Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 147

Search results for: relational schema

147 Data Migration between Document-Oriented and Relational Databases

Authors: Bogdan Walek, Cyril Klimes

Abstract:

Current tools for data migration between documentoriented and relational databases have several disadvantages. We propose a new approach for data migration between documentoriented and relational databases. During data migration the relational schema of the target (relational database) is automatically created from collection of XML documents. Proposed approach is verified on data migration between document-oriented database IBM Lotus/ Notes Domino and relational database implemented in relational database management system (RDBMS) MySQL.

Keywords: data migration, database, document-oriented database, XML, relational schema

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146 A Formal Suite of Object Relational Database Metrics

Authors: Justus S, K Iyakutti

Abstract:

Object Relational Databases (ORDB) are complex in nature than traditional relational databases because they combine the characteristics of both object oriented concepts and relational features of conventional databases. Design of an ORDB demands efficient and quality schema considering the structural, functional and componential traits. This internal quality of the schema is assured by metrics that measure the relevant attributes. This is extended to substantiate the understandability, usability and reliability of the schema, thus assuring external quality of the schema. This work institutes a formalization of ORDB metrics; metric definition, evaluation methodology and the calibration of the metric. Three ORDB schemas were used to conduct the evaluation and the formalization of the metrics. The metrics are calibrated using content and criteria related validity based on the measurability, consistency and reliability of the metrics. Nominal and summative scales are derived based on the evaluated metric values and are standardized. Future works pertaining to ORDB metrics forms the concluding note.

Keywords: Measurements, Product metrics, Metrics calibration, Object-relational database.

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145 XML Schema Automatic Matching Solution

Authors: Huynh Quyet Thang, Vo Sy Nam

Abstract:

Schema matching plays a key role in many different applications, such as schema integration, data integration, data warehousing, data transformation, E-commerce, peer-to-peer data management, ontology matching and integration, semantic Web, semantic query processing, etc. Manual matching is expensive and error-prone, so it is therefore important to develop techniques to automate the schema matching process. In this paper, we present a solution for XML schema automated matching problem which produces semantic mappings between corresponding schema elements of given source and target schemas. This solution contributed in solving more comprehensively and efficiently XML schema automated matching problem. Our solution based on combining linguistic similarity, data type compatibility and structural similarity of XML schema elements. After describing our solution, we present experimental results that demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach.

Keywords: XML Schema, Schema Matching, SemanticMatching, Automatic XML Schema Matching.

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144 Business Rules for Data Warehouse

Authors: Rajeev Kaula

Abstract:

Business rules and data warehouse are concepts and technologies that impact a wide variety of organizational tasks. In general, each area has evolved independently, impacting application development and decision-making. Generating knowledge from data warehouse is a complex process. This paper outlines an approach to ease import of information and knowledge from a data warehouse star schema through an inference class of business rules. The paper utilizes the Oracle database for illustrating the working of the concepts. The star schema structure and the business rules are stored within a relational database. The approach is explained through a prototype in Oracle-s PL/SQL Server Pages.

Keywords: Business Rules, Data warehouse, PL/SQL ServerPages, Relational model, Web Application.

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143 Implementing a Database from a Requirement Specification

Authors: M. Omer, D. Wilson

Abstract:

Creating a database scheme is essentially a manual process. From a requirement specification the information contained within has to be analyzed and reduced into a set of tables, attributes and relationships. This is a time consuming process that has to go through several stages before an acceptable database schema is achieved. The purpose of this paper is to implement a Natural Language Processing (NLP) based tool to produce a relational database from a requirement specification. The Stanford CoreNLP version 3.3.1 and the Java programming were used to implement the proposed model. The outcome of this study indicates that a first draft of a relational database schema can be extracted from a requirement specification by using NLP tools and techniques with minimum user intervention. Therefore this method is a step forward in finding a solution that requires little or no user intervention.

Keywords: Information Extraction, Natural Language Processing, Relation Extraction.

