Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 539

Search results for: idea and belief

539 Pruning Method of Belief Decision Trees

Authors: Salsabil Trabelsi, Zied Elouedi, Khaled Mellouli

Abstract:

The belief decision tree (BDT) approach is a decision tree in an uncertain environment where the uncertainty is represented through the Transferable Belief Model (TBM), one interpretation of the belief function theory. The uncertainty can appear either in the actual class of training objects or attribute values of objects to classify. In this paper, we develop a post-pruning method of belief decision trees in order to reduce size and improve classification accuracy on unseen cases. The pruning of decision tree has a considerable intention in the areas of machine learning.

Keywords: machine learning, uncertainty, belief function theory, belief decision tree, pruning.

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538 The Relationship between Pretend Play and False-Belief in 18-Month-Old Children

Authors: Midori Ban, Ichiro Uchiyama

Abstract:

This experimental study examined the relationship between pretend play and false-belief. Eighteen-month-old children engaged in pretend play with an experimenter using various controlled behaviors and performed a false-belief task. The results showed that the children who understood pretend play performed better on the false-belief task. This suggests that pretended play and false-belief are related at the age of 18 months.

Keywords: 18-month-old, pretend play, false-belief task.

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537 Selection Initial modes for Belief K-modes Method

Authors: Sarra Ben Hariz, Zied Elouedi, Khaled Mellouli

Abstract:

The belief K-modes method (BKM) approach is a new clustering technique handling uncertainty in the attribute values of objects in both the cluster construction task and the classification one. Like the standard version of this method, the BKM results depend on the chosen initial modes. So, one selection method of initial modes is developed, in this paper, aiming at improving the performances of the BKM approach. Experiments with several sets of real data show that by considered the developed selection initial modes method, the clustering algorithm produces more accurate results.

Keywords: Clustering, Uncertainty, Belief function theory, Belief K-modes Method, Initial modes selection.

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536 Belief Theory-Based Classifiers Comparison for Static Human Body Postures Recognition in Video

Authors: V. Girondel, L. Bonnaud, A. Caplier, M. Rombaut

Abstract:

This paper presents various classifiers results from a system that can automatically recognize four different static human body postures in video sequences. The considered postures are standing, sitting, squatting, and lying. The three classifiers considered are a naïve one and two based on the belief theory. The belief theory-based classifiers use either a classic or restricted plausibility criterion to make a decision after data fusion. The data come from the people 2D segmentation and from their face localization. Measurements consist in distances relative to a reference posture. The efficiency and the limits of the different classifiers on the recognition system are highlighted thanks to the analysis of a great number of results. This system allows real-time processing.

Keywords: Belief theory, classifiers comparison, data fusion, human motion analysis, real-time processing, static posture recognition.

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535 Health Risk Assessment in Lead Battery Smelter Factory: A Bayesian Belief Network Method

Authors: Kevin Fong-Rey Liu, Ken Yeh, Cheng-Wu Chen, Han-Hsi Liang

Abstract:

This paper proposes the use of Bayesian belief networks (BBN) as a higher level of health risk assessment for a dumping site of lead battery smelter factory. On the basis of the epidemiological studies, the actual hospital attendance records and expert experiences, the BBN is capable of capturing the probabilistic relationships between the hazardous substances and their adverse health effects, and accordingly inferring the morbidity of the adverse health effects. The provision of the morbidity rates of the related diseases is more informative and can alleviate the drawbacks of conventional methods.

Keywords: Bayesian belief networks, lead battery smelter factory, health risk assessment.

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534 Inferential Reasoning for Heterogeneous Multi-Agent Mission

Authors: Sagir M. Yusuf, Chris Baber

Abstract:

We describe issues bedeviling the coordination of heterogeneous (different sensors carrying agents) multi-agent missions such as belief conflict, situation reasoning, etc. We applied Bayesian and agents' presumptions inferential reasoning to solve the outlined issues with the heterogeneous multi-agent belief variation and situational-base reasoning. Bayesian Belief Network (BBN) was used in modeling the agents' belief conflict due to sensor variations. Simulation experiments were designed, and cases from agents’ missions were used in training the BBN using gradient descent and expectation-maximization algorithms. The output network is a well-trained BBN for making inferences for both agents and human experts. We claim that the Bayesian learning algorithm prediction capacity improves by the number of training data and argue that it enhances multi-agents robustness and solve agents’ sensor conflicts.

