Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 28

Search results for: spinal anaesthesia.

28 Clinical Comparative Study Comparing Efficacy of Intrathecal Fentanyl and Magnesium as an Adjuvant to Hyperbaric Bupivacaine in Mild Pre-Eclamptic Patients Undergoing Caesarean Section

Authors: Sanchita B. Sarma, M. P. Nath

Abstract:

Adequate analgesia following caesarean section decreases morbidity, hastens ambulation, improves patient outcome and facilitates care of the newborn. Intrathecal magnesium, an NMDA antagonist, has been shown to prolong analgesia without significant side effects in healthy parturients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the onset and duration of sensory and motor block, hemodynamic effect, postoperative analgesia, and adverse effects of magnesium or fentanyl given intrathecally with hyperbaric 0.5% bupivacaine in patients with mild preeclampsia undergoing caesarean section. Sixty women with mild preeclampsia undergoing elective caesarean section were included in a prospective, double blind, controlled trial. Patients were randomly assigned to receive spinal anesthesia with 2 mL 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine with 12.5 μg fentanyl (group F) or 0.1 ml of 50% magnesium sulphate (50 mg) (group M) with 0.15ml preservative free distilled water. Onset, duration and recovery of sensory and motor block, time to maximum sensory block, duration of spinal anaesthesia and postoperative analgesic requirements were studied. Statistical comparison was carried out using the Chi-square or Fisher’s exact tests and Independent Student’s t-test where appropriate. The onset of both sensory and motor block was slower in the magnesium group. The duration of spinal anaesthesia (246 vs. 284) and motor block (186.3 vs. 210) were significantly longer in the magnesium group. Total analgesic top up requirement was less in group M. Hemodynamic parameters were similar in both the groups. Intrathecal magnesium caused minimal side effects. Since Fentanyl and other opioid congeners are not available throughout the country easily, magnesium with its easy availability and less side effect profile can be a cost effective alternative to fentanyl in managing pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH) patients given along with Bupivacaine intrathecally in caesarean section.

Keywords: Analgesia, magnesium, preeclampsia, spinal anaesthesia.

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27 Results of Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy under Spinal Anesthesia

Authors: Babak Borzouei, Seyed Habibollah Mousavi-Bahar

Abstract:

Recently, there has been a considerable increase in the number of procedures carried out under regional anesthesia. However, percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) procedures are usually performed under general anesthesia. The aim of this study was to assess the safety and efficacy of PCNL under spinal anesthesia in patients with renal calculi. We describe our 9 years experience of performing PCNL under spinal anesthesia for 387 patients with large stones of the upper urinary tract, with regard to the effectiveness and side effects. All patients received spinal anesthetics (Lidocain 5%, or Bupivacaine 0.75%) and underwent PCNL in prone position. The success rate was 94.1%. The incidence of complications was 11.6%. PCNL under spinal anesthesia is feasible, safe, and well-tolerated in management of patients with renal stones.

Keywords: percutaneous nephrolithotomy, spinal anesthesia, renal calculi

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26 Effect of FES Cycling Training on Spasticity in Spinal Cord Injured Subjects

Authors: Werner Reichenfelser, Harald Hackl, Josef Hufgard, Karin Gstaltner, Margit Gfoehler

Abstract:

Training with Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) has both physiological and psychological benefits for spinal cord injured subjects. Commonly used methods for quantification of spasticity have shown controversial reliability. In this study we propose a method for quick determination of spasticity in spinal cord injured subjects on a cycling and measurement system. 23 patients did training sessions on an instrumented mobile FES cycle three times a week over two months as part of their clinical rehabilitation program. Spasticity (MAS) and the legs resistance to the pedaling motion were assessed before and after the FES training and measurements were done on the subjects ability to pedal with our without motor assistance. Measurements with test persons with incomplete spastic paraplegia have shown that spasticity is decreased after a 30 min cycling training with functional electrical stimulation (FES).

Keywords: Spasticity, paraplegia, spinal cord injury, functional electrical stimulation.

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25 A Brain Controlled Robotic Gait Trainer for Neurorehabilitation

Authors: Qazi Umer Jamil, Abubakr Siddique, Mubeen Ur Rehman, Nida Aziz, Mohsin I. Tiwana

Abstract:

This paper discusses a brain controlled robotic gait trainer for neurorehabilitation of Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) patients. Patients suffering from Spinal Cord Injuries (SCI) become unable to execute motion control of their lower proximities due to degeneration of spinal cord neurons. The presented approach can help SCI patients in neuro-rehabilitation training by directly translating patient motor imagery into walkers motion commands and thus bypassing spinal cord neurons completely. A non-invasive EEG based brain-computer interface is used for capturing patient neural activity. For signal processing and classification, an open source software (OpenVibe) is used. Classifiers categorize the patient motor imagery (MI) into a specific set of commands that are further translated into walker motion commands. The robotic walker also employs fall detection for ensuring safety of patient during gait training and can act as a support for SCI patients. The gait trainer is tested with subjects, and satisfactory results were achieved.