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142 Fuzzy Join Dependency in Fuzzy Relational Databases

Authors: P. C. Saxena, D. K. Tayal

Abstract:

The join dependency provides the basis for obtaining lossless join decomposition in a classical relational schema. The existence of Join dependency shows that that the tables always represent the correct data after being joined. Since the classical relational databases cannot handle imprecise data, they were extended to fuzzy relational databases so that uncertain, ambiguous, imprecise and partially known information can also be stored in databases in a formal way. However like classical databases, the fuzzy relational databases also undergoes decomposition during normalization, the issue of joining the decomposed fuzzy relations remains intact. Our effort in the present paper is to emphasize on this issue. In this paper we define fuzzy join dependency in the framework of type-1 fuzzy relational databases & type-2 fuzzy relational databases using the concept of fuzzy equality which is defined using fuzzy functions. We use the fuzzy equi-join operator for computing the fuzzy equality of two attribute values. We also discuss the dependency preservation property on execution of this fuzzy equi- join and derive the necessary condition for the fuzzy functional dependencies to be preserved on joining the decomposed fuzzy relations. We also derive the conditions for fuzzy join dependency to exist in context of both type-1 and type-2 fuzzy relational databases. We find that unlike the classical relational databases even the existence of a trivial join dependency does not ensure lossless join decomposition in type-2 fuzzy relational databases. Finally we derive the conditions for the fuzzy equality to be non zero and the qualification of an attribute for fuzzy key.

Keywords: Fuzzy - equi join, fuzzy functions, fuzzy join dependency, type-1 fuzzy relational database, type-2 fuzzy relational database.

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141 Migration of the Relational Data Base (RDB) to the Object Relational Data Base (ORDB)

Authors: Alae El Alami, Mohamed Bahaj

Abstract:

This paper proposes an approach for translating an existing relational database (RDB) schema into ORDB. The transition is done with methods that can extract various functions from a RDB which is based on aggregations, associations between the various tables, and the reflexive relationships. These methods can extract even the inheritance knowing that no process of reverse engineering can know that it is an Inheritance; therefore, our approach exceeded all of the previous studies made for ​​the transition from RDB to ORDB. In summation, the creation of the New Data Model (NDM) that stocks the RDB in a form of a structured table, and from the NDM we create our navigational model in order to simplify the implementation object from which we develop our different types. Through these types we precede to the last step, the creation of tables.

The step mentioned above does not require any human interference. All this is done automatically, and a prototype has already been created which proves the effectiveness of this approach.

Keywords: Relational databases, Object-relational databases, Semantic enrichment.

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140 Schema and Data Migration of a Relational Database RDB to the Extensible Markup Language XML

Authors: Alae El Alami, Mohamed Bahaj

Abstract:

This article discusses the passage of RDB to XML documents (schema and data) based on metadata and semantic enrichment, which makes the RDB under flattened shape and is enriched by the object concept. The integration and exploitation of the object concept in the XML uses a syntax allowing for the verification of the conformity of the document XML during the creation. The information extracted from the RDB is therefore analyzed and filtered in order to adjust according to the structure of the XML files and the associated object model. Those implemented in the XML document through a SQL query are built dynamically. A prototype was implemented to realize automatic migration, and so proves the effectiveness of this particular approach.

Keywords: RDB, XML, DTD, semantic enrichment.

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139 Storing OWL Ontologies in SQL Relational Databases

Authors: Irina Astrova, Nahum Korda, Ahto Kalja

Abstract:

Relational databases are often used as a basis for persistent storage of ontologies to facilitate rapid operations such as search and retrieval, and to utilize the benefits of relational databases management systems such as transaction management, security and integrity control. On the other hand, there appear more and more OWL files that contain ontologies. Therefore, this paper proposes to extract ontologies from OWL files and then store them in relational databases. A prerequisite for this storing is transformation of ontologies to relational databases, which is the purpose of this paper.

Keywords: Ontologies, relational databases, SQL, and OWL.

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138 Some Properties of IF Rough Relational Algebraic Operators in Medical Databases

Authors: Chhaya Gangwal, R. N. Bhaumik, Shishir Kumar

Abstract:

Some properties of Intuitionistic Fuzzy (IF) rough relational algebraic operators under an IF rough relational data model are investigated and illustrated using diabetes and heart disease databases. These properties are important and desirable for processing queries in an effective and efficient manner.