Keywords: Distributed constraint optimization problem, multi-agent system, multi-robot coordination, autonomous system, swarm intelligence.

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533 Authoritarian Parenting Received from Mothers Reveals Individual Differences in Preschooler's False-belief, but not in Advanced Theory of Mind

Authors: Alejandra Rodríguez Villalobos, Michael Padilla-Mora, Jaime Fornaguera Trías

Abstract:

Remarkable changes, like the progress in the ability to understand others' minds, can be identified in several socio-cognitive dimensions between age four and seven. Recently, the parenting attitudes have been considerate as one of the potential extrinsic modifiers of these important developmental aspects. The aim of present study is to explore the relationship among authoritarian parenting attitudes and individual differences in Theory of Mind performance. The study included ninety-two Costarrican preschoolers. Six False-belief tasks, an Advanced Theory of Mind test and the Parenting Attitudes Inventory were used. The results demonstrate that participants with high and low Authoritarian Parenting Received differ in their performance on First and Second Order False-belief tasks, but not in Advanced Theory of Mind tasks. Theoretical considerations about possible explanations regarding these results are discussed and methodological limitations are considered to shed light over future directions.

Keywords: Authoritarian parenting, cognitive development, false- belief, individual differences, theory of mind, parenting.

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532 Dempster-Shafer Information Filtering in Multi-Modality Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: D.M. Weeraddana, K.S. Walgama, E.C. Kulasekere

Abstract:

A framework to estimate the state of dynamically varying environment where data are generated from heterogeneous sources possessing partial knowledge about the environment is presented. This is entirely derived within Dempster-Shafer and Evidence Filtering frameworks. The belief about the current state is expressed as belief and plausibility functions. An addition to Single Input Single Output Evidence Filter, Multiple Input Single Output Evidence Filtering approach is introduced. Variety of applications such as situational estimation of an emergency environment can be developed within the framework successfully. Fire propagation scenario is used to justify the proposed framework, simulation results are presented.

Keywords: Dempster-Shafer Belief theory, Evidence Filtering, Evidence Fusion, Sensor Modalities, Wireless Sensor Networks

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531 Bayesian Belief Networks for Test Driven Development

Authors: Vijayalakshmy Periaswamy S., Kevin McDaid

Abstract:

Testing accounts for the major percentage of technical contribution in the software development process. Typically, it consumes more than 50 percent of the total cost of developing a piece of software. The selection of software tests is a very important activity within this process to ensure the software reliability requirements are met. Generally tests are run to achieve maximum coverage of the software code and very little attention is given to the achieved reliability of the software. Using an existing methodology, this paper describes how to use Bayesian Belief Networks (BBNs) to select unit tests based on their contribution to the reliability of the module under consideration. In particular the work examines how the approach can enhance test-first development by assessing the quality of test suites resulting from this development methodology and providing insight into additional tests that can significantly reduce the achieved reliability. In this way the method can produce an optimal selection of inputs and the order in which the tests are executed to maximize the software reliability. To illustrate this approach, a belief network is constructed for a modern software system incorporating the expert opinion, expressed through probabilities of the relative quality of the elements of the software, and the potential effectiveness of the software tests. The steps involved in constructing the Bayesian Network are explained as is a method to allow for the test suite resulting from test-driven development.

Keywords: Software testing, Test Driven Development, Bayesian Belief Networks.

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530 Experimental Results about the Dynamics of the Generalized Belief Propagation Used on LDPC Codes

Authors: Jean-Christophe Sibel, Sylvain Reynal, David Declercq

Abstract:

In the context of channel coding, the Generalized Belief Propagation (GBP) is an iterative algorithm used to recover the transmission bits sent through a noisy channel. To ensure a reliable transmission, we apply a map on the bits, that is called a code. This code induces artificial correlations between the bits to send, and it can be modeled by a graph whose nodes are the bits and the edges are the correlations. This graph, called Tanner graph, is used for most of the decoding algorithms like Belief Propagation or Gallager-B. The GBP is based on a non unic transformation of the Tanner graph into a so called region-graph. A clear advantage of the GBP over the other algorithms is the freedom in the construction of this graph. In this article, we explain a particular construction for specific graph topologies that involves relevant performance of the GBP. Moreover, we investigate the behavior of the GBP considered as a dynamic system in order to understand the way it evolves in terms of the time and in terms of the noise power of the channel. To this end we make use of classical measures and we introduce a new measure called the hyperspheres method that enables to know the size of the attractors.