Keywords: Brain Computer Interface (BCI), gait trainer, Spinal Cord Injury (SCI), neurorehabilitation.

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24 Health-Related QOL of Motorists with Spinal Cord Injury in Japan

Authors: Hiroaki Hirose, Hiroshi Ikeda, Isao Takeda

Abstract:

The Japanese version of the SF-36 has been employed to assess individuals’ health-related QOL (HRQOL). This study aimed to clarify the HRQOL of motorists with a spinal cord injury, in order to compare these individuals' SF-36 scores and national standard values. A total of 100 motorists with a spinal cord injury participated in this study. Participants’ HRQOL was evaluated using the Japanese version of the SF-36 (second edition). The score for each subscale was standardized based on data on the Japanese population. The average scores for NPF, NRP, NBP, NGH, NVT, NSF, NRE, and NMH were 10.9, 41.8, 45.9, 47.1, 46.1, 46.7, 46.0, and 47.4 points, respectively. Subjects showed significantly lower scores for NPF and NRP compared with national standard values, which were both ≤ 45.0 points, but relatively normal scores for the other items: NBP, NGH, NVT, NSF, NRE and NMH (> 45.0 points). The average scores for PCS, MCS and RCS were 21.9, 56.0, and 50.0 points, respectively. Subjects showed a significantly lower PCS score (≤ 20.0 points); however, the MCS score was higher (> 55.0 points) along with a relatively normal RCS score in these individuals (= 50.0 points).

Keywords: Health-related QOL (HRQOL), SF-36, motorist, spinal cord injury, Japan.

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23 Defining of the Shape of the Spine Using Moiré Method in Case of Patients with Scheuermann Disease

Authors: Petra Balla, Gabor Manhertz, Akos Antal

Abstract:

Nowadays spinal deformities are very frequent problems among teenagers. Scheuermann disease is a one dimensional deformity of the spine, but it has prevalence over 11% of the children. A traditional technology, the moiré method was used by us for screening and diagnosing this type of spinal deformity. A LabVIEW program has been developed to evaluate the moiré pictures of patients with Scheuermann disease. Two different solutions were tested in this computer program, the extreme and the inflexion point calculation methods. Effects using these methods were compared and according to the results both solutions seemed to be appropriate. Statistical results showed better efficiency in case of the extreme search method where the average difference was only 6,09⁰.

Keywords: Spinal deformity, picture evaluation, moiré method, Scheuermann disease, curve detection, moiré topography.

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22 The Contribution of the PCR-Enzymatic Digestion in the Positive Diagnosis of Proximal Spinal Muscular Atrophy in the Moroccan Population

Authors: H. Merhni, A. Sbiti, I. Ratbi, A. Sefiani

Abstract:

The proximal spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a group of neuromuscular disorders characterized by progressive muscle weakness due to the degeneration and loss of anterior motor neurons of the spinal cord. Depending on the age of onset of symptoms and their evolution, four types of SMA, varying in severity, result in a mutations of the SMN gene (survival of Motor neuron). We have analyzed the DNA of 295 patients referred to our genetic counseling; since January 1996 until October 2014; for suspected SMA. The homozygous deletion of exon 7 of the SMN gene was found in 133 patients; of which, 40.6% were born to consanguineous parents. In countries like Morocco, where the frequency of heterozygotes for SMA is high, genetic testing should be offered as first-line and, after careful clinical assessment, especially in newborns and infants with congenital hypotonia unexplained and prognosis compromise. The molecular diagnosis of SMA allows a quick and certainly diagnosis, provide adequate genetic counseling for families at risk and suggest, for couples who want prenatal diagnosis. The analysis of the SMN gene is a perfect example of genetic testing with an excellent cost/benefit ratio that can be of great interest in public health, especially in low-income countries. We emphasize in this work for the benefit of the generalization of molecular diagnosis of SMA by the technique of PCR-enzymatic digestion in other centers in Morocco.

Keywords: Exon7, PCR-digestion, SMA, SMN gene.

