Search results for: uniform isochronous center.
875 Computing Center Conditions for Non-analytic Vector Fields with Constant Angular Speed
Authors: Li Feng
We investigate the planar quasi-septic non-analytic systems which have a center-focus equilibrium at the origin and whose angular speed is constant. The system could be changed into an analytic system by two transformations, with the help of computer algebra system MATHEMATICA, the conditions of uniform isochronous center are obtained.
Keywords: Non-analytic, center–focus problem, Lyapunov constant, uniform isochronous center.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1179
874 On the Invariant Uniform Roe Algebra as Crossed Product
Authors: Kankeyanathan Kannan
The uniform Roe C*-algebra (also called uniform translation)C^*- algebra provides a link between coarse geometry and C^*- algebra theory. The uniform Roe algebra has a great importance in geometry, topology and analysis. We consider some of the elementary concepts associated with coarse spaces.
Keywords: Invariant Approximation Property, Uniform Roe algebras.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1621
873 A Family of Distributions on Learnable Problems without Uniform Convergence
Authors: César Garza
In supervised binary classification and regression problems, it is well-known that learnability is equivalent to uniform convergence of the hypothesis class, and if a problem is learnable, it is learnable by empirical risk minimization. For the general learning setting of unsupervised learning tasks, there are non-trivial learning problems where uniform convergence does not hold. We present here the task of learning centers of mass with an extra feature that “activates” some of the coordinates over the unit ball in a Hilbert space. We show that the learning problem is learnable under a stable RLM rule. We introduce a family of distributions over the domain space with some mild restrictions for which the sample complexity of uniform convergence for these problems must grow logarithmically with the dimension of the Hilbert space. If we take this dimension to infinity, we obtain a learnable problem for which the uniform convergence property fails for a vast family of distributions.
Keywords: Statistical learning theory, learnability, uniform convergence, stability, regularized loss minimization.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 25
872 Data Oriented Modeling of Uniform Random Variable: Applied Approach
Authors: Ahmad Habibizad Navin, Mehdi Naghian Fesharaki, Mirkamal Mirnia, Mohamad Teshnelab, Ehsan Shahamatnia
Abstract:In this paper we introduce new data oriented modeling of uniform random variable well-matched with computing systems. Due to this conformity with current computers structure, this modeling will be efficiently used in statistical inference.
Keywords: Uniform random variable, Data oriented modeling, Statistical inference, Prodigraph, Statistically complete tree, Uniformdigital probability digraph, Uniform n-complete probability tree.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1497
871 Influence of Optical Fluence Distribution on Photoacoustic Imaging
Authors: Mohamed K. Metwally, Sherif H. El-Gohary, Kyung Min Byun, Seung Moo Han, Soo Yeol Lee, Min Hyoung Cho, Gon Khang, Jinsung Cho, Tae-Seong Kim
Photoacoustic imaging (PAI) is a non-invasive and non-ionizing imaging modality that combines the absorption contrast of light with ultrasound resolution. Laser is used to deposit optical energy into a target (i.e., optical fluence). Consequently, the target temperature rises, and then thermal expansion occurs that leads to generating a PA signal. In general, most image reconstruction algorithms for PAI assume uniform fluence within an imaging object. However, it is known that optical fluence distribution within the object is non-uniform. This could affect the reconstruction of PA images. In this study, we have investigated the influence of optical fluence distribution on PA back-propagation imaging using finite element method. The uniform fluence was simulated as a triangular waveform within the object of interest. The non-uniform fluence distribution was estimated by solving light propagation within a tissue model via Monte Carlo method. The results show that the PA signal in the case of non-uniform fluence is wider than the uniform case by 23%. The frequency spectrum of the PA signal due to the non-uniform fluence has missed some high frequency components in comparison to the uniform case. Consequently, the reconstructed image with the non-uniform fluence exhibits a strong smoothing effect.
