Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5329

Search results for: wind turbine work points

5329 Adaptive Envelope Protection Control for the below and above Rated Regions of Wind Turbines

Authors: Mustafa Sahin, ─░lkay Yavrucuk

Abstract:

This paper presents a wind turbine envelope protection control algorithm that protects Variable Speed Variable Pitch (VSVP) wind turbines from damage during operation throughout their below and above rated regions, i.e. from cut-in to cut-out wind speed. The proposed approach uses a neural network that can adapt to turbines and their operating points. An algorithm monitors instantaneous wind and turbine states, predicts a wind speed that would push the turbine to a pre-defined envelope limit and, when necessary, realizes an avoidance action. Simulations are realized using the MS Bladed Wind Turbine Simulation Model for the NREL 5 MW wind turbine equipped with baseline controllers. In all simulations, through the proposed algorithm, it is observed that the turbine operates safely within the allowable limit throughout the below and above rated regions. Two example cases, adaptations to turbine operating points for the below and above rated regions and protections are investigated in simulations to show the capability of the proposed envelope protection system (EPS) algorithm, which reduces excessive wind turbine loads and expectedly increases the turbine service life.

Keywords: Adaptive envelope protection control, limit detection and avoidance, neural networks, ultimate load reduction, wind turbine power control.

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5328 Estimated Production Potential Types of Wind Turbines Connected to the Network Using Random Numbers Simulation

Authors: Saeid Nahi, Seyed Mohammad Hossein Nabavi

Abstract:

Nowadays, power systems, energy generation by wind has been very important. Noting that the production of electrical energy by wind turbines on site to several factors (such as wind speed and profile site for the turbines, especially off the wind input speed, wind rated speed and wind output speed disconnect) is dependent. On the other hand, several different types of turbines in the market there. Therefore, selecting a turbine that its capacity could also answer the need for electric consumers the efficiency is high something is important and necessary. In this context, calculating the amount of wind power to help optimize overall network, system operation, in determining the parameters of wind power is very important. In this article, to help calculate the amount of wind power plant, connected to the national network in the region Manjil wind, selecting the best type of turbine and power delivery profile appropriate to the network using Monte Carlo method has been. In this paper, wind speed data from the wind site in Manjil, as minute and during the year has been. Necessary simulations based on Random Numbers Simulation method and repeat, using the software MATLAB and Excel has been done.

Keywords: wind turbine, efficiency, wind turbine work points, Random Numbers, reliability

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5327 Development of Wind Turbine Simulator for Generator Torque Control

Authors: Jae-Kyung Lee, Joon-Young Park, Ki-Yong Oh, Jun-Shin Park

Abstract:

Wind turbine should be controlled to capture maximum wind energy and to prevent the turbine from being stalled. To achieve those two goals, wind turbine controller controls torque on generator and limits input torque from wind by pitching blade. Usually, torque on generator is controlled using inverter torque set point. However, verifying a control algorithm in actual wind turbine needs a lot of efforts to test and the actual wind turbine could be broken while testing a control algorithm. So, several software have developed and commercialized by Garrad Hassan, GH Bladed, and NREL, FAST. Even though, those programs can simulate control system modeling with subroutines or DLLs. However, those simulation programs are not able to emulate detailed generator or PMSG. In this paper, a small size wind turbine simulator is developed with induction motor and small size drive train. The developed system can simulate wind turbine control algorithm in the region before rated power.

Keywords: Wind turbine, simulator, wind turbine control, wind turbine torque control

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5326 Experimental Tests of a Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine with Twisted Blades

Authors: Gabriele Bedon, Marco Raciti Castelli, Ernesto Benini

Abstract:

An experimental campaign of measurements for a Darrieus vertical-axis wind turbine (VAWT) is presented for open field conditions. The turbine is characterized by a twisted bladed design, each blade being placed at a fixed distance from the rotational shaft. The experimental setup to perform the acquisitions is described. The results are lower than expected, due to the high influence of the wind shear.

