations (MCS). In order to reduce computation time, point estimate methods (PEM) are introduced as efficient alternative for time-demanding MCS. Subsequently, WF optimal placement is determined using generation shift distribution factors (GSDF) considering a new parameter entitled, wind availability factor (WAF). In order to obtain more realistic results, N-1 contingency analysis is employed to find the optimal size of WF, by means of line outage distribution factors (LODF). The IEEE 30-bus test system is used to show and compare the accuracy of proposed methodology.

Keywords: Probabilistic optimal power flow, Wind power, Pointestimate methods, Congestion management

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7 Wind Speed Data Analysis using Wavelet Transform

Authors: S. Avdakovic, A. Lukac, A. Nuhanovic, M. Music

Abstract:

Renewable energy systems are becoming a topic of great interest and investment in the world. In recent years wind power generation has experienced a very fast development in the whole world. For planning and successful implementations of good wind power plant projects, wind potential measurements are required. In these projects, of great importance is the effective choice of the micro location for wind potential measurements, installation of the measurement station with the appropriate measuring equipment, its maintenance and analysis of the gained data on wind potential characteristics. In this paper, a wavelet transform has been applied to analyze the wind speed data in the context of insight in the characteristics of the wind and the selection of suitable locations that could be the subject of a wind farm construction. This approach shows that it can be a useful tool in investigation of wind potential.

Keywords: Wind potential, Wind speed data, Wavelettransform.

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6 Wind Farm Modeling for Steady State and Dynamic Analysis

Authors: G.Kabashi, K.Kadriu, A.Gashi, S.Kabashi, G, Pula, V.Komoni

Abstract:

This paper focuses on PSS/E modeling of wind farms of Doubly-fed Induction Generator (DFIG) type and their impact on issues of power system operation. Since Wind Turbine Generators (WTG) don-t have the same characteristics as synchronous generators, the appropriate modeling of wind farms is essential for transmission system operators to analyze the best options of transmission grid reinforcements as well as to evaluate the wind power impact on reliability and security of supply. With the high excepted penetration of wind power into the power system a simultaneous loss of Wind Farm generation will put at risk power system security and reliability. Therefore, the main wind grid code requirements concern the fault ride through capability and frequency operation range of wind turbines. In case of grid faults wind turbines have to supply a definite reactive power depending on the instantaneous voltage and to return quickly to normal operation.

Keywords: Power System transients, PSS/E dynamic simulationDouble-fed Induction Generator.

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5 Power Generation Potential of Dynamic Architecture

Authors: Ben Richard Hughes, Hassam Nasarullah Chaudhry

Abstract:

The main aim of this work is to establish the capabilities of new green buildings to ascertain off-grid electricity generation based on the integration of wind turbines in the conceptual model of a rotating tower [2] in Dubai. An in depth performance analysis of the WinWind 3.0MW [3] wind turbine is performed. Data based on the Dubai Meteorological Services is collected and analyzed in conjunction with the performance analysis of this wind turbine. The mathematical model is compared with Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) results based on a conceptual rotating tower design model. The comparison results are further validated and verified for accuracy by conducting experiments on a scaled prototype of the tower design. The study concluded that integrating wind turbines inside a rotating tower can generate enough electricity to meet the required power consumption of the building, which equates to a wind farm containing 9 horizontal axis wind turbines located at an approximate area of 3,237,485 m2 [14].

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics, green building, horizontal axis wind turbine, rotating tower, velocity gradient.

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4 Evaluation of an Offshore Wind Power Project: Economic, Strategic and Environmental Value

Authors: Paula Ferreira, Filipa Vieira

Abstract:

The use of wind energy for electricity generation is growing rapidly across the world and in Portugal. However, the geographical characteristics of the country along with the average wind regime and with the environmental restrictions imposed to these projects create limitations to the exploit of the onshore wind resource. The best onshore wind spots are already committed and the possibility of offshore wind farms in the Portuguese cost is now being considered. This paper aims to make a contribution to the evaluation of offshore wind power projects in Portugal. The technical restrictions are addressed and the strategic, environmental and financial interest of the project is analysed from the private company and public points of view. The results suggest that additional support schemes are required to ensure private investors interest for these projects. Assuming an approach of direct substitution of energy sources for electricity generation, the avoided CO2 equivalent emissions for an offshore wind power project were quantified. Based on the conclusions, future research is proposed to address the environmental and social impacts of these projects.

Keywords: Feed-in tariff, offshore wind power, project evaluation.

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3 Reliability-based Selection of Wind Turbines for Large-Scale Wind Farms

Authors: M. Fotuhi-Firuzabad, A. Salehi Dobakhshari

Abstract:

This paper presents a reliability-based approach to select appropriate wind turbine types for a wind farm considering site-specific wind speed patterns. An actual wind farm in the northern region of Iran with the wind speed registration of one year is studied in this paper. An analytic approach based on total probability theorem is utilized in this paper to model the probabilistic behavior of both turbines- availability and wind speed. Well-known probabilistic reliability indices such as loss of load expectation (LOLE), expected energy not supplied (EENS) and incremental peak load carrying capability (IPLCC) for wind power integration in the Roy Billinton Test System (RBTS) are examined. The most appropriate turbine type achieving the highest reliability level is chosen for the studied wind farm.

Keywords: Wind Turbine Generator, Wind Farm, Power System Reliability, Wind Turbine Type Selection

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2 Voltage Stability Investigation of Grid Connected Wind Farm

Authors: Trinh Trong Chuong

Abstract:

At present, it is very common to find renewable energy resources, especially wind power, connected to distribution systems. The impact of this wind power on voltage distribution levels has been addressed in the literature. The majority of this works deals with the determination of the maximum active and reactive power that is possible to be connected on a system load bus, until the voltage at that bus reaches the voltage collapse point. It is done by the traditional methods of PV curves reported in many references. Theoretical expression of maximum power limited by voltage stability transfer through a grid is formulated using an exact representation of distribution line with ABCD parameters. The expression is used to plot PV curves at various power factors of a radial system. Limited values of reactive power can be obtained. This paper presents a method to study the relationship between the active power and voltage (PV) at the load bus to identify the voltage stability limit. It is a foundation to build a permitted working operation region in complying with the voltage stability limit at the point of common coupling (PCC) connected wind farm.

Keywords: Wind generator, Voltage stability, grid connected

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