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21 Why We Are Taller in the Morning than Going to Bed at Night – An in vivo and in vitro Study

Authors: Harcharan Singh Ranu

Abstract:

Intradiscal and intervertebral pressure transducers were developed. They were used to map the pressures in the nucleus and within the annulus of the human spinal segments. Their stressrelaxation were recorded over a period of time for nucleus pressure, applied load, and peripherial strain against time. The results show that for normal discs, pressures in the nucleus are viscoelastic in nature with the applied compressive load. Mechanical strains which develop around the periphery of the vertebral body are also viscoelastic with the applied compressive load. Applied compressive load against time also shows viscoelastic behavior. However, annulus does not respond viscoelastically with the applied load. It showed a linear response to compressive loading.

Keywords: Intradiscal pressure transducer (IDPT), intervertebral pressure transducer (IVPT), mechanical strains of vertebral bone, viscoelasticity of human spinal disc.

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20 An Efficient Pixel Based Cervical Disc Localization

Authors: J. Preetha, S. Selvarajan

Abstract:

When neck pain is associated with pain, numbness, or weakness in the arm, shoulder, or hand, further investigation is needed as these are symptoms indicating pressure on one or more nerve roots. Evaluation necessitates a neurologic examination and imaging using an MRI/CT scan. A degenerating disc loses some thickness and is less flexible, causing inter-vertebrae space to narrow. A radiologist diagnoses an Intervertebral Disc Degeneration (IDD) by localizing every inter-vertebral disc and identifying the pathology in a disc based on its geometry and appearance. Accurate localizing is necessary to diagnose IDD pathology. But, the underlying image signal is ambiguous: a disc’s intensity overlaps the spinal nerve fibres. Even the structure changes from case to case, with possible spinal column bending (scoliosis). The inter-vertebral disc pathology’s quantitative assessment needs accurate localization of the cervical region discs. In this work, the efficacy of multilevel set segmentation model, to segment cervical discs is investigated. The segmented images are annotated using a simple distance matrix.

Keywords: Intervertebral Disc Degeneration (IDD), Cervical Disc Localization, multilevel set segmentation.

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19 Corrosion Study of Magnetically Driven Components in Spinal Implants by Immersion Testing in Simulated Body Fluids

Authors: Benjawan Saengwichian, Alasdair E. Charles, Philip J. Hyde

Abstract:

Magnetically controlled growing rods (MCGRs) have been used to stabilise and correct spinal curvature in children to support non-invasive scoliosis adjustment. Although the encapsulated driving components are intended to be isolated from body fluid contact, in vivo corrosion was observed on these components due to sealing mechanism damage. Consequently, a corrosion circuit is created with the body fluids, resulting in malfunction of the lengthening mechanism. Particularly, the chloride ions in blood plasma or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) may corrode the MCGR alloys, possibly resulting in metal ion release in long-term use. However, there is no data available on the corrosion resistance of spinal implant alloys in CSF. In this study, an in vitro immersion configuration was designed to simulate in vivo corrosion of 440C SS-Ti6Al4V couples. The 440C stainless steel (SS) was heat-treated to investigate the effect of tempering temperature on intergranular corrosion (IGC), while crevice and galvanic corrosion were studied by limiting the clearance of dissimilar couples. Tests were carried out in a neutral artificial cerebrospinal fluid (ACSF) and phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) under aeration and deaeration for 2 months. The composition of the passive films and metal ion release were analysed. The effect of galvanic coupling, pH, dissolved oxygen and anion species on corrosion rates and corrosion mechanisms are discussed based on quantitative and qualitative measurements. The results suggest that ACSF is more aggressive than PBS due to the combination of aggressive chlorides and sulphate anions, while phosphate in PBS acts as an inhibitor to delay corrosion. The presence of Vivianite on the SS surface in PBS lowered the corrosion rate (CR) more than 5 times for aeration and nearly 2 times for deaeration, compared with ACSF. The CR of 440C is dependent on passive film properties varied by tempering temperature and anion species. Although the CR of Ti6Al4V is insignificant, it tends to release more Ti ions in deaerated ACSF than under aeration, about 6 µg/L. It seems the crevice-like design has more effect on macroscopic corrosion than combining the dissimilar couple, whereas IGC is dominantly observed on sensitized microstructure.

Keywords: Cerebrospinal fluid, crevice corrosion, intergranular corrosion, magnetically controlled growing rods.

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18 A Review of Methods for 2D/3D Registration

Authors: Panos D. Kotsas, Tony Dodd

Abstract:

2D/3D registration is a special case of medical image registration which is of particular interest to surgeons. Applications of 2D/3D registration are [1] radiotherapy planning and treatment verification, spinal surgery, hip replacement, neurointerventions and aortic stenting. The purpose of this paper is to provide a literature review of the main methods for image registration for the 2D/3D case. At the end of the paper an algorithm is proposed for 2D/3D registration based on the Chebyssev polynomials iteration loop.