Keywords: Vertical-axis wind turbine, Darrieus wind turbine, twisted blades, experimental measurements, wind shear.

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5325 A Study of Wind Speed Characteristic in PI Controller based DFIG Wind Turbine

Authors: T. Unchim, A. Oonsivilai

Abstract:

The Wind Turbine Modeling in Wind Energy Conversion System (WECS) using Doubly-Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) PI Controller based design is presented. To study about the variable wind speed. The PI controller performs responding to the dynamic performance. The objective is to study the characteristic of wind turbine and finding the optimum wind speed suitable for wind turbine performance. This system will allow the specification setting (2.5MW). The output active power also corresponding same the input is given. And the reactive power produced by the wind turbine is regulated at 0 Mvar. Variable wind speed is optimum for drive train performance at 12.5 m/s (at maximum power coefficient point) from the simulation of DFIG by Simulink is described.

Keywords: DFIG, wind speed, PI controller, the output power.

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5324 Starting Torque Study of Darrieus Wind Turbine

Authors: M. Douak, Z. Aouachria

Abstract:

The aim of our study is to project an optimized wind turbine of Darrieus type. This type of wind turbine is characterized by a low starting torque in comparison with the Savonius rotor allowing them to operate for a period greater than wind speed. This led us to reconsider the Darrieus rotor to optimize a design which will increase its starting torque. The study of a system of monitoring and control of the angle of attack of blade profile, which allows an auto start to wind speeds as low as possible is presented for the straight blade of Darrieus turbine. The study continues to extend to other configurations namely those of parabolic type.

Keywords: Darrieus turbine, pitch angle, self-stating, wind energy.

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5323 Simulation Study of DFIG Wind Turbine under Grid Fault

Authors: N. Zerzouri, H. Labar, S. Kechida

Abstract:

During recent years wind turbine technology has undergone rapid developments. Growth in size and the optimization of wind turbines has enabled wind energy to become increasingly competitive with conventional energy sources. As a result today-s wind turbines participate actively in the power production of several countries around the world. These developments raise a number of challenges to be dealt with now and in the future. The penetration of wind energy in the grid raises questions about the compatibility of the wind turbine power production with the grid. In particular, the contribution to grid stability, power quality and behavior during fault situations plays therefore as important a role as the reliability. In the present work, we addressed two fault situations that have shown their influence on the generator and the behavior of the wind over the defects which are briefly discussed based on simulation results.

Keywords: Doubly fed induction generator (DFIG), Wind energy, grid fault

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5322 Thermal Assessment of Outer Rotor Direct Drive Gearless Small-Scale Wind Turbines

Authors: Yusuf Yasa, Erkan Mese

Abstract:

This paper investigates the thermal issue of permanent magnet synchronous generator which is frequently used in direct drive gearless small-scale wind turbine applications. Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator (PMSG) is designed with 2.5 kW continuous and 6 kW peak power. Then considering generator geometry, mechanical design of wind turbine is performed. Thermal analysis and optimization is carried out considering all wind turbine components to reach realistic results. This issue is extremely important in research and development (R&D) process for wind turbine applications.

Keywords: Direct drive, gearless wind turbine, permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG), small-scale wind turbine, thermal management.

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5321 LQR Control for a Multi-MW Wind Turbine

Authors: Trung-Kien Pham, Yoonsu Nam, Hyungun Kim, Jaehoon Son

Abstract:

This paper addresses linear quadratic regulation (LQR) for variable speed variable pitch wind turbines. Because of the inherent nonlinearity of wind turbine, a set of operating conditions is identified and then a LQR controller is designed for each operating point. The feedback controller gains are then interpolated linearly to get control law for the entire operating region. Besides, the aerodynamic torque and effective wind speed are estimated online to get the gain-scheduling variable for implementing the controller. The potential of the method is verified through simulation with the help of MATLAB/Simulink and GH Bladed. The performance and mechanical load when using LQR are also compared with that when using PI controller.

Keywords: variable speed variable pitch wind turbine, multi-MW size wind turbine, wind energy conversion system, LQR control.