Keywords: Finite Element Method, Fluence Distribution, Monte Carlo Method, Photoacoustic Imaging.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2404
870 PIL Theory
Authors: A. Peveri
The curvature space-time by the presence of material, this deformation must present a pattern of deformation, not random. Space is uniform, elastic and any modification that occurs in one part, causes a change in another.
This deformation exists, must be a constant value and is independent of the observer, and relates the amount of matter, the force caused by the curvature of space and surface space. This unit of space is defined in this study as PIL and represents a constant area of space, deformable in the direction and sense of the center of mass of the body. The PIL is curved and connected to the center of mass of the Earth, to get to that point, through all matter, thus forming part of any place between particles at atomic and subatomic levels. At these levels the space between each particle is flat, unlike the macro where the space curves.
Keywords: Space flat, Space curved, Unit of space, Deformation.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1394
869 Street Network in Bandung City, Indonesia: Comparison between City Center and New Commercial Area
Authors: Siska Soesanti, Norihiro Nakai
Bandung city center can be deemed as economic, social and cultural center. However the city center suffers from deterioration. The retail activities tend to shift outward the city center. Numerous idyllic residences changed into business premises in two villages situated in the north part of the city during 1990s, especially after a new highway and flyover opened. According to space syntax theory, the pattern of spatial integration in the urban grid is a prime determinant of movement patterns in the system. The syntactic analysis results show the flyover has insignificant influence on street network in the city center. However the flyover has been generating a major difference in the new commercial area since it has become relatively as strategic as the city center. Besides street network, local government policy, rapid private motorization and particular condition of each site also played important roles in encouraging the current commercial areas to flourish.
Keywords: City center, commercial area, space syntax, street network.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1692
868 On the Exact Solution of Non-Uniform Torsion for Beams with Asymmetric Cross-Section
Authors: A.Campanile, M. Mandarino, V. Piscopo
Abstract:This paper deals with the problem of non-uniform torsion in thin-walled elastic beams with asymmetric cross-section, removing the basic concept of a fixed center of twist, necessary in the Vlasov-s and Benscoter-s theories to obtain a warping stress field equivalent to zero. In this new torsion/flexure theory, despite of the classical ones, the warping function will punctually satisfy the first indefinite equilibrium equation along the beam axis and it wont- be necessary to introduce the classical congruence condition, to take into account the effect of the beam restraints. The solution, based on the Fourier development of the displacement field, is obtained assuming that the applied external torque is constant along the beam axis and on both beam ends the unit twist angle and the warping axial displacement functions are totally restrained. Finally, in order to verify the feasibility of the proposed method and to compare it with the classical theories, two applications are carried out. The first one, relative to an open profile, is necessary to test the numerical method adopted to find the solution; the second one, instead, is relative to a simplified containership section, considered as full restrained in correspondence of two adjacent transverse bulkheads.
Keywords: Non-uniform torsion, Asymmetric cross-section, Fourier series, Helmholtz equation, FE method.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1820
867 The Reach of Shopping Center Layout Form on U Subway - Based On Kernel Density Estimate
Authors: Wen Liu
With the rapid progress of modern cities, the railway construction must be developing quickly in China.As a typical high-density country, shopping center on the subway should be one important factor during the process of urban development. The paper discusses the influence of the layout of shopping center on the subway, and put it in the time and space’s axis of Shanghai urban development. We usethe digital technology to establish the database of relevant information. And then get the change role about shopping center on subway in Shanghaiby the Kernel density estimate.The result shows the development of shopping center on subway has a relationship with local economic strength, population size, policysupport, and city construction. And the suburbanization trend of shopping center would be increasingly significant.By this case research, we could see the Kernel density estimate is an efficient analysis method on the spatial layout. It could reveal the characters of layout form of shopping center on subway in essence. And it can also be applied to the other research of space form.