Keywords: Medical image registration, review, 2D/3D

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17 A Social Cognitive Investigation in the Context of Vocational Training Performance of People with Disabilities

Authors: Majid A. AlSayari

Abstract:

The study reported here investigated social cognitive theory (SCT) in the context of Vocational Rehab (VR) for people with disabilities. The prime purpose was to increase knowledge of VR phenomena and make recommendations for improving VR services. The sample consisted of 242 persons with Spinal Cord Injuries (SCI) who completed questionnaires. A further 32 participants were Trainers. Analysis of questionnaire data was carried out using factor analysis, multiple regression analysis, and thematic analysis. The analysis suggested that, in motivational terms, and consistent with research carried out in other academic contexts, self-efficacy was the best predictor of VR performance. The author concludes that that VR self-efficacy predicted VR training performance.

Keywords: Social cognitive theory, vocational rehab, self-efficacy, proxy efficacy, people with disabilities.

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16 Uniformity of Dose Distribution in Radiation Fields Surrounding the Spine using Film Dosimetry and Comparison with 3D Treatment Planning Software

Authors: Sadegh Masoudi , Vahid Fayaz , Hassan Zandi, Asieh Tavakol

Abstract:

The overall penumbra is usually defined as the distance, p20–80, separating the 20% and 80% of the dose on the beam axis at the depth of interest. This overall penumbra accounts also for the fact that some photons emitted by the distal parts of the source are only partially attenuated by the collimator. Medulloblastoma is the most common type of childhood brain tumor and often spreads to the spine. Current guidelines call for surgery to remove as much of the tumor as possible, followed by radiation of the brain and spinal cord, and finally treatment with chemotherapy. The purpose of this paper was to present results on an Uniformity of dose distribution in radiation fields surrounding the spine using film dosimetry and comparison with 3D treatment planning software.

Keywords: Absorbed Dose , Spine , Radiotherapy, 3D treatment planning software

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15 Concept of Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion Cage Insertion Device

Authors: Sangram A. Sathe, Neha A. Madgulkar, Shruti S. Raut, S. P. Wadkar

Abstract:

Transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) surgeries have nowadays became popular for treatment of degenerated spinal disorders. The interbody fusion technique like TLIF maintains load bearing capacity of the spine and a suitable disc height. Currently many techniques have been introduced to cure Spondylolisthesis. This surgery provides greater rehabilitation of degenerative spines. While performing this TLIF surgery existing methods use guideway, which is a troublesome surgery technique as the use of two separate instruments is required to perform this surgery. This paper presents a concept which eliminates the use of guideway. This concept also eliminates problems that occur like reverting the cage. The concept discussed in this paper also gives high accuracy while performing surgery.

Keywords: Degenerative disc diseases, pedicle screw, spine, spondylolisthesis, transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion.

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14 An Improved C-Means Model for MRI Segmentation

Authors: Ying Shen, Weihua Zhu

Abstract:

Medical images are important to help identifying different diseases, for example, Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be used to investigate the brain, spinal cord, bones, joints, breasts, blood vessels, and heart. Image segmentation, in medical image analysis, is usually the first step to find out some characteristics with similar color, intensity or texture so that the diagnosis could be further carried out based on these features. This paper introduces an improved C-means model to segment the MRI images. The model is based on information entropy to evaluate the segmentation results by achieving global optimization. Several contributions are significant. Firstly, Genetic Algorithm (GA) is used for achieving global optimization in this model where fuzzy C-means clustering algorithm (FCMA) is not capable of doing that. Secondly, the information entropy after segmentation is used for measuring the effectiveness of MRI image processing. Experimental results show the outperformance of the proposed model by comparing with traditional approaches.

Keywords: Magnetic Resonance Image, C-means model, image segmentation, information entropy.

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13 Effects of Repetitive Strain/Stress Injury on the Human Body

Authors: Mohd Abdullah

Abstract:

This review describes some of the effects of repetitive strain/stress injury (RSI) on the human body especially among computer professionals today that spend extended hours of prolonged sitting in front of a computer day in and day out. The review briefly introduces the main factors that contribute to an increase of RSI among such computer professionals. The review briefly discusses how the human spinal column and knees are mainly affected by the onset of RSI resulting in poor posture. The root and secondary causes and effects of RSI are reviewed. The importance and value of the various breathing techniques are reviewed in an attempt to alleviate some of the effects of RSI. The review concludes with a small sample of suggested office stretches and poses geared towards at reducing RSI follows in this review. Readers will learn about the effects of RSI, as well as ways to cope with it. A better understanding of coping strategies may lead to well-being and a healthier overall lifestyle. Ultimately, the investment of time to connect with oneself with the poses and the power of the breath would promote a well-being that is overall healthier thus resulting in a better ability to cope/manage life stresses.