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5320 Emulation of a Wind Turbine Using Induction Motor Driven by Field Oriented Control

Authors: L. Benaaouinate, M. Khafallah, A. Martinez, A. Mesbahi, T. Bouragba

Abstract:

This paper concerns with the modeling, simulation, and emulation of a wind turbine emulator for standalone wind energy conversion systems. By using emulation system, we aim to reproduce the dynamic behavior of the wind turbine torque on the generator shaft: it provides the testing facilities to optimize generator control strategies in a controlled environment, without reliance on natural resources. The aerodynamic, mechanical, electrical models have been detailed as well as the control of pitch angle using Fuzzy Logic for horizontal axis wind turbines. The wind turbine emulator consists mainly of an induction motor with AC power drive with torque control. The control of the induction motor and the mathematical models of the wind turbine are designed with MATLAB/Simulink environment. The simulation results confirm the effectiveness of the induction motor control system and the functionality of the wind turbine emulator for providing all necessary parameters of the wind turbine system such as wind speed, output torque, power coefficient and tip speed ratio. The findings are of direct practical relevance.

Keywords: Wind turbine, modeling, emulator, electrical generator, renewable energy, induction motor drive, field oriented control, real time control, wind turbine emulator, pitch angle control.

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5319 Reliability-based Selection of Wind Turbines for Large-Scale Wind Farms

Authors: M. Fotuhi-Firuzabad, A. Salehi Dobakhshari

Abstract:

This paper presents a reliability-based approach to select appropriate wind turbine types for a wind farm considering site-specific wind speed patterns. An actual wind farm in the northern region of Iran with the wind speed registration of one year is studied in this paper. An analytic approach based on total probability theorem is utilized in this paper to model the probabilistic behavior of both turbines- availability and wind speed. Well-known probabilistic reliability indices such as loss of load expectation (LOLE), expected energy not supplied (EENS) and incremental peak load carrying capability (IPLCC) for wind power integration in the Roy Billinton Test System (RBTS) are examined. The most appropriate turbine type achieving the highest reliability level is chosen for the studied wind farm.

Keywords: Wind Turbine Generator, Wind Farm, Power System Reliability, Wind Turbine Type Selection

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5318 Steady State Analysis of Distribution System with Wind Generation Uncertainity

Authors: Zakir Husain, Neem Sagar, Neeraj Gupta

Abstract:

Due to the increased penetration of renewable energy resources in the distribution system, the system is no longer passive in nature. In this paper, a steady state analysis of the distribution system has been done with the inclusion of wind generation. The modeling of wind turbine generator system and wind generator has been made to obtain the average active and the reactive power injection into the system. The study has been conducted on a IEEE-33 bus system with two wind generators. The present research work is useful not only to utilities but also to customers.

Keywords: Distributed generation, distribution network, radial network, wind turbine generating system.

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5317 Necessary Condition to Utilize Adaptive Control in Wind Turbine Systems to Improve Power System Stability

Authors: Javad Taherahmadi, Mohammad Jafarian, Mohammad Naser Asefi

Abstract:

The global capacity of wind power has dramatically increased in recent years. Therefore, improving the technology of wind turbines to take different advantages of this enormous potential in the power grid, could be interesting subject for scientists. The doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG) wind turbine is a popular system due to its many advantages such as the improved power quality, high energy efficiency and controllability, etc. With an increase in wind power penetration in the network and with regard to the flexible control of wind turbines, the use of wind turbine systems to improve the dynamic stability of power systems has been of significance importance for researchers. Subsynchronous oscillations are one of the important issues in the stability of power systems. Damping subsynchronous oscillations by using wind turbines has been studied in various research efforts, mainly by adding an auxiliary control loop to the control structure of the wind turbine. In most of the studies, this control loop is composed of linear blocks. In this paper, simple adaptive control is used for this purpose. In order to use an adaptive controller, the convergence of the controller should be verified. Since adaptive control parameters tend to optimum values in order to obtain optimum control performance, using this controller will help the wind turbines to have positive contribution in damping the network subsynchronous oscillations at different wind speeds and system operating points. In this paper, the application of simple adaptive control in DFIG wind turbine systems to improve the dynamic stability of power systems is studied and the essential condition for using this controller is considered. It is also shown that this controller has an insignificant effect on the dynamic stability of the wind turbine, itself.