Keywords: Shanghai, Shopping center on the subway, Layout form, The Kernel density estimate.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1658
866 Power Saving System in Green Data Center
Authors: Joon-young Jung, Dong-oh Kang, Chang-seok Bae
Abstract:Power consumption is rapidly increased in data centers because the number of data center is increased and more the scale of data center become larger. Therefore, it is one of key research items to reduce power consumption in data center. The peak power of a typical server is around 250 watts. When a server is idle, it continues to use around 60% of the power consumed when in use, though vendors are putting effort into reducing this “idle" power load. Servers tend to work at only around a 5% to 20% utilization rate, partly because of response time concerns. An average of 10% of servers in their data centers was unused. In those reason, we propose dynamic power management system to reduce power consumption in green data center. Experiment result shows that about 55% power consumption is reduced at idle time.
Keywords: Data Center, Green IT, Management Server, Power Saving.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1509
865 Sense of Territoriality and Revitalization of Neighborhood Centers in Boshrooyeh City
Authors: H. Farkisch, A.I. Che-Ani, V. Ahmadi, M. Surat
Abstract:The role of neighborhood center as semi public (the balance space) is disappeared in bonding between private and public in new urbanism. In this way, a hierarchical principle in the traditional neighborhood center appears to create or develop the conditions for residents` relationships and belonging. This paper evaluates significant of hierarchical principles of the neighborhood center in residents` territoriality and its factors. In this way Miandeh neighborhood center from Boshrooyeh city was determined as a case study area. Results indicated that a hierarchical principle is the best instrument to improve the territoriality as the subcomponent of place belonging in residents. The findings help the urban designer to revitalization the neighborhoods and proceedings in organization of physical space.
Keywords: Belonging, Neighborhood center, Revitalization, TerritorialityProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1662
864 Uniform Heating during Focused Ultrasound Thermal Therapy
Authors: To-Yuan Chen, Tzu-Ching Shih, Hao-Li Liu, Kuen-Cheng Ju
Abstract:The focal spot of a high intensity focused ultrasound transducer is small. To heat a large target volume, multiple treatment spots are required. If the power of each treatment spot is fixed, it could results in insufficient heating of initial spots and over-heating of later ones, which is caused by the thermal diffusion. Hence, to produce a uniform heated volume, the delivered energy of each treatment spot should be properly adjusted. In this study, we proposed an iterative, extrapolation technique to adjust the required ultrasound energy of each treatment spot. Three different scanning pathways were used to evaluate the performance of this technique. Results indicate that by using the proposed technique, uniform heating volume could be obtained.
Keywords: focused ultrasound, thermal therapy, uniform heating, iteration, extrapolation, scanProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1522
863 A New Center of Motion in Cabling Robots
Authors: A. Abbasi Moshaii, F. Najafi
Abstract:In this paper a new model for center of motion creating is proposed. This new method uses cables. So, it is very useful in robots because it is light and has easy assembling process. In the robots which need to be in touch with some things this method is so useful. It will be described in the following. The accuracy of the idea is proved by two experiments. This system could be used in the robots which need a fixed point in the contact with some things and make a circular motion.
Keywords: Center of Motion, Robotic cables, permanent touching.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1387
862 Temperature Distribution Enhancement in a Conical Diffuser Fitted with Helical Screw-Tape with and without Center-Rod
Authors: Ehan Sabah Shukri, Wirachman Wisnoe
Abstract:Temperature distribution investigation in a conical diffuser fitted with helical screw-tape with and without center-rod is studied numerically. A helical screw-tape is inserted in the diffuser to create swirl flow that helps to enhance the temperature distribution rate with inlet Reynolds number 4.3 x 104. Three pitch lengths ratios (Y/L = 0.153, 0.23 and 0.307) for the helical screw-tape with and without center-rod are simulated and compared. The geometry of the conical diffuser and the inlet condition for both arrangements are kept constant. Numerical findings show that the helical screw-tape inserts without center-rod perform significantly better than the helical tape inserts with center-rod in the conical diffuser.