Keywords: Health, wellness, repetitive, chairs.

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12 Rehabilitation Robot in Primary Walking Pattern Training for SCI Patient at Home

Authors: Taisuke Sakaki, Toshihiko Shimokawa, Nobuhiro Ushimi, Koji Murakami, Yong-Kwun Lee, Kazuhiro Tsuruta, Kanta Aoki, Kaoru Fujiie, Ryuji Katamoto, Atsushi Sugyo

Abstract:

Recently attention has been focused on incomplete spinal cord injuries (SCI) to the central spine caused by pressure on parts of the white matter conduction pathway, such as the pyramidal tract. In this paper, we focus on a training robot designed to assist with primary walking-pattern training. The target patient for this training robot is relearning the basic functions of the usual walking pattern; it is meant especially for those with incomplete-type SCI to the central spine, who are capable of standing by themselves but not of performing walking motions. From the perspective of human engineering, we monitored the operator’s actions to the robot and investigated the movement of joints of the lower extremities, the circumference of the lower extremities, and exercise intensity with the machine. The concept of the device was to provide mild training without any sudden changes in heart rate or blood pressure, which will be particularly useful for the elderly and disabled. The mechanism of the robot is modified to be simple and lightweight with the expectation that it will be used at home.

Keywords: Training, rehabilitation, SCI patient, welfare, robot.

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11 Development and Assessment of Measuring/Rehabilitation Device for Myelopathy Patients with Lower Extremity Function

Authors: Hironobu Murayama, Shohei Shimizu, Masakazu Ohnuki, Hisanori Mihara, Tohru Kanada

Abstract:

Disordered function of maniphalanx and difficulty with ambulation will occur insofar as a human has a failure in the spinal marrow. Cervical spondylotic myelopathy as one of the myelopathy emanates from not only external factors but also increased age. In addition, the diacrisis is difficult since cervical spondylotic myelopathy is evaluated by a doctor-s neurological remark and imaging findings. As a quantitative method for measuring the degree of disability, hand-operated triangle step test (for short, TST) has formulated. In this research, a full automatic triangle step counter apparatus is designed and developed to measure the degree of disability in an accurate fashion according to the principle of TST. The step counter apparatus whose shape is a low triangle pole displays the number of stepping upon each corner. Furthermore, the apparatus has two modes of operation. Namely, one is for measuring the degree of disability and the other for rehabilitation exercise. In terms of usefulness, clinical practice should be executed before too long.

Keywords: Cervical spondylotic myelopathy, disorder of lower limbs, measuringfunction, rehabilitation function, full automatic apparatus, triangle step test.

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10 Compressive Properties of a Synthetic Bone Substitute for Vertebral Cancellous Bone

Authors: H. N. Mehmanparast, J.M. Mac-Thiong., Y. Petit

Abstract:

Transpedicular screw fixation in spinal fractures, degenerative changes, or deformities is a well-established procedure. However, important rate of fixation failure due to screw bending, loosening, or pullout are still reported particularly in weak bone stock in osteoporosis. To overcome the problem, mechanism of failure has to be fully investigated in vitro. Post-mortem human subjects are less accessible and animal cadavers comprise limitations due to different geometry and mechanical properties. Therefore, the development of a synthetic model mimicking the realistic human vertebra is highly demanded. A bone surrogate, composed of Polyurethane (PU) foam analogous to cancellous bone porous structure, was tested for 3 different densities in this study. The mechanical properties were investigated under uniaxial compression test by minimizing the end artifacts on specimens. The results indicated that PU foam of 0.32 g.cm-3 density has comparable mechanical properties to human cancellous bone in terms of young-s modulus and yield strength. Therefore, the obtained information can be considered as primary step for developing a realistic cancellous bone of human vertebral body. Further evaluations are also recommended for other density groups.

Keywords: Cancellous bone, Pedicle screw, Polyurethane foam, Synthetic bone

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9 A Comparison on Healing Effects of an Ayurvedic Preparation and Silver Sulfadiazine on Burn Wounds in Albino Rats

Authors: S. S. Pathak, M. A. Borkar, S. S. Patel

Abstract:

To compare Healing Effects of an Ayurvedic Preparation and Silver Sulfadiazine on burn wounds in Albino Rats. Methods: Albino rats– 30 male / female rats weighing between 150-200 g were used in the study. They were individually housed and maintained on normal diet and water ad libitum. Partial thickness burn wounds were inflicted, on overnight-starved animals under pentobarbitone (30mg/kg, i.p.) anaesthesia, by pouring hot molten wax at 80oC into a plastic cylinder of 300 mm2 circular openings placed on the shaven back of the animal. Apart from the drugs under investigation no local/ systemic chemotherapeutic cover will be provided to animals. All the animals were assessed for the percentage of wound contraction, signs of infection, scab formation and histopathological examination. Results: Percentage of wound healing was significantly better in the test ointment group compared to the standard. Signs of infection were observed in more animals in the test ointment group compared to the standard. Scab formation also took place earlier in the test ointment group compared to standard. Epithelial regeneration and healing profile was better in the test ointment compared to the standard. Moreover the test ointment group did not show any raised margins in the wound or blackish discoloration as was observed in silver sulfadiazine group. Conclusion: The burn wound healing effect of the ayurvedic ointment under study is better in comparison to standard therapy of silver sulfadiazine. The problem of infection encountered with the test ointment can be overcome by changing the concentrations and proportions of the ingredients in the test ointment which constitutes the further plan of the study.

Keywords: Ayurvedic test ointment, burn wounds, Silver sulfadiazine.

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8 Early Diagnosis of Alzheimer's Disease Using a Combination of Images Processing and Brain Signals

Authors: E. Irankhah, M. Zarif, E. Mazrooei Rad, K. Ghandehari

Abstract:

Alzheimer's prevalence is on the rise, and the disease comes with problems like cessation of treatment, high cost of treatment, and the lack of early detection methods. The pathology of this disease causes the formation of protein deposits in the brain of patients called plaque amyloid. Generally, the diagnosis of this disease is done by performing tests such as a cerebrospinal fluid, CT scan, MRI, and spinal cord fluid testing, or mental testing tests and eye tracing tests. In this paper, we tried to use the Medial Temporal Atrophy (MTA) method and the Leave One Out (LOO) cycle to extract the statistical properties of the three Fz, Pz, and Cz channels of ERP signals for early diagnosis of this disease. In the process of CT scan images, the accuracy of the results is 81% for the healthy person and 88% for the severe patient. After the process of ERP signaling, the accuracy of the results for a healthy person in the delta band in the Cz channel is 81% and in the alpha band the Pz channel is 90%. In the results obtained from the signal processing, the results of the severe patient in the delta band of the Cz channel were 89% and in the alpha band Pz channel 92%.

Keywords: Alzheimer's disease, image and signal processing, medial temporal atrophy, LOO Cycle.

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7 Application of Staining Intensity Correlation Analysis to Visualize Protein Colocalizationat a Cellular Level

Authors: Permphan Dharmasaroja

Abstract:

Mutations of the telomeric copy of the survival motor neuron 1 (SMN1) gene cause spinal muscular atrophy. A deletion of the Eef1a2 gene leads to lower motor neuron degeneration in wasted mice. Indirect evidences have been shown that the eEF1A protein family may interact with SMN, and our previous study showed that abnormalities of neuromuscular junctions in wasted mice were similar to those of Smn mutant mice. To determine potential colocalization between SMN and tissue-specific translation elongation factor 1A2 (eEF1A2), an immunochemical analysis of HeLa cells transfected with the plasmid pcDNA3.1(+)C-hEEF1A2- myc and a new quantitative test of colocalization by intensity correlation analysis (ICA) was used to explore the association of SMN and eEF1A2. Here the results showed that eEF1A2 redistributed from the cytoplasm to the nucleus in response to serum and epidermal growth factor. In the cytoplasm, compelling evidence showed that staining for myc-tagged eEF1A2 varied in synchrony with that for SMN, consistent with the formation of a SMN-eEF1A2 complex in the cytoplasm of HeLa cells. These findings suggest that eEF1A2 may colocalize with SMN in the cytoplasm and may be a component of the SMN complex. However, the limitation of the ICA method is an inability to resolve colocalization in components of small organelles such as the nucleus.

Keywords: Intensity correlation analysis, intensity correlation quotient.

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6 Animal-Assisted Therapy for Persons with Disabilities Based on Canine Tail Language Interpretation via Gaussian-Trapezoidal Fuzzy Emotional Behavior Model

Authors: W. Phanwanich, O. Kumdee, P. Ritthipravat, Y. Wongsawat

Abstract:

In order to alleviate the mental and physical problems of persons with disabilities, animal-assisted therapy (AAT) is one of the possible modalities that employs the merit of the human-animal interaction. Nevertheless, to achieve the purpose of AAT for persons with severe disabilities (e.g. spinal cord injury, stroke, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis), real-time animal language interpretation is desirable. Since canine behaviors can be visually notable from its tail, this paper proposes the automatic real-time interpretation of canine tail language for human-canine interaction in the case of persons with severe disabilities. Canine tail language is captured via two 3-axis accelerometers. Directions and frequencies are selected as our features of interests. The novel fuzzy rules based on Gaussian-Trapezoidal model and center of gravity (COG)-based defuzzification method are proposed in order to interpret the features into four canine emotional behaviors, i.e., agitate, happy, scare and neutral as well as its blended emotional behaviors. The emotional behavior model is performed in the simulated dog and has also been evaluated in the real dog with the perfect recognition rate.