 

Keywords: IF Set, Rough Set, IF Rough Relational Database, IF rough Relational Operators.

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137 A Novel Framework for User-Friendly Ontology-Mediated Access to Relational Databases

Authors: Efthymios Chondrogiannis, Vassiliki Andronikou, Efstathios Karanastasis, Theodora Varvarigou

Abstract:

A large amount of data is typically stored in relational databases (DB). The latter can efficiently handle user queries which intend to elicit the appropriate information from data sources. However, direct access and use of this data requires the end users to have an adequate technical background, while they should also cope with the internal data structure and values presented. Consequently the information retrieval is a quite difficult process even for IT or DB experts, taking into account the limited contributions of relational databases from the conceptual point of view. Ontologies enable users to formally describe a domain of knowledge in terms of concepts and relations among them and hence they can be used for unambiguously specifying the information captured by the relational database. However, accessing information residing in a database using ontologies is feasible, provided that the users are keen on using semantic web technologies. For enabling users form different disciplines to retrieve the appropriate data, the design of a Graphical User Interface is necessary. In this work, we will present an interactive, ontology-based, semantically enable web tool that can be used for information retrieval purposes. The tool is totally based on the ontological representation of underlying database schema while it provides a user friendly environment through which the users can graphically form and execute their queries.

Keywords: Ontologies, Relational Databases, SPARQL, Web Interface.

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136 XML Data Management in Compressed Relational Database

Authors: Hongzhi Wang, Jianzhong Li, Hong Gao

Abstract:

XML is an important standard of data exchange and representation. As a mature database system, using relational database to support XML data may bring some advantages. But storing XML in relational database has obvious redundancy that wastes disk space, bandwidth and disk I/O when querying XML data. For the efficiency of storage and query XML, it is necessary to use compressed XML data in relational database. In this paper, a compressed relational database technology supporting XML data is presented. Original relational storage structure is adaptive to XPath query process. The compression method keeps this feature. Besides traditional relational database techniques, additional query process technologies on compressed relations and for special structure for XML are presented. In this paper, technologies for XQuery process in compressed relational database are presented..

Keywords: XML, compression, query processing

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135 Agent-Based Offline Electronic Voting

Authors: Mehmet Tahir Sandıkkaya, Bülent Örencik

Abstract:

Many electronic voting systems, classified mainly as homomorphic cryptography based, mix-net based and blind signature based, appear after the eighties when zero knowledge proofs were introduced. The common ground for all these three systems is that none of them works without real time cryptologic calculations that should be held on a server. As far as known, the agent-based approach has not been used in a secure electronic voting system. In this study, an agent-based electronic voting schema, which does not contain real time calculations on the server side, is proposed. Conventional cryptologic methods are used in the proposed schema and some of the requirements of an electronic voting system are constructed within the schema. The schema seems quite secure if the used cryptologic methods and agents are secure. In this paper, proposed schema will be explained and compared with already known electronic voting systems.

Keywords: Electronic voting, E-voting, Mobile softwareagents, Offline electronic voting.

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134 An Optimization Algorithm Based on Dynamic Schema with Dissimilarities and Similarities of Chromosomes

Authors: Radhwan Yousif Sedik Al-Jawadi

Abstract:

Optimization is necessary for finding appropriate solutions to a range of real-life problems. In particular, genetic (or more generally, evolutionary) algorithms have proved very useful in solving many problems for which analytical solutions are not available. In this paper, we present an optimization algorithm called Dynamic Schema with Dissimilarity and Similarity of Chromosomes (DSDSC) which is a variant of the classical genetic algorithm. This approach constructs new chromosomes from a schema and pairs of existing ones by exploring their dissimilarities and similarities. To show the effectiveness of the algorithm, it is tested and compared with the classical GA, on 15 two-dimensional optimization problems taken from literature. We have found that, in most cases, our method is better than the classical genetic algorithm.

Keywords: Genetic algorithm, similarity and dissimilarity, chromosome injection, dynamic schema.