Keywords: Diffuser, temperature distribution, CFD, pitch length ratio.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1333
861 Solution of Logistics Center Selection Problem Using the Axiomatic Design Method
Authors: Fulya Zaralı, Harun Resit Yazgan
Abstract:Logistics centers represent areas that all national and international logistics and activities related to logistics can be implemented by the various businesses. Logistics centers have a key importance in joining the transport stream and the transport system operations. Therefore, it is important where these centers are positioned to be effective and efficient and to show the expected performance of the centers. In this study, the location selection problem to position the logistics center is discussed. Alternative centers are evaluated according certain criteria. The most appropriate center is identified using the axiomatic design method.
Keywords: Logistic center, axiomatic design, facility location, information systems.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1581
860 An Interference Reduction Strategy for TDD-OFDMA Cellular Systems
Authors: Koudjo M. Koumadi, Kester Quist-Aphetsi, Robert A. Sowah, Amevi Acakpovi
Downlink/Uplink (DL/UL) time slot allocation (TSA) in time division duplex (TDD) systems is generally uniform for all the cells. This TSA however is not efficient in case of different traffic asymmetry ratios in different cells. We first propose a new 3-coordinate architecture to identify cells in an orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA) system where each cell is divided into three sectors. Then, this coordinate system is used to derive a TSA for symmetric traffic. Mathematical analysis and simulations are used to show that the proposed TSA outperforms the traditional all uniform type of TSA in terms of total intercellular interference, even under uniform symmetrical traffic. Two adaptation strategies are further proposed to adjust the proposed TSA to asymmetrical traffic with different DL/UL traffic ratios in different cells. Further simulation results show that the adaptation strategies also yield higher signal-to-interference ratio (SIR).
Keywords: Crossed TSA, different-entity interference, same-entity interference, uniform TSAProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2135
859 On the Exact Solution of Non-Uniform Torsion for Beams with Axial Symmetric Cross-Section
Authors: A.Campanile, M. Mandarino, V. Piscopo, A. Pranzitelli
Abstract:In the traditional theory of non-uniform torsion the axial displacement field is expressed as the product of the unit twist angle and the warping function. The first one, variable along the beam axis, is obtained by a global congruence condition; the second one, instead, defined over the cross-section, is determined by solving a Neumann problem associated to the Laplace equation, as well as for the uniform torsion problem. So, as in the classical theory the warping function doesn-t punctually satisfy the first indefinite equilibrium equation, the principal aim of this work is to develop a new theory for non-uniform torsion of beams with axial symmetric cross-section, fully restrained on both ends and loaded by a constant torque, that permits to punctually satisfy the previous equation, by means of a trigonometric expansion of the axial displacement and unit twist angle functions. Furthermore, as the classical theory is generally applied with good results to the global and local analysis of ship structures, two beams having the first one an open profile, the second one a closed section, have been analyzed, in order to compare the two theories.
Keywords: Non-uniform torsion, Axial symmetric cross-section, Fourier series, Helmholtz equation, FE method.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2200
858 An Optimized Design of Non-uniform Filterbank
Authors: Ram Kumar Soni, Alok Jain, Rajiv Saxena
Abstract:The tree structured approach of non-uniform filterbank (NUFB) is normally used in perfect reconstruction (PR). The PR is not always feasible due to certain limitations, i.e, constraints in selecting design parameters, design complexity and some times output is severely affected by aliasing error if necessary and sufficient conditions of PR is not satisfied perfectly. Therefore, there has been generalized interest of researchers to go for near perfect reconstruction (NPR). In this proposed work, an optimized tree structure technique is used for the design of NPR non-uniform filterbank. Window functions of Blackman family are used to design the prototype FIR filter. A single variable linear optimization is used to minimize the amplitude distortion. The main feature of the proposed design is its simplicity with linear phase property.