Keywords: iterative decoder, LDPC, region-graph, chaos.

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529 Conceptual Model for Knowledge Sharing Model in Creating Idea for Mobile Application

Authors: Hanafizan Hussain

Abstract:

This study shows that several projects will be conducted at the workshop in which using the conceptual model for knowledge sharing approach to create an idea for mobile application. The sharing idea has been done through the collaborative activity in which a group of different field sought to define the mobile application which will lead to new media approach of using social media platform. The collaborative activity will be provided and implemented in the form of one day workshop to determine the approach towards the theme given. The activity later will be continued for four weeks for the participant to prepare for the pitch day workshop. This paper shows the pitch of idea including the interface and prototype for the said products. The collaboration between the members with different field of study shows that social media influenced the knowledge sharing model and its creation or innovations. One of the projects supported a collaborative activity in which a group of young designers sought to define the knowledge sharing model of their ability in creating idea for mobile applications.

Keywords: Mobile application, collaborative activity, conceptual knowledge sharing model, social media platform.

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528 The Turkish Version of Inventory of the Dimensions of Emerging Adulthood(The IDEA)

Authors: Hasan Atak, Figen Çok

Abstract:

Emerging Adulthood, the period during ages 18 to 25, is a new conceptualitation proposed by Arnett which is especially prevalent in the industrialized countries. Turkey is basically a developing country having a young population structure. Investigating the presence of such a life period in such a culture might be helpful in understanding educational and psychological needs of people who are in their twenties. With the aim of investigating Emerging Adulthood in Turkey, a well-known instrument (IDEA, 2003) was adapted to Turkish language and Turkish culture. The scale was administered to 296 participants between 15 and 34 ages and validity and reliability were conducted. Exploratory factor analysis revealed three subscales. Reliability coefficients of the scale (Cronbach a) was found as .69. Test-retest reliability coefficients was found for the scale as .81. Finally, “The IDEA" with 20 items was obtained to be used in the Turkish population. The instrument is ready to be administered among Turkish young people for the investigation of transition to adulthood, and whether such a emerging adulthood period really existed.

Keywords: Adaptation, Emerging Adulthood, Turkey, IDEA.

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527 Health Risk Assessment for Sewer Workers using Bayesian Belief Networks

Authors: Kevin Fong-Rey Liu, Ken Yeh, Cheng-Wu Chen, Han-Hsi Liang

Abstract:

The sanitary sewerage connection rate becomes an important indicator of advanced cities. Following the construction of sanitary sewerages, the maintenance and management systems are required for keeping pipelines and facilities functioning well. These maintenance tasks often require sewer workers to enter the manholes and the pipelines, which are confined spaces short of natural ventilation and full of hazardous substances. Working in sewers could be easily exposed to a risk of adverse health effects. This paper proposes the use of Bayesian belief networks (BBN) as a higher level of noncarcinogenic health risk assessment of sewer workers. On the basis of the epidemiological studies, the actual hospital attendance records and expert experiences, the BBN is capable of capturing the probabilistic relationships between the hazardous substances in sewers and their adverse health effects, and accordingly inferring the morbidity and mortality of the adverse health effects. The provision of the morbidity and mortality rates of the related diseases is more informative and can alleviate the drawbacks of conventional methods.

Keywords: Bayesian belief networks, sanitary sewerage, healthrisk assessment, hazard quotient, target organ-specific hazard index.

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526 A Study of Performance of Wastewater Treatment Systems for Small Sites

Authors: Fu E. Tang, Vun J. Ngu

Abstract:

The pollutant removal efficiency of the Intermittently Decanted Extended Aeration (IDEA) wastewater treatment system at Curtin University Sarawak Campus, and conventional activated sludge wastewater treatment system at a local resort, Resort A, is monitored. The influent and effluent characteristics are tested during wet and dry weather conditions, and peak and off peak periods. For the wastewater treatment systems at Curtin Sarawak and Resort A, during dry weather and peak season, it was found that the BOD5 concentration in the influent is 121.7mg/L and 80.0mg/L respectively, and in the effluent, 18.7mg/L and and 18.0mg/L respectively. Analysis of the performance of the IDEA treatment system showed that the operational costs can be minimized by 3%, by decreasing the number of operating cycles. As for the treatment system in Resort A, by utilizing a smaller capacity air blower, a saving of 12% could be made in the operational costs.