Keywords: Almost strictly positive real, doubly-fed induction generator, simple adaptive control, subsynchronous oscillations, wind turbine.

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5316 Low Voltage Ride through Capability Techniques for DFIG-Based Wind Turbines

Authors: Sherif O. Zain Elabideen, Ahmed A. Helal, Ibrahim F. El-Arabawy

Abstract:

Due to the drastic increase of the wind turbines installed capacity; the grid codes are increasing the restrictions aiming to treat the wind turbines like other conventional sources sooner. In this paper, an intensive review has been presented for different techniques used to add low voltage ride through capability to Doubly Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) wind turbine. A system model with 1.5 MW DFIG wind turbine is constructed and simulated using MATLAB/SIMULINK to explore the effectiveness of the reviewed techniques.

Keywords: DFIG, grid side converters, low voltage ride through, wind turbine.

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5315 Three-Dimensional Modeling of a Twisted-Blade Darrieus Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine

Authors: Three-Dimensional Modeling of a Twisted-Blade Darrieus Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine

Abstract:

A complete CAD procedure to model a twisted-bladed vertical-axis wind turbine (VAWT) is presented with the aim of determining some practical guidelines to be used for the generation of an easily-meshable CAD geometry to be adopted as the basis of both CFD and FEM numerical simulations.

Keywords: Vertical-axis wind turbine (VAWT), twisted blade, CAD, 3D modeling.

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5314 The Autoregresive Analysis for Wind Turbine Signal Postprocessing

Authors: Daniel Pereiro, Felix Martinez, Iker Urresti, Ana Gomez Gonzalez

Abstract:

Today modern simulations solutions in the wind turbine industry have achieved a high degree of complexity and detail in result. Limitations exist when it is time to validate model results against measurements. Regarding Model validation it is of special interest to identify mode frequencies and to differentiate them from the different excitations. A wind turbine is a complex device and measurements regarding any part of the assembly show a lot of noise. Input excitations are difficult or even impossible to measure due to the stochastic nature of the environment. Traditional techniques for frequency analysis or features extraction are widely used to analyze wind turbine sensor signals, but have several limitations specially attending to non stationary signals (Events). A new technique based on autoregresive analysis techniques is introduced here for a specific application, a comparison and examples related to different events in the wind turbine operations are presented.

Keywords: Wind turbine, signal processing, mode extraction.

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5313 Real Time Remote Monitoring and Fault Detection in Wind Turbine

Authors: Saad Chakkor, Mostafa Baghouri, Abderrahmane Hajraoui

Abstract:

In new energy development, wind power has boomed. It is due to the proliferation of wind parks and their operation in supplying the national electric grid with low cost and clean resources. Hence, there is an increased need to establish a proactive maintenance for wind turbine machines based on remote control and monitoring. That is necessary with a real-time wireless connection in offshore or inaccessible locations while the wired method has many flaws. The objective of this strategy is to prolong wind turbine lifetime and to increase productivity. The hardware of a remote control and monitoring system for wind turbine parks is designed. It takes advantage of GPRS or Wi-Max wireless module to collect data measurements from different wind machine sensors through IP based multi-hop communication. Computer simulations with Proteus ISIS and OPNET software tools have been conducted to evaluate the performance of the studied system. Study findings show that the designed device is suitable for application in a wind park.

Keywords: Embedded System, Monitoring, Wind Turbine, Faults Diagnosis, TCP/IP Protocol, Real Time, Web.