Keywords: Tree structure, NUFB, QMF, NPR.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1535
857 Probabilistic Center Voting Method for Subsequent Object Tracking and Segmentation
Authors: Suryanto, Hyo-Kak Kim, Sang-Hee Park, Dae-Hwan Kim, Sung-Jea Ko
In this paper, we introduce a novel algorithm for object tracking in video sequence. In order to represent the object to be tracked, we propose a spatial color histogram model which encodes both the color distribution and spatial information. The object tracking from frame to frame is accomplished via center voting and back projection method. The center voting method has every pixel in the new frame to cast a vote on whereabouts the object center is. The back projection method segments the object from the background. The segmented foreground provides information on object size and orientation, omitting the need to estimate them separately. We do not put any assumption on camera motion; the proposed algorithm works equally well for object tracking in both static and moving camera videos.
Keywords: center voting, back projection, object tracking, size adaptation, non-stationary camera tracking.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1504
856 Electrical Performance of a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Unit with Non-Uniform Inlet Flow and High Fuel Utilization
Authors: Ping Yuan, Mu-Sheng Chiang, Syu-Fang Liu, Shih-Bin Wang, Ming-Jun Kuo
Abstract:This study investigates the electrical performance of a planar solid oxide fuel cell unit with cross-flow configuration when the fuel utilization gets higher and the fuel inlet flow are non-uniform. A software package in this study solves two-dimensional, simultaneous, partial differential equations of mass, energy, and electro-chemistry, without considering stack direction variation. The results show that the fuel utilization increases with a decrease in the molar flow rate, and the average current density decreases when the molar flow rate drops. In addition, non-uniform Pattern A will induce more severe happening of non-reaction area in the corner of the fuel exit and the air inlet. This non-reaction area deteriorates the average current density and then deteriorates the electrical performance to –7%.
Keywords: Performance, Solid oxide fuel cell, non-uniform, fuelutilizationProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1199
855 3D Mesh Coarsening via Uniform Clustering
Authors: Shuhua Lai, Kairui Chen
Abstract:In this paper, we present a fast and efficient mesh coarsening algorithm for 3D triangular meshes. Theis approach can be applied to very complex 3D meshes of arbitrary topology and with millions of vertices. The algorithm is based on the clustering of the input mesh elements, which divides the faces of an input mesh into a given number of clusters for clustering purpose by approximating the Centroidal Voronoi Tessellation of the input mesh. Once a clustering is achieved, it provides us an efficient way to construct uniform tessellations, and therefore leads to good coarsening of polygonal meshes. With proliferation of 3D scanners, this coarsening algorithm is particularly useful for reverse engineering applications of 3D models, which in many cases are dense, non-uniform, irregular and arbitrary topology. Examples demonstrating effectiveness of the new algorithm are also included in the paper.
Keywords: Coarsening, mesh clustering, shape approximation, mesh simplification.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1266
854 A Systematic Approach for Identifying Turning Center Capabilities with Vertical Machining Center in Milling Operation
Conventional machining is a form of subtractive manufacturing, in which a collection of material-working processes utilizing power-driven machine tools are used to remove undesired material to achieve a desired geometry. This paper presents an approach for comparison between turning center and vertical machining center by optimization of cutting parameters at cylindrical workpieces leading to minimum surface roughness by using taguchi methodology. Aluminum alloy was taken to conduct experiments due to its unique high strength-weight ratio that is maintained at elevated temperatures and their exceptional corrosion resistance. During testing, the effects of the cutting parameters on the surface roughness were investigated. Additionally, by using taguchi methodology for each of the cutting parameters (spindle speed, depth of cut, insert diameter, and feed rate) minimum surface roughness for the process of turn-milling was determined according to the cutting parameters. A confirmation experiment demonstrates the effectiveness of taguchi method.