Keywords: Conventional Activated Sludge, IDEA, Performance Monitoring, Wastewater Treatment

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525 CBCTL: A Reasoning System of TemporalEpistemic Logic with Communication Channel

Authors: Suguru Yoshioka, Satoshi Tojo

Abstract:

This paper introduces a temporal epistemic logic CBCTL that updates agent-s belief states through communications in them, based on computational tree logic (CTL). In practical environments, communication channels between agents may not be secure, and in bad cases agents might suffer blackouts. In this study, we provide inform* protocol based on ACL of FIPA, and declare the presence of secure channels between two agents, dependent on time. Thus, the belief state of each agent is updated along with the progress of time. We show a prover, that is a reasoning system for a given formula in a given a situation of an agent ; if it is directly provable or if it could be validated through the chains of communications, the system returns the proof.

Keywords: communication channel, computational tree logic, reasoning system, temporal epistemic logic.

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524 Paradigms Shift in Sport Sciences: Body's focus

Authors: Michele V. Carbinatto, Wagner Wey Moreira, Myrian Nunomura; Mariana H. C. Tsukamoto, VilmaLeni Nista-Piccolo

Abstract:

Sports Sciences has been historically supported by the positivism idea of science, especially by the mechanistic/reductionist and becomes a field that views experimentation and measurement as the mayor research domains. The disposition to simplify nature and the world by parts has fragmented and reduced the idea of bodyathletes as machine. In this paper we intent to re-think this perception lined by Complexity Theory. We come with the idea of athletes as a reflexive and active being (corporeity-body). Therefore, the construction of a training that considers the cultural, biological, psychological elements regarding the experience of the human corporal movements in a circumspect and responsible way could bring better chances of accomplishment. In the end, we hope to help coaches understand the intrinsic complexity of the body they are training, how better deal with it, and, in the field of a deep globalization among the different types of knowledge, to respect and accepted the peculiarities of knowledge that comprise this area.

Keywords: Sport science, body, complexity theory, corporeity.

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523 Introducing an Image Processing Base Idea for Outdoor Children Caring

Authors: Hooman Jafarabadi

Abstract:

In this paper application of artificial intelligence for baby and children caring is studied. Then a new idea for injury prevention and safety announcement is presented by using digital image processing. The paper presents the structure of the proposed system. The system determines the possibility of the dangers for children and babies in yards, gardens and swimming pools or etc. In the presented idea, multi camera System is used and receiver videos are processed to find the hazardous areas then the entrance of children and babies in the determined hazardous areas are analyzed. In this condition the system does the programmed action capture, produce alarm or tone or send message.

Keywords: Baby and children Care and Nursing, Intelligent Control Systems for Nursing, Electronic Care and Nursing, Dangers and safety for children and babies, Motion detection, Expert danger alarm systems.

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522 Psychometric Examination of the QUEST-25: An Online Assessment of Intellectual Curiosity and Scientific Epistemology

Authors: Matthew J. Zagumny

Abstract:

The current study reports an examination of the QUEST-25 (Q-Assessment of Undergraduate Epistemology and Scientific Thinking) online version for assessing the dispositional attitudes toward scientific thinking and intellectual curiosity among undergraduate students. The QUEST-25 consists of scientific thinking (SIQ-25) and intellectual curiosity (ICIQ-25), which were correlated in hypothesized directions with the Religious Commitment Inventory, Curiosity and Exploration Inventory, Belief in Science scale, and measures of academic self-efficacy. Additionally, concurrent validity was established by the resulting significant differences between those identifying the centrality of religious belief in their lives and those who do not self-identify as being guided daily by religious beliefs. This study demonstrates the utility of the QUEST-25 for research, evaluation, and theory development.

Keywords: Guided-inquiry learning, intellectual curiosity, psychometric assessment, scientific thinking.

