Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 105

Search results for: Multistage Detectors (MSD)

105 Multiuser Detection in CDMA Fast Fading Multipath Channel using Heuristic Genetic Algorithms

Authors: Muhammad Naeem, Syed Ismail Shah, Habibullah Jamal

Abstract:

In this paper, a simple heuristic genetic algorithm is used for Multistage Multiuser detection in fast fading environments. Multipath channels, multiple access interference (MAI) and near far effect cause the performance of the conventional detector to degrade. Heuristic Genetic algorithms, a rapidly growing area of artificial intelligence, uses evolutionary programming for initial search, which not only helps to converge the solution towards near optimal performance efficiently but also at a very low complexity as compared with optimal detector. This holds true for Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) and multipath fading channels. Experimental results are presented to show the superior performance of the proposed techque over the existing methods.

Keywords: Genetic Algorithm (GA), Multiple AccessInterference (MAI), Multistage Detectors (MSD), SuccessiveInterference Cancellation.

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104 ICF Neutron Detection Techniques Based on Doped ZnO Crystal

Authors: L. Chen, X. P. Ouyang, Z. B. Zhang, J. F. Zhang, J. L. Liu

Abstract:

Ultrafast doped zinc oxide crystal promised us a good opportunity to build new instruments for ICF fusion neutron measurement. Two pulsed neutron detectors based on ZnO crystal wafer have been conceptually designed, the superfast ZnO timing detector and the scintillation recoil proton neutron detection system. The structure of these detectors was presented, and some characters were studied as well. The new detectors could be much faster than existing systems, and would be more competent for ICF neutron diagnostics.

Keywords: ICF fusion neutron detection, proton recoil telescope, superfast timing, ZnO crystal

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103 Fingerprint Compression Using Contourlet Transform and Multistage Vector Quantization

Authors: S. Esakkirajan, T. Veerakumar, V. Senthil Murugan, R. Sudhakar

Abstract:

This paper presents a new fingerprint coding technique based on contourlet transform and multistage vector quantization. Wavelets have shown their ability in representing natural images that contain smooth areas separated with edges. However, wavelets cannot efficiently take advantage of the fact that the edges usually found in fingerprints are smooth curves. This issue is addressed by directional transforms, known as contourlets, which have the property of preserving edges. The contourlet transform is a new extension to the wavelet transform in two dimensions using nonseparable and directional filter banks. The computation and storage requirements are the major difficulty in implementing a vector quantizer. In the full-search algorithm, the computation and storage complexity is an exponential function of the number of bits used in quantizing each frame of spectral information. The storage requirement in multistage vector quantization is less when compared to full search vector quantization. The coefficients of contourlet transform are quantized by multistage vector quantization. The quantized coefficients are encoded by Huffman coding. The results obtained are tabulated and compared with the existing wavelet based ones.

Keywords: Contourlet Transform, Directional Filter bank, Laplacian Pyramid, Multistage Vector Quantization

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102 Alignment of Emission Gamma Ray Sources with Nai(Ti) Scintillation Detectors by Two Laser Beams to Pre-Operation using Alternating Minimization Technique

Authors: Abbas Ali Mahmood Karwi

Abstract:

Accurate timing alignment and stability is important to maximize the true counts and minimize the random counts in positron emission tomography So signals output from detectors must be centering with the two isotopes to pre-operation and fed signals into four units of pulse-processing units, each unit can accept up to eight inputs. The dual source computed tomography consist two units on the left for 15 detector signals of Cs-137 isotope and two units on the right are for 15 detectors signals of Co-60 isotope. The gamma spectrum consisting of either single or multiple photo peaks. This allows for the use of energy discrimination electronic hardware associated with the data acquisition system to acquire photon counts data with a specific energy, even if poor energy resolution detectors are used. This also helps to avoid counting of the Compton scatter counts especially if a single discrete gamma photo peak is emitted by the source as in the case of Cs-137. In this study the polyenergetic version of the alternating minimization algorithm is applied to the dual energy gamma computed tomography problem.

Keywords: Alignment, Spectrum, Laser, Detectors, Image

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101 Comparison of Multi-User Detectors of DS-CDMA System

Authors: Kavita Khairnar, Shikha Nema

Abstract:

DS-CDMA system is well known wireless technology. This system suffers from MAI (Multiple Access Interference) caused by Direct Sequence users. Multi-User Detection schemes were introduced to detect the users- data in presence of MAI. This paper focuses on linear multi-user detection schemes used for data demodulation. Simulation results depict the performance of three detectors viz-conventional detector, Decorrelating detector and Subspace MMSE (Minimum Mean Square Error) detector. It is seen that the performance of these detectors depends on the number of paths and the length of Gold code used.

Keywords: Cross Correlation Matrix, MAI, Multi-UserDetection, Multipath Effect.

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100 Simulation of Superconducting Nanowire Single-Photon Detector with Circuit Modeling

Authors: Seyed Ali Sedigh Zyabari, A. Zarifkar

Abstract:

Single photon detectors have been fabricated NbN nano wire. These detectors are fabricated from high quality, ultra high vacuum sputtered NbN thin films on a sapphire substrate. In this work a typical schematic of the nanowire Single Photon Detector structure and then driving and measurement electronic circuit are shown. The response of superconducting nanowire single photon detectors during a photo detection event, is modeled by a special electrical circuits (two circuit). Finally, current through the wire is calculated by solving equations of models.

Keywords: NbN, nanowire meander, superconducting single photon detector, kinetic inductance.