Keywords: Surface roughness, taguchi parameter design, turning center, turn-milling operations, vertical machining center.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2306
853 The Diameter of an Interval Graph is Twice of its Radius
Authors: Tarasankar Pramanik, Sukumar Mondal, Madhumangal Pal
In an interval graph G = (V,E) the distance between two vertices u, v is de£ned as the smallest number of edges in a path joining u and v. The eccentricity of a vertex v is the maximum among distances from all other vertices of V . The diameter (δ) and radius (ρ) of the graph G is respectively the maximum and minimum among all the eccentricities of G. The center of the graph G is the set C(G) of vertices with eccentricity ρ. In this context our aim is to establish the relation ρ = δ 2 for an interval graph and to determine the center of it.
Keywords: Interval graph, interval tree, radius, center.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1498
852 A Multigrid Approach for Three-Dimensional Inverse Heat Conduction Problems
Authors: Jianhua Zhou, Yuwen Zhang
A two-step multigrid approach is proposed to solve the inverse heat conduction problem in a 3-D object under laser irradiation. In the first step, the location of the laser center is estimated using a coarse and uniform grid system. In the second step, the front-surface temperature is recovered in good accuracy using a multiple grid system in which fine mesh is used at laser spot center to capture the drastic temperature rise in this region but coarse mesh is employed in the peripheral region to reduce the total number of sensors required. The effectiveness of the two-step approach and the multiple grid system are demonstrated by the illustrative inverse solutions. If the measurement data for the temperature and heat flux on the back surface do not contain random error, the proposed multigrid approach can yield more accurate inverse solutions. When the back-surface measurement data contain random noise, accurate inverse solutions cannot be obtained if both temperature and heat flux are measured on the back surface.
Keywords: Conduction, inverse problems, conjugated gradient method, laser.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 610
851 Thermal Post-buckling of Shape Memory Alloy Composite Plates under Non-uniform Temperature Distribution
Authors: Z.A. Rasid, R. Zahari, A. Ayob, D.L. Majid, A.S.M. Rafie
Abstract:Aerospace vehicles are subjected to non-uniform thermal loading that may cause thermal buckling. A study was conducted on the thermal post-buckling of shape memory alloy composite plates subjected to the non-uniform tent-like temperature field. The shape memory alloy wires were embedded within the laminated composite plates to add recovery stress to the plates. The non-linear finite element model that considered the recovery stress of the shape memory alloy and temperature dependent properties of the shape memory alloy and composite matrix along with its source codes were developed. It was found that the post-buckling paths of the shape memory alloy composite plates subjected to various tentlike temperature fields were stable within the studied temperature range. The addition of shape memory alloy wires to the composite plates was found to significantly improve the post-buckling behavior of laminated composite plates under non-uniform temperature distribution.
Keywords: Post-buckling, shape memory alloy, temperaturedependent property, tent-like temperature distributionProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1903
850 Comparison of Back-Projection with Non-Uniform Fast Fourier Transform for Real-Time Photoacoustic Tomography
Authors: Moung Young Lee, Chul Gyu Song
Abstract:Photoacoustic imaging is the imaging technology that combines the optical imaging and ultrasound. This provides the high contrast and resolution due to optical imaging and ultrasound imaging, respectively. We developed the real-time photoacoustic tomography (PAT) system using linear-ultrasound transducer and digital acquisition (DAQ) board. There are two types of algorithm for reconstructing the photoacoustic signal. One is back-projection algorithm, the other is FFT algorithm. Especially, we used the non-uniform FFT algorithm. To evaluate the performance of our system and algorithms, we monitored two wires that stands at interval of 2.89 mm and 0.87 mm. Then, we compared the images reconstructed by algorithms. Finally, we monitored the two hairs crossed and compared between these algorithms.