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5312 Effect of Plunging Oscillation on an Offshore Wind Turbine Blade Section

Authors: F. Rasi Marzabadi

Abstract:

A series of experiments were carried out to study unsteady behavior of the flow field as well as the boundary layer of an airfoil oscillating in plunging motion in a subsonic wind tunnel. The measurements involved surface pressure distribution complimented with surface-mounted hot-films. The effect of leadingedge roughness that simulates surface irregularities on the wind turbine blades was also studied on variations of aerodynamic loads and boundary layer behavior.

Keywords: Boundary layer transition, plunging, reduced frequency, wind turbine.

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5311 Vibration Signals of Small Vertical Axis Wind Turbines

Authors: Aqoul H. H. Alanezy, Ali M. Abdelsalam, Nouby M. Ghazaly

Abstract:

In recent years, progress has been made in increasing the renewable energy share in the power sector particularly in the wind. The experimental study conducted in this paper aims to investigate the effects of number of blades and inflow wind speed on vibration signals of a vertical axis Savonius type wind turbine. The operation of the model of Savonius type wind turbine is conducted to compare two, three and four blades wind turbines to show vibration amplitudes related with wind speed. It is found that the increase of the number of blades leads to decrease of the vibration magnitude. Furthermore, inflow wind speed has reduced effect on the vibration level for higher number of blades.

Keywords: Savonius wind turbine, number of blades, vibration amplitude, renewable energy.

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5310 Early Age Behavior of Wind Turbine Gravity Foundations

Authors: J. Modu, J. F. Georgin, L. Brian├žon, E. Antoinet

Abstract:

Wind turbine gravity foundations are designed to resist overturning failure through gravitational forces resulting from their masses. Owing to the relatively high volume of the cementitious material present, the foundations tend to suffer thermal strains and internal cracking due to high temperatures and temperature gradients depending on factors such as geometry, mix design and level of restraint. This is a result of a fully coupled mechanism commonly known as THMC (Thermo- Hygro - Mechanical - Chemical) coupling whose kinetics peak during the early age of concrete. The focus of this paper is therefore to present and offer a discussion on the temperature and humidity evolutions occurring in mass pours such as wind turbine gravity foundations based on sensor results obtained from the monitoring of an actual wind turbine foundation. To offer prediction of the evolutions, the formulation of a 3D Thermal-Hydro-Chemical (THC) model that is mainly derived from classical fundamental physical laws is also presented and discussed. The THC model can be mathematically fully coupled in Finite Element analyses. In the current study, COMSOL Multi-physics software was used to simulate the 3D THC coupling that occurred in the monitored wind turbine foundation to predict the temperature evolution at five different points within the foundation from time of casting.

Keywords: Early age behavior, reinforced concrete, THC 3D models, wind turbines.

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5309 Design of Speed and Power Control System for Wind Turbine with Reference Tracking Method

Authors: H. Ghanbari, H. Nikbakht, A. Zahedi, M. Ghanbari

Abstract:

This paper is focusing on designing a control system for wind turbine which can control the speed and output power according to arbitrary algorithm. Reference Tracking Method is used to control the turbine spinning speed in order to increase its output energy.

Keywords: Wind Turbine, Simulink, Reference Tracking Method.

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5308 A Stochastic Approach to Extreme Wind Speeds Conditions on a Small Axial Wind Turbine

Authors: Nkongho Ayuketang Arreyndip, Ebobenow Joseph

Abstract:

In this paper, to model a real life wind turbine, a probabilistic approach is proposed to model the dynamics of the blade elements of a small axial wind turbine under extreme stochastic wind speeds conditions. It was found that the power and the torque probability density functions even-dough decreases at these extreme wind speeds but are not infinite. Moreover, we also fund that it is possible to stabilize the power coefficient (stabilizing the output power)above rated wind speeds by turning some control parameters. This method helps to explain the effect of turbulence on the quality and quantity of the harness power and aerodynamic torque.

Keywords: Probability, Stochastic, Probability density function, Turbulence.