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521 Motivation Factors to Influence the Decision to Choose Thai Fabric

Authors: Pisit Potjanajaruwit

Abstract:

The purpose of this research was to study the motivation factors to influence the decision to choose Thai Fabric. A multiple-stage sample was utilized to collect 400 samples from working women who had diverse occupations all over Thailand. This research was a quantitative analysis and questionnaire was used a tool to collect data. Descriptive statistics used in this research included percentage, average, and standard deviation and inferential statistics included hypothesis testing of one way ANOVA. The research findings revealed that demographic factors and social factors had an influence to the positive idea of wearing Thai fabric (F = 5.377, P value < 0.05). The respondents who had the age over 41 years old had a better positive idea of wearing Thai fabric than other groups. Moreover, the findings revealed that age had influenced the positive idea of wearing Thai fabric (F = 3.918, P value < 0.05). The respondents who had the age over 41 years old also had stronger believe that wearing Thai fabric to work and social gatherings are socially acceptable than other groups.

Keywords: Decision, Motivation, Influence, Thai Fabric.

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520 Equality, Friendship, and Violence in Slash or Yaoi Fan Art

Authors: Proud Arunrangsiwed

Abstract:

Slash or Yaoi fan art is the artwork that contains a homosexual relationship between fictional male characters, who were heterosexual in the original media. Previous belief about Slash or Yaoi fan art is that the fan fiction writers and the fan artists need to see the equality in romantic relationship. They do not prefer the pairing of man and woman, since both genders are not equal. The objectives of the current study are to confirm this belief, and to examine the relationship between equality found in Slash fan art, friendship in original media, and violence contained in fan art. Mean comparisons show that equality could be found in the pairing of hero and hero, but rarely found in the pairing of hero and villain. Regression analysis shows that the level of equality in fan art and friendship in original media are significant predictors of violence contained in fan art. Since villain-related pairings yield a high level of violence in fan art and a low level of equality, researchers of future studies should find the strategies to prevent fans to include villains in their Slash or Yaoi fan art.

Keywords: Equality, fan art, slash, violence, yaoi.

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519 Some Exact Solutions of the (2+1)-Dimensional Breaking Soliton Equation using the Three-wave Method

Authors: Mohammad Taghi Darvishi, Mohammad Najafi

Abstract:

This paper considers the (2+1)-dimensional breaking soliton equation in its bilinear form. Some exact solutions to this equation are explicitly derived by the idea of three-wave solution method with the assistance of Maple. We can see that the new idea is very simple and straightforward.

Keywords: Soliton solution, computerized symbolic computation, painleve analysis, (2+1)-dimensional breaking soliton equation, Hirota's bilinear form.

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518 Learning Styles Difference in Difficulties of Generating Idea

Authors: M. H. Yee, J. Md Yunos, W. Othman, R. Hassan, T. K. Tee, M. M. Mohamad

Abstract:

The generation of an idea that goes through several  phases is affected by individual factors, interests, preferences and  motivation. The purpose of this research was to analyze the  difference in difficulties of generating ideas according to individual  learning styles. A total of 375 technical students from four technical  universities in Malaysia were randomly selected as samples. The  Kolb Learning Styles Inventory and a set of developed questionnaires  were used in this research. The results showed that the most dominant  learning style among technical students is Doer. A total of 319  (85.1%) technical students faced difficulties in solving individual  assignments. Most of the problem faced by technical students is the  difficulty of generating ideas for solving individual assignments.  There was no significant difference in difficulties of generating ideas  according to students’ learning styles. Therefore, students need to  learn higher order thinking skills enabling students to generate ideas  and consequently complete assignments.

 

Keywords: Difference, difficulties, generating idea, learning styles.

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517 The Masquerade of Life, Our Many Selves and Issues of Privacy

Authors: Karen Armstrong

Abstract:

This paper explores the importance of privacy in a contemporary online world. Crucial to the discussion is the idea of the Lacanian postmodern fragmented self and the problem of how to ensure that we have room to fully explore various aspects of our personalities in an environment which is–or at least feels--safe and free from observation by others. The paper begins with an exploration of the idea of the self with particular regard to the ways in which contemporary life and technology seems to have multiplied the various faces or masks which we present in different contexts. A brief history of privacy and surveillance follows. Finally, the paper ends with an affirmation of the importance of private space as an essential component of our spiritual and emotional well-being in today-s wired world.