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133 The Comparative Analysis of Micro-reading and Traditional Reading Based On Schema Theory

Authors: Haiyan Wang

Abstract:

Micro-reading is a new way of reading depended on short messages of mobile phones, network articles and short literary forms, which impacts greatly on traditional way of reading. The effect of "micro-reading" is deeper especially for those growing middle school students and college students. Aiming at the problem with the development of college students' micro-reading and based on the influence of schema theory on the research of cognition of reading, this paper is to analyze the comparison between micro-reading and traditional reading and explore reading strategies in micro-era based on the negative and positive effect which schema theory has on micro-reading.

Keywords: Schema theory, comparative analysis, micro-reading, traditional reading

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132 Meta-Search in Human Resource Management

Authors: Jürgen Dorn, Tabbasum Naz

Abstract:

In the area of Human Resource Management, the trend is towards online exchange of information about human resources. For example, online applications for employment become standard and job offerings are posted in many job portals. However, there are too many job portals to monitor all of them if someone is interested in a new job. We developed a prototype for integrating information of different job portals into one meta-search engine. First, existing job portals were investigated and XML schema documents were derived automated from these portals. Second, translation rules for transforming each schema to a central HR-XML-conform schema were determined. The HR-XML-schema is used to build a form for searching jobs. The data supplied by a user in this form is now translated into queries for the different job portals. Each result obtained by a job portal is sent to the meta-search engine that ranks the result of all received job offers according to user's preferences.

Keywords: Meta-search, Information extraction and integration, human resource management, job search.

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131 A Generalised Relational Data Model

Authors: Georgia Garani

Abstract:

A generalised relational data model is formalised for the representation of data with nested structure of arbitrary depth. A recursive algebra for the proposed model is presented. All the operations are formally defined. The proposed model is proved to be a superset of the conventional relational model (CRM). The functionality and validity of the model is shown by a prototype implementation that has been undertaken in the functional programming language Miranda.

Keywords: nested relations, recursive algebra, recursive nested operations, relational data model.

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130 A Method of Protecting Relational Databases Copyright with Cloud Watermark

Authors: Yong ZHANG, Xiamu NIU, Dongning ZHAO

Abstract:

With the development of Internet and databases application techniques, the demand that lots of databases in the Internet are permitted to remote query and access for authorized users becomes common, and the problem that how to protect the copyright of relational databases arises. This paper simply introduces the knowledge of cloud model firstly, includes cloud generators and similar cloud. And then combined with the property of the cloud, a method of protecting relational databases copyright with cloud watermark is proposed according to the idea of digital watermark and the property of relational databases. Meanwhile, the corresponding watermark algorithms such as cloud watermark embedding algorithm and detection algorithm are proposed. Then, some experiments are run and the results are analyzed to validate the correctness and feasibility of the watermark scheme. In the end, the foreground of watermarking relational database and its research direction are prospected.

Keywords: cloud watermark, copyright protection, digitalwatermark, relational database

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129 New Approach for the Modeling and the Implementation of the Object-Relational Databases

Authors: Amel Grissa-Touzi, Minyar Sassi

Abstract:

Conception is the primordial part in the realization of a computer system. Several tools have been used to help inventors to describe their software. These tools knew a big success in the relational databases domain since they permit to generate SQL script modeling the database from an Entity/Association model. However, with the evolution of the computer domain, the relational databases proved their limits and object-relational model became used more and more. Tools of present conception don't support all new concepts introduced by this model and the syntax of the SQL3 language. We propose in this paper a tool of help to the conception and implementation of object-relational databases called «NAVIGTOOLS" that allows the user to generate script modeling its database in SQL3 language. This tool bases itself on the Entity/Association and navigational model for modeling the object-relational databases.

Keywords: Abstract Data Table, Navigational model, Objectrelational databases, References.

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128 Applying Spanning Tree Graph Theory for Automatic Database Normalization

Authors: Chetneti Srisa-an

Abstract:

In Knowledge and Data Engineering field, relational database is the best repository to store data in a real world. It has been using around the world more than eight decades. Normalization is the most important process for the analysis and design of relational databases. It aims at creating a set of relational tables with minimum data redundancy that preserve consistency and facilitate correct insertion, deletion, and modification. Normalization is a major task in the design of relational databases. Despite its importance, very few algorithms have been developed to be used in the design of commercial automatic normalization tools. It is also rare technique to do it automatically rather manually. Moreover, for a large and complex database as of now, it make even harder to do it manually. This paper presents a new complete automated relational database normalization method. It produces the directed graph and spanning tree, first. It then proceeds with generating the 2NF, 3NF and also BCNF normal forms. The benefit of this new algorithm is that it can cope with a large set of complex function dependencies.