Keywords: Animal-assisted therapy (AAT), Persons with disabilities, Canine tail language, Fuzzy emotional behavior model

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5 Bio-Heat Transfer in Various Transcutaneous Stimulation Models

Authors: Trevor E. Davis, Isaac Cassar, Yi-Kai Lo, Wentai Liu

Abstract:

This study models the use of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation on skin with a disk electrode in order to simulate tissue damage. The current density distribution above a disk electrode is known to be a dynamic and non-uniform quantity that is intensified at the edges of the disk. The non-uniformity is subject to change through using various electrode geometries or stimulation methods. One of these methods known as edge-retarded stimulation has shown to reduce this edge enhancement. Though progress has been made in modeling the behavior of a disk electrode, little has been done to test the validity of these models in simulating the actual heat transfer from the electrode. This simulation uses finite element software to couple the injection of current from a disk electrode to heat transfer described by the Pennesbioheat transfer equation. An example application of this model is studying an experimental form of stimulation, known as edge-retarded stimulation. The edge-retarded stimulation method will reduce the current density at the edges of the electrode. It is hypothesized that reducing the current density edge enhancement effect will, in turn, reduce temperature change and tissue damage at the edges of these electrodes. This study tests this hypothesis as a demonstration of the capabilities of this model. The edge-retarded stimulation proved to be safer after this simulation. It is shown that temperature change and the fraction of tissue necrosis is much greater in the square wave stimulation. These results bring implications for changes of procedures in transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation and transcutaneous spinal cord stimulation as well.

Keywords: Bioheat transfer, Electrode, Neuroprosthetics, TENS, Transcutaneous stimulation.

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4 Ballistics of Main Seat Ejection Cartridges for Aircraft Application

Authors: B. A. Parate, K. D. Deodhar, V. K. Dixit, V. Venkateswara Rao

Abstract:

This article outlines the ballistics of main seat ejection cartridges for aircraft application. The ballistics of main seat ejection cartridges plays a vital role during the ejection of the pilot in an emergency. The ballistic parameters such as maximum pressure, time to reach the maximum pressure, and time required to reach half the maximum pressure that responsible to the spinal injury of the pilot are assessed. Therefore, the evaluations of these parameters are very critical during various stages of development. Elaborate testing is carried out for main seat ejection cartridges on seat ejection tower (SET) at different operating temperatures considering physiological limits. As these trials are cumbersome in nature, a vented vessel (VV) testing facility is devised to lay down the performance parameters at hot and cold temperature conditions. Single base (SB) propellant having hepta-tubular configuration is selected as the main filling. Gun powder plays the role of a booster based on ballistic requirements. The evaluation methodology of various performance parameters of main seat ejection cartridges is explained in this paper. Physiological parameters such as maximum seat ejection velocity, acceleration, and rate of rising of acceleration are also experimentally determined on SET. All the parameters are observed well within physiological limits. This paper addresses the internal ballistic of main seat ejection cartridges, propellant selection, its calculation, and evaluation of various performance parameters for aircraft application.

Keywords: Ballistics of seat ejection, ejection seat, gas generator, gun propulsion, main seat ejection cartridges, maximum pressure, performance parameters, propellant, progressive burning and vented vessel.

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3 Modelling of a Biomechanical Vertebral System for Seat Ejection in Aircrafts Using Lumped Mass Approach

Authors: R. Unnikrishnan, K. Shankar

Abstract:

In the case of high-speed fighter aircrafts, seat ejection is designed mainly for the safety of the pilot in case of an emergency. Strong windblast due to the high velocity of flight is one main difficulty in clearing the tail of the aircraft. Excessive G-forces generated, immobilizes the pilot from escape. In most of the cases, seats are ejected out of the aircrafts by explosives or by rocket motors attached to the bottom of the seat. Ejection forces are primarily in the vertical direction with the objective of attaining the maximum possible velocity in a specified period of time. The safe ejection parameters are studied to estimate the critical time of ejection for various geometries and velocities of flight. An equivalent analytical 2-dimensional biomechanical model of the human spine has been modelled consisting of vertebrae and intervertebral discs with a lumped mass approach. The 24 vertebrae, which consists of the cervical, thoracic and lumbar regions, in addition to the head mass and the pelvis has been designed as 26 rigid structures and the intervertebral discs are assumed as 25 flexible joint structures. The rigid structures are modelled as mass elements and the flexible joints as spring and damper elements. Here, the motions are restricted only in the mid-sagittal plane to form a 26 degree of freedom system. The equations of motions are derived for translational movement of the spinal column. An ejection force with a linearly increasing acceleration profile is applied as vertical base excitation on to the pelvis. The dynamic vibrational response of each vertebra in time-domain is estimated.