Keywords: Lacan, panopticon, postmodern, privacy, surveillance.

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516 Theoretical Appraisal of Satisfactory Decisions: Uncertainty, Evolutionary Ideas and Beliefs, and Satisfactory Time Use

Authors: Okay Gunes

Abstract:

Unsatisfactory experiences due to an information shortage regarding the future pay-offs of actual choices, yield satisficing decision-making. This research will examine, for the first time in the literature, the motivation behind suboptimal decisions due to uncertainty by subjecting Adam Smith’s and Jeremy Bentham’s assumptions about the nature of the actions that lead to satisficing behavior, in order to clarify the theoretical background of a “consumption-based satisfactory time” concept. The contribution of this paper with respect to the existing literature is threefold: firstly, it is showed in this paper that Adam Smith’s uncertainty is related to the problem of the constancy of ideas and not related directly to beliefs. Secondly, possessions, as in Jeremy Bentham’s oeuvre, are assumed to be just as pleasing, as protecting and improving the actual or expected quality of life, so long as they reduce any displeasure due to the undesired outcomes of uncertainty. Finally, each consumption decision incurs its own satisfactory time period, owed to not feeling hungry, being healthy, not having transportation…etc. This reveals that the level of satisfaction is indeed a behavioral phenomenon where its value would depend on the simultaneous satisfaction derived from all activities.

Keywords: Decision-making, idea and belief, satisficing, uncertainty.

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515 The Direct Drivers of Ethnocentric Consumer, Intention and Actual Purchasing Behavior in Malaysia

Authors: Nik Kamariah Nik-Mat, Noor Hasmini Abd-Ghani, Jamal Mohammed Esmail Al-Ekam

Abstract:

The Malaysian government had consistently revived its campaign for “Buy Malaysian Goods” from time to time. The purpose of the campaign is to remind consumers to be ethnocentric and patriotic when purchasing product and services. This is necessary to ensure high demand for local products and services compared to foreign products. However, the decline of domestic investment in 2012 has triggered concern for the Malaysian economy. Hence, this study attempts to determine the drivers of actual purchasing behavior, intention to purchase domestic products and ethnocentrism. The study employs the cross-sectional primary data, self-administered on household, selected using stratified random sampling in four Malaysian regions. A nine factor driver of actual domestic purchasing behavior (culture openness, conservatism, collectivism, patriotism, control belief, interest in foreign travel, attitude, ethnocentrism and intention) were measured utilizing 60 items, using 7-point Likertscale. From 1000 questionnaires distributed, a sample of 486 were returned representing 48.6 percent response rate. From the fit generated structural model (SEM analysis), it was found that the drivers of actual purchase behavior are collectivism, cultural openness and patriotism; the drivers of intention to purchase domestic product are attitude, control belief, collectivism and conservatism; and drivers of ethnocentrism are cultural openness, control belief, foreign travel and patriotism. It also shows that Malaysian consumers scored high in ethnocentrism and patriotism. The findings are discussed in the perspective of its implication to Malaysian National Agenda.

Keywords: Actual purchase, ethnocentrism, culture openness, conservatism, collectivism, patriotism.

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514 Support Vector Machines For Understanding Lane Color and Sidewalks

Authors: Hoon Lee, Soonyoung Park, Kyoungho Choi

Abstract:

Understanding road features such as lanes, the color of lanes, and sidewalks in a live video captured from a moving vehicle is essential to build video-based navigation systems. In this paper, we present a novel idea to understand the road features using support vector machines. Various feature vectors including color components of road markings and the difference between two regions, i.e., chosen AOIs, and so on are fed into SVM, deciding colors of lanes and sidewalks robustly. Experimental results are provided to show the robustness of the proposed idea.