Keywords: Relational Database, Functional Dependency, Automatic Normalization, Primary Key, Spanning tree.

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127 New Methods for E-Commerce Databases Designing in Semantic Web Systems (Modern Systems)

Authors: Karim Heidari, Serajodin Katebi, Ali Reza Mahdavi Far

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to study Database Models to use them efficiently in E-commerce websites. In this paper we are going to find a method which can save and retrieve information in Ecommerce websites. Thus, semantic web applications can work with, and we are also going to study different technologies of E-commerce databases and we know that one of the most important deficits in semantic web is the shortage of semantic data, since most of the information is still stored in relational databases, we present an approach to map legacy data stored in relational databases into the Semantic Web using virtually any modern RDF query language, as long as it is closed within RDF. To achieve this goal we study XML structures for relational data bases of old websites and eventually we will come up one level over XML and look for a map from relational model (RDM) to RDF. Noting that a large number of semantic webs get advantage of relational model, opening the ways which can be converted to XML and RDF in modern systems (semantic web) is important.

Keywords: E-Commerce, Semantic Web, Database, XML, RDF.

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126 Development and Psychometric Properties of the Relational Mobility Scale for the Indonesian Population

Authors: Sukaesi Marianti

Abstract:

This study aims to develop the Relational Mobility Scale for the Indonesian population and to investigate its psychometric properties. New items of the scale were created taking into account the Indonesian population which consists of two parallel forms (A and A’). This study uses 30 newly orchestrated items while keeping in mind the characteristics of the targeted population. The scale was administered to 433 public high school students in Malang, Indonesia. Construct validity of its factor structure was demonstrated using exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis. The result exhibits that he model fits the data, and that the delayed alternate form method shows acceptable result. Results yielded that 21 items of the three-dimensional Relational Mobility Scale is suitable for measuring relational mobility in high school students of Indonesian population.

Keywords: Confirmatory factor analysis, exploratory factor analysis, delayed alternate form, Indonesian population, relational mobility scale.

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125 A Conceptual Query-Driven Design Framework for Data Warehouse

Authors: Resmi Nair, Campbell Wilson, Bala Srinivasan

Abstract:

Data warehouse is a dedicated database used for querying and reporting. Queries in this environment show special characteristics such as multidimensionality and aggregation. Exploiting the nature of queries, in this paper we propose a query driven design framework. The proposed framework is general and allows a designer to generate a schema based on a set of queries.

Keywords: Conceptual schema, data warehouse, queries, requirements.

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124 The Comparison of Anchor and Star Schema from a Query Performance Perspective

Authors: Radek Němec

Abstract:

Today's business environment requires that companies have access to highly relevant information in a matter of seconds. Modern Business Intelligence tools rely on data structured mostly in traditional dimensional database schemas, typically represented by star schemas. Dimensional modeling is already recognized as a leading industry standard in the field of data warehousing although several drawbacks and pitfalls were reported. This paper focuses on the analysis of another data warehouse modeling technique - the anchor modeling, and its characteristics in context with the standardized dimensional modeling technique from a query performance perspective. The results of the analysis show information about performance of queries executed on database schemas structured according to principles of each database modeling technique.

Keywords: Data warehousing, anchor modeling, star schema, anchor schema, query performance.

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123 Restructuring of XML Documents in the Form of Ontologies

Authors: Jamal Bakkas, Mohamed Bahaj, Abdellatif Soklabi

Abstract:

The intense use of the web has made it a very changing environment, its content is in permanent evolution to adapt to the demands. The standards have accompanied this evolution by passing from standards that regroup data with their presentations without any structuring such as HTML, to standards that separate both and give more importance to the structural aspect of the content such as XML standard and its derivatives. Currently, with the appearance of the Semantic Web, ontologies become increasingly present on the web and standards that allow their representations as OWL and RDF/RDFS begin to gain momentum. This paper provided an automatic method that converts XML schema document to ontologies represented in OWL.