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5307 A Comparison between Hybrid and Experimental Extended Polars for the Numerical Prediction of Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine Performance using Blade Element-Momentum Algorithm

Authors: Gabriele Bedon, Marco Raciti Castelli, Ernesto Benini

Abstract:

A dynamic stall-corrected Blade Element-Momentum algorithm based on a hybrid polar is validated through the comparison with Sandia experimental measurements on a 5-m diameter wind turbine of Troposkien shape. Different dynamic stall models are evaluated. The numerical predictions obtained using the extended aerodynamic coefficients provided by both Sheldal and Klimas and Raciti Castelli et al. are compared to experimental data, determining the potential of the hybrid database for the numerical prediction of vertical-axis wind turbine performances.

Keywords: Darrieus wind turbine, Blade Element-Momentum Theory, extended airfoil database, hybrid database, Sandia 5-m wind turbine.

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5306 Power Generation Potential of Dynamic Architecture

Authors: Ben Richard Hughes, Hassam Nasarullah Chaudhry

Abstract:

The main aim of this work is to establish the capabilities of new green buildings to ascertain off-grid electricity generation based on the integration of wind turbines in the conceptual model of a rotating tower [2] in Dubai. An in depth performance analysis of the WinWind 3.0MW [3] wind turbine is performed. Data based on the Dubai Meteorological Services is collected and analyzed in conjunction with the performance analysis of this wind turbine. The mathematical model is compared with Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) results based on a conceptual rotating tower design model. The comparison results are further validated and verified for accuracy by conducting experiments on a scaled prototype of the tower design. The study concluded that integrating wind turbines inside a rotating tower can generate enough electricity to meet the required power consumption of the building, which equates to a wind farm containing 9 horizontal axis wind turbines located at an approximate area of 3,237,485 m2 [14].

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics, green building, horizontal axis wind turbine, rotating tower, velocity gradient.

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5305 Wind Farm Power Performance Verification Using Non-Parametric Statistical Inference

Authors: M. Celeska, K. Najdenkoski, V. Dimchev, V. Stoilkov

Abstract:

Accurate determination of wind turbine performance is necessary for economic operation of a wind farm. At present, the procedure to carry out the power performance verification of wind turbines is based on a standard of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). In this paper, nonparametric statistical inference is applied to designing a simple, inexpensive method of verifying the power performance of a wind turbine. A statistical test is explained, examined, and the adequacy is tested over real data. The methods use the information that is collected by the SCADA system (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) from the sensors embedded in the wind turbines in order to carry out the power performance verification of a wind farm. The study has used data on the monthly output of wind farm in the Republic of Macedonia, and the time measuring interval was from January 1, 2016, to December 31, 2016. At the end, it is concluded whether the power performance of a wind turbine differed significantly from what would be expected. The results of the implementation of the proposed methods showed that the power performance of the specific wind farm under assessment was acceptable.

Keywords: Canonical correlation analysis, power curve, power performance, wind energy.

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5304 A Study on Method for Identifying Capacity Factor Declination of Wind Turbines

Authors: Dongheon Shin, Kyungnam Ko, Jongchul Huh

Abstract:

The investigation on wind turbine degradation was carried out using the nacelle wind data. The three Vestas V80-2MW wind turbines of Sungsan wind farm in Jeju Island, South Korea were selected for this work. The SCADA data of the wind farm for five years were analyzed to draw power curve of the turbines. It is assumed that the wind distribution is the Rayleigh distribution to calculate the normalized capacity factor based on the drawn power curve of the three wind turbines for each year. The result showed that the reduction of power output from the three wind turbines occurred every year and the normalized capacity factor decreased to 0.12%/year on average.

Keywords: Wind energy, Power curve, Capacity factor, Annual energy production.

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5303 Performance Characteristics of Some Small Scale Wind Turbines Fabricated in Tanzania

Authors: Talam K. E, Kainkwa R. M.