Keywords: Biomechanical model, lumped mass, seat ejection, vibrational response.

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2 Computer Based Medicine: I - The Future

Authors: Essam Abd-Elrazek

Abstract:

With the rapid growth in business size, today-s businesses orient Throughout thirty years local, national and international experience in medicine as a medical student, junior doctor and eventually Consultant and Professor in Anaesthesia, Intensive Care and Pain Management, I note significant generalised dissatisfaction among medical students and doctors regarding their medical education and practice. We repeatedly hear complaints from patients about the dysfunctional health care system they are dealing with and subsequently the poor medical service that they are receiving. Medical students are bombarded with lectures, tutorials, clinical rounds and various exams. Clinicians are weighed down with a never-ending array of competing duties. Patients are extremely unhappy about the long waiting lists, loss of their records and the continuous deterioration of the health care service. This problem has been reported in different countries by several authors [1,2,3]. In a trial to solve this dilemma, a genuine idea has been suggested implementing computer technology in medicine [2,3]. Computers in medicine are a medium of international communication of the revolutionary advances being made in the application of the computer to the fields of bioscience and medicine [4,5]. The awareness about using computers in medicine has recently increased all over the world. In Misr University for Science & Technology (MUST), Egypt, medical students are now given hand-held computers (Laptop) with Internet facility making their medical education accessible, convenient and up to date. However, this trial still needs to be validated. Helping the readers to catch up with the on going fast development in this interesting field, the author has decided to continue reviewing the literature, exploring the state-of-art in computer based medicine and up dating the medical professionals especially the local trainee Doctors in Egypt. In part I of this review article we will give a general background discussing the potential use of computer technology in the various aspects of the medical field including education, research, clinical practice and the health care service given to patients. Hope this will help starting changing the culture, promoting the awareness about the importance of implementing information technology (IT) in medicine, which is a field in which such help is needed. An international collaboration is recommended supporting the emerging countries achieving this target.

Keywords: Medical Informatics, telemedicine, e-health systems.

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1 Analysis of Stress and Strain in Head Based Control of Cooperative Robots through Tetraplegics

Authors: Jochen Nelles, Susanne Kohns, Julia Spies, Friederike Schmitz-Buhl, Roland Thietje, Christopher Brandl, Alexander Mertens, Christopher M. Schlick

Abstract:

Industrial robots as part of highly automated manufacturing are recently developed to cooperative (light-weight) robots. This offers the opportunity of using them as assistance robots and to improve the participation in professional life of disabled or handicapped people such as tetraplegics. Robots under development are located within a cooperation area together with the working person at the same workplace. This cooperation area is an area where the robot and the working person can perform tasks at the same time. Thus, working people and robots are operating in the immediate proximity. Considering the physical restrictions and the limited mobility of tetraplegics, a hands-free robot control could be an appropriate approach for a cooperative assistance robot. To meet these requirements, the research project MeRoSy (human-robot synergy) develops methods for cooperative assistance robots based on the measurement of head movements of the working person. One research objective is to improve the participation in professional life of people with disabilities and, in particular, mobility impaired persons (e.g. wheelchair users or tetraplegics), whose participation in a self-determined working life is denied. This raises the research question, how a human-robot cooperation workplace can be designed for hands-free robot control. Here, the example of a library scenario is demonstrated. In this paper, an empirical study that focuses on the impact of head movement related stress is presented. 12 test subjects with tetraplegia participated in the study. Tetraplegia also known as quadriplegia is the worst type of spinal cord injury. In the experiment, three various basic head movements were examined. Data of the head posture were collected by a motion capture system; muscle activity was measured via surface electromyography and the subjective mental stress was assessed via a mental effort questionnaire. The muscle activity was measured for the sternocleidomastoid (SCM), the upper trapezius (UT) or trapezius pars descendens, and the splenius capitis (SPL) muscle. For this purpose, six non-invasive surface electromyography sensors were mounted on the head and neck area. An analysis of variance shows differentiated muscular strains depending on the type of head movement. Systematically investigating the influence of different basic head movements on the resulting strain is an important issue to relate the research results to other scenarios. At the end of this paper, a conclusion will be drawn and an outlook of future work will be presented.

Keywords: Assistance robot, human-robot-interaction, motion capture, stress-strain-concept, surface electromyography, tetraplegia.

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