Keywords: XML Schema, OWL, RDB, Mapping, Ontology.

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122 Comparative Survey of Object Serialization Techniques and the Programming Supports

Authors: Kazuaki Maeda

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This paper compares six approaches of object serialization from qualitative and quantitative aspects. Those are object serialization in Java, IDL, XStream, Protocol Buffers, Apache Avro, and MessagePack. Using each approach, a common example is serialized to a file and the size of the file is measured. The qualitative comparison works are investigated in the way of checking whether schema definition is required or not, whether schema compiler is required or not, whether serialization is based on ascii or binary, and which programming languages are supported. It is clear that there is no best solution. Each solution makes good in the context it was developed.

Keywords: structured data, serialization, programming

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121 Exploring the Factors of Inter-Organizational Knowledge Sharing

Authors: Ying-Hueih Chen, Jyh-Jeng Wu, Shu-Hua Chien, Yui-Chuin Shiah

Abstract:

Interorganizational knowledge sharing is the major driving force to maximize the operational benefits across supply chain. Trust is considered as the key to facilitate knowledge sharing. This research proposes shared values and relational embeddedness as antecedents of interorganizational trust. Survey based on managers in major industrial parks in Taiwan confirm that trust is enforced when organizations develop shared values and formed social relational embeddedness. Trust leads to interorganizational knowledge sharing. This research has theoretical and practical implications.

Keywords: Shared Goal, Relational Embeddedness, Trust, Knowledge Sharing.

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120 A Generic, Functionally Comprehensive Approach to Maintaining an Ontology as a Relational Database

Authors: Jennifer Leopold, Alton Coalter, Leong Lee

Abstract:

An ontology is a data model that represents a set of concepts in a given field and the relationships among those concepts. As the emphasis on achieving a semantic web continues to escalate, ontologies for all types of domains increasingly will be developed. These ontologies may become large and complex, and as their size and complexity grows, so will the need for multi-user interfaces for ontology curation. Herein a functionally comprehensive, generic approach to maintaining an ontology as a relational database is presented. Unlike many other ontology editors that utilize a database, this approach is entirely domain-generic and fully supports Webbased, collaborative editing including the designation of different levels of authorization for users.

Keywords: Ontology Editor, Relational Database, CollaborativeCuration.

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119 Evaluation of the Contribution of Starting Pitchers in a Professional Baseball Team by Grey Relational Analysis

Authors: Chih-Cheng Chen, Yung-Tan Lee, Shih-Yang Lee, Shih-Kuei Huang, Tien-Tze Chen, Qiu-Jun Chen

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The evaluation of the contribution of professional baseball starting pitchers is a complex decision-making problem that includes several quantitative attributes. It is considered a type of multi-attribute or multi-criteria decision making (MADM/MCDM) problem. This study proposes a model using the Grey Relational Analysis (GRA) to evaluate the starting pitcher contribution for teams of the Chinese Professional Baseball League. The GRA calculates the individual grey relational degree of each alternative to the positive ideal alternative. An empirical analysis was conducted to show the use of the model for the starting pitcher contribution problem. The results demonstrate the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed model.

Keywords: Starting pitchers, Grey Relational Analysis, Chinese Professional Baseball

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118 A Methodology for Data Migration between Different Database Management Systems

Authors: Bogdan Walek, Cyril Klimes

Abstract:

In present days the area of data migration is very topical. Current tools for data migration in the area of relational database have several disadvantages that are presented in this paper. We propose a methodology for data migration of the database tables and their data between various types of relational database systems (RDBMS). The proposed methodology contains an expert system. The expert system contains a knowledge base that is composed of IFTHEN rules and based on the input data suggests appropriate data types of columns of database tables. The proposed tool, which contains an expert system, also includes the possibility of optimizing the data types in the target RDBMS database tables based on processed data of the source RDBMS database tables. The proposed expert system is shown on data migration of selected database of the source RDBMS to the target RDBMS.

Keywords: Expert system, fuzzy, data migration, database, relational database, data type, relational database management system.

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