Abstract:

In this study, a field testing has been carried out to assess the power characteristics of some small scale wind turbines fabricated by one native technician from Tanzania. Two Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines (HAWTs), one with five and other with sixteen blades were installed at a height of 2.4m above the ground. The rotation speed of the rotor blade and wind speed approaching the turbines were measured simultaneously. The data obtained were used to determine how the power coefficient varies as a function of tip speed ratio and also the way in which the output power compares with available power in the wind for each turbine. For the sixteen-bladed wind turbine the maximum value of power coefficient of about 0.14 was found to occur at a tip speed ratio of around 0.65 while for the five bladed, these extreme values were respectively attained at approximately 0.2 and 1.7. The five bladed-wind turbine was found to have a higher power efficiency of about 37.5% which is higher compared to the sixteen bladed wind turbine whose corresponding value was 14.37%. This is what would be expected, as the smaller the number of blades of a wind turbine, the higher the electric power efficiency and vice versa. Some of the main reasons for the low efficiency of these machines may be due to the low aerodynamic efficiency of the turbine or low efficiency of the transmission mechanisms such as gearbox and generator which were not examined in this study. It is recommended that some other researches be done to investigate the power efficiency of such machines from different manufacturers in the country. The manufacturers should also be encouraged to use fewer blades in their designs so as to improve the efficiency and at the same time reduce materials used to fabricate the blades. The power efficiency of the electric generators used in the locally fabricated wind turbines should also be examined.

Keywords: Tip speed ratio, Power coefficients and power efficiency.

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5302 Investigations of Flow Field with Different Turbulence Models on NREL Phase VI Blade

Authors: T. Y. Liu, C. H Lin., Y. M Ferng

Abstract:

Wind energy is one of the clean renewable energy. However, the low frequency (20-200HZ) noise generated from the wind turbine blades, which bothers the residents, becomes the major problem to be developed. It is useful for predicting the aerodynamic noise by flow field and pressure distribution analysis on the wind turbine blades. Therefore, the main objective of this study is to use different turbulence models to analyze the flow field and pressure distributions of the wing blades.

Three-dimensional Computation Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation of the flow field was used to calculate the flow phenomena for the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Phase VI horizontal axis wind turbine rotor. Two different flow cases with different wind speeds were investigated: 7m/s with 72rpm and 15m/s with 72rpm.

Four kinds of RANS-based turbulence models, Standard k-ε, Realizable k-ε, SST k-ω, and v2f, were used to predict and analyze the results in the present work. The results show that the predictions on pressure distributions with SST k-ω and v2f turbulence models have good agreements with experimental data.

Keywords: Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine, turbulence model, noise.

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5301 Evaluation of the Effect of Rotor Solidity on the Performance of a H-Darrieus Turbine Adopting a Blade Element-Momentum Algorithm

Authors: G. Bedon, M. Raciti Castelli, E. Benini

Abstract:

The present study aims to evaluating the effect of rotor solidity - in terms of chord length for a given rotor diameter - on the performances of a small vertical axis Darrieus wind turbine. The proposed work focuses on both power production and rotor power coefficient, considering also the structural constraints deriving from the centrifugal forces due to rotor angular velocity. Also the smoothness of the resulting power curves have been investigated, in order to evaluate the controllability of the corresponding rotor architectures.

Keywords: Vertical axis wind turbine, Darrieus, solidity, Blade Element-Momentum

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5300 A Proper Design of Wind Turbine Grounding Systems under Lightning

Authors: M. A. Abd-Allah, Mahmoud N. Ali, A. Said

Abstract:

Lightning protection systems (LPS) for wind power generation is becoming an important public issue. A serious damage of blades, accidents where low-voltage and control circuit breakdowns are frequently occur in many wind farms. A grounding system is one of the most important components required for appropriate LPSs in wind turbines WTs. Proper design of a wind turbine grounding system is demanding and several factors for the proper and effective implementation must taken into account. In this paper proposed procedure of proper design of grounding systems for a wind turbine was introduced. This procedure depends on measuring of ground current of simulated wind farm under lightning taking into consideration the soil ionization. The procedure also includes the Ground Potential Rise (GPR) and the voltage distributions at ground surface level and Touch potential. In particular, the contribution of mitigating techniques, such as rings, rods and the proposed design were investigated.

Keywords: WTs, LPS, GPR, Grounding System, Mitigating techniques.

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