Keywords: Back-projection, image comparison, non-uniform FFT, photoacoustic tomography.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1646
849 Unsteady Water Boundary Layer Flow with Non-Uniform Mass Transfer
Authors: G. Revathi, P. Saikrishnan
Abstract:In the present analysis an unsteady laminar forced convection water boundary layer flow is considered. The fluid properties such as viscosity and Prandtl number are taken as variables such that those are inversely proportional to temperature. By using quasi-linearization technique the nonlinear coupled partial differential equations are linearized and the numerical solutions are obtained by using implicit finite difference scheme with the appropriate selection of step sizes. Non-similar solutions have been obtained from the starting point of the stream-wise coordinate to the point where skin friction value vanishes. The effect non-uniform mass transfer along the surface of the cylinder through slot is studied on the skin friction and heat transfer coefficients.
Keywords: Boundary layer, heat transfer, non-similar solution, non-uniform mass, unsteady flow.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1860
848 Determination of Non Uniform Sinusoidal Microstrip Leaky-Wave Antenna Radiating Performances in Millimeter Band
Authors: Zahéra Mekkioui
Abstract:Here we have considered non uniform microstrip leaky-wave antenna implemented on a dielectric waveguide by a sinusoidal profile of periodic metallic grating. The non distribution of the attenuation constant α along propagation axis, optimize the radiating characteristics and performances of such antennas. The method developped here is based on an integral method where the formalism of the admittance operator is combined to a BKW approximation. First, the effect of the modeling in the modal analysis of complex waves is studied in detail. Then, the BKW model is used for the dispersion analysis of the antenna of interest. According to antenna theory, a forced continuity of the leaky-wave magnitude at discontinuities of the non uniform structure is established. To test the validity of our dispersion analysis, computed radiation patterns are presented and compared in the millimeter band.
Keywords: antenna, leaky-wave, performances, sinusoidal.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1655
847 Kinematic Analysis of Roll Motion for a Strut/SLA Suspension System
Authors: Yung Chang Chen, Po Yi Tsai, I An Lai
The roll center is one of the key parameters for designing a suspension. Several driving characteristics are affected significantly by the migration of the roll center during the suspension-s motion. The strut/SLA (strut/short-long-arm) suspension, which is widely used in production cars, combines the space-saving characteristics of a MacPherson strut suspension with some of the preferred handling characteristics of an SLA suspension. In this study, a front strut/SLA suspension is modeled by ADAMS/Car software. Kinematic roll analysis is then employed to investigate how the rolling characteristics change under the wheel travel and steering input. The related parameters, including the roll center height, roll camber gain, toe change, scrub radius and wheel track width change, are analyzed and discussed. It is found that the strut/SLA suspension clearly has a higher roll center than strut and SLA suspensions do. The variations in the roll center height under roll analysis are very different as the wheel travel displacement and steering angle are added. The results of the roll camber gain, scrub radius and wheel track width change are considered satisfactory. However, the toe change is too large and needs fine-tuning through a sensitivity analysis.
Keywords: roll analysis, roll center height, steering, strut/SLA suspension, wheel travelProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 5196
846 Marangoni Instability in a Fluid Layer with Insoluble Surfactant
Authors: Ainon Syazana Ab. Hamid, Seripah Awang Kechil, Ahmad Sukri Abd. Aziz
Abstract:The Marangoni convective instability in a horizontal fluid layer with the insoluble surfactant and nondeformable free surface is investigated. The surface tension at the free surface is linearly dependent on the temperature and concentration gradients. At the bottom surface, the temperature conditions of uniform temperature and uniform heat flux are considered. By linear stability theory, the exact analytical solutions for the steady Marangoni convection are derived and the marginal curves are plotted. The effects of surfactant or elasticity number, Lewis number and Biot number on the marginal Marangoni instability are assessed. The surfactant concentration gradients and the heat transfer mechanism at the free surface have stabilizing effects while the Lewis number destabilizes fluid system. The fluid system with uniform temperature condition at the bottom boundary is more stable than the fluid layer that is subjected to uniform heat flux at the bottom boundary.
Keywords: Analytical solutions, Marangoni Instability, Nondeformable free surface, Surfactant.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1723