Keywords: video-based navigation system, lane detection, SVMs, autonomous vehicles

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513 Managing your Online Reputation: Issues of Ethics, Trust and Privacy in a Wired, “No Place to Hide“ World

Authors: Karen Armstrong

Abstract:

This paper examines the issues, the dangers and the saving graces of life in a transparent global community where there is truly “no place to hide". In recent years, social networks and online groups have transformed issues of privacy and the ways in which we perceive and interact with others. The idea of reputation is critical to this dynamic. The discussion begins with a brief etymological history of the concept of reputation and moves to an exploration of how and why online communication changes our basic nature, our various selves and the Bakhtin idea of the polyphonic nature of truth. The discussion considers the damaging effects of bullying and gossip, both of which constitute an assault on reputation and the latter of which is not limited to the lifetime of the person. It concludes with guidelines and specific recommendations.

Keywords: online reputation, gossip, cyberbullying, privacy

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512 Creating or Destroying Objects Plan in the Graphplan Framework

Authors: Wen-xiang Gu, Zeng-yu Cai, Xin-mei Zhang, Gui-dong Jiang

Abstract:

At present, intelligent planning in the Graphplan framework is a focus of artificial intelligence. While the Creating or Destroying Objects Planning (CDOP) is one unsolved problem of this field, one of the difficulties, too. In this paper, we study this planning problem and bring forward the idea of transforming objects to propositions, based on which we offer an algorithm, Creating or Destroying Objects in the Graphplan framework (CDOGP). Compared to Graphplan, the new algorithm can solve not only the entire problems that Graphplan do, but also a part of CDOP. It is for the first time that we introduce the idea of object-proposition, and we emphasize the discussion on the representations of creating or destroying objects operator and an algorithm in the Graphplan framework. In addition, we analyze the complexity of this algorithm.

Keywords: Graphplan, object_proposition, Creating or destroying objects, CDOGP.

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511 Probabilistic Approach of Dealing with Uncertainties in Distributed Constraint Optimization Problems and Situation Awareness for Multi-agent Systems

Authors: Sagir M. Yusuf, Chris Baber

Abstract:

In this paper, we describe how Bayesian inferential reasoning will contributes in obtaining a well-satisfied prediction for Distributed Constraint Optimization Problems (DCOPs) with uncertainties. We also demonstrate how DCOPs could be merged to multi-agent knowledge understand and prediction (i.e. Situation Awareness). The DCOPs functions were merged with Bayesian Belief Network (BBN) in the form of situation, awareness, and utility nodes. We describe how the uncertainties can be represented to the BBN and make an effective prediction using the expectation-maximization algorithm or conjugate gradient descent algorithm. The idea of variable prediction using Bayesian inference may reduce the number of variables in agents’ sampling domain and also allow missing variables estimations. Experiment results proved that the BBN perform compelling predictions with samples containing uncertainties than the perfect samples. That is, Bayesian inference can help in handling uncertainties and dynamism of DCOPs, which is the current issue in the DCOPs community. We show how Bayesian inference could be formalized with Distributed Situation Awareness (DSA) using uncertain and missing agents’ data. The whole framework was tested on multi-UAV mission for forest fire searching. Future work focuses on augmenting existing architecture to deal with dynamic DCOPs algorithms and multi-agent information merging.

Keywords: DCOP, multi-agent reasoning, Bayesian reasoning, swarm intelligence.

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510 Robot Map Building from Sonar and Laser Information using DSmT with Discounting Theory

Authors: Xinde Li, Xinhan Huang, Min Wang

Abstract:

In this paper, a new method of information fusion – DSmT (Dezert and Smarandache Theory) is introduced to apply to managing and dealing with the uncertain information from robot map building. Here we build grid map form sonar sensors and laser range finder (LRF). The uncertainty mainly comes from sonar sensors and LRF. Aiming to the uncertainty in static environment, we propose Classic DSm (DSmC) model for sonar sensors and laser range finder, and construct the general basic belief assignment function (gbbaf) respectively. Generally speaking, the evidence sources are unreliable in physical system, so we must consider the discounting theory before we apply DSmT. At last, Pioneer II mobile robot serves as a simulation experimental platform. We build 3D grid map of belief layout, then mainly compare the effect of building map using DSmT and DST. Through this simulation experiment, it proves that DSmT is very successful and valid, especially in dealing with highly conflicting information. In short, this study not only finds a new method for building map under static environment, but also supplies with a theory foundation for us to further apply Hybrid DSmT (DSmH) to dynamic unknown environment and multi-robots- building map together.

Keywords: Map building, DSmT, DST, uncertainty, information fusion.

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