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99 The Effects of Detector Spacing on Travel Time Prediction on Freeways

Authors: Piyali Chaudhuri, Peter T. Martin, Aleksandar Z. Stevanovic, Chongkai Zhu

Abstract:

Loop detectors report traffic characteristics in real time. They are at the core of traffic control process. Intuitively, one would expect that as density of detection increases, so would the quality of estimates derived from detector data. However, as detector deployment increases, the associated operating and maintenance cost increases. Thus, traffic agencies often need to decide where to add new detectors and which detectors should continue receiving maintenance, given their resource constraints. This paper evaluates the effect of detector spacing on freeway travel time estimation. A freeway section (Interstate-15) in Salt Lake City metropolitan region is examined. The research reveals that travel time accuracy does not necessarily deteriorate with increased detector spacing. Rather, the actual location of detectors has far greater influence on the quality of travel time estimates. The study presents an innovative computational approach that delivers optimal detector locations through a process that relies on Genetic Algorithm formulation.

Keywords: Detector, Freeway, Genetic algorithm, Travel timeestimate.

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98 An Experimental Study on the Optimum Installation of Fire Detector for Early Stage Fire Detecting in Rack-Type Warehouses

Authors: Ki Ok Choi, Sung Ho Hong, Dong Suck Kim, Don Mook Choi

Abstract:

Rack type warehouses are different from general buildings in the kinds, amount, and arrangement of stored goods, so the fire risk of rack type warehouses is different from those buildings. The fire pattern of rack type warehouses is different in combustion characteristic and storing condition of stored goods. The initial fire burning rate is different in the surface condition of materials, but the running time of fire is closely related with the kinds of stored materials and stored conditions. The stored goods of the warehouse are consisted of diverse combustibles, combustible liquid, and so on. Fire detection time may be delayed because the residents are less than office and commercial buildings. If fire detectors installed in rack type warehouses are inadaptable, the fire of the warehouse may be the great fire because of delaying of fire detection. In this paper, we studied what kinds of fire detectors are optimized in early detecting of rack type warehouse fire by real-scale fire tests. The fire detectors used in the tests are rate of rise type, fixed type, photo electric type, and aspirating type detectors. We considered optimum fire detecting method in rack type warehouses suggested by the response characteristic and comparative analysis of the fire detectors.

Keywords: Fire detector, rack, response characteristic, warehouse.

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97 Prediction of Overall Efficiency in Multistage Gear Trains

Authors: James Kuria, John Kihiu

Abstract:

A mathematical model for determining the overall efficiency of a multistage tractor gearbox including all gear, lubricant, surface finish related parameters and operating conditions is presented. Sliding friction, rolling friction and windage losses were considered as the main sources of power loss in the gearing system. A computer code in FORTRAN was developed to simulate the model. Sliding friction contributes about 98% of the total power loss for gear trains operating at relatively low speeds (less than 2000 rpm input speed). Rolling frictional losses decrease with increased load while windage losses are only significant for gears running at very high speeds (greater than 3000 rpm). The results also showed that the overall efficiency varies over the path of contact of the gear meshes ranging between 94% to 99.5%.

Keywords: Efficiency, multistage gear train, rolling friction, slidingfriction, windage losses.

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96 Directionally-Sensitive Personal Wearable Radiation Dosimeter

Authors: Hai Huu Le, Paul Junor, Moshi Geso, Graeme O’Keefe

Abstract:

In this paper, the authors propose a personal wearable directionally-sensitive radiation dosimeter using multiple semiconductor CdZnTe detectors. The proposed dosimeter not only measures the real-time dose rate but also provide the direction of the radioactive source. A linear relationship between radioactive source direction and the radiation intensity measured by each detectors is established and an equation to determine the source direction is derived by the authors. The efficiency and accuracy of the proposed dosimeter is verified by simulation using Geant4 package. Results have indicated that in a measurement duration of about 7 seconds, the proposed dosimeter was able to estimate the direction of a 10μCi 137/55Cs radioactive source to within 2 degrees.

Keywords: Dose rate, Geant4 package, radiation detectors, radioactive source direction.

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95 Research on Development and Accuracy Improvement of an Explosion Proof Combustible Gas Leak Detector Using an IR Sensor

Authors: Gyoutae Park, Seungho Han, Byungduk Kim, Youngdo Jo, Yongsop Shim, Yeonjae Lee, Sangguk Ahn, Hiesik Kim, Jungil Park

Abstract:

In this paper, we presented not only development technology of an explosion proof type and portable combustible gas leak detector but also algorithm to improve accuracy for measuring gas concentrations. The presented techniques are to apply the flame-proof enclosure and intrinsic safe explosion proof to an infrared gas leak detector at first in Korea and to improve accuracy using linearization recursion equation and Lagrange interpolation polynomial. Together, we tested sensor characteristics and calibrated suitable input gases and output voltages. Then, we advanced the performances of combustible gaseous detectors through reflecting demands of gas safety management fields. To check performances of two company's detectors, we achieved the measurement tests with eight standard gases made by Korea Gas Safety Corporation. We demonstrated our instruments better in detecting accuracy other than detectors through experimental results.

Keywords: Gas sensor, leak, detector, accuracy, interpolation.

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94 Modeling Parametric Vibration of Multistage Gear Systems as a Tool for Design Optimization

Authors: James Kuria, John Kihiu

Abstract:

This work presents a numerical model developed to simulate the dynamics and vibrations of a multistage tractor gearbox. The effect of time varying mesh stiffness, time varying frictional torque on the gear teeth, lateral and torsional flexibility of the shafts and flexibility of the bearings were included in the model. The model was developed by using the Lagrangian method, and it was applied to study the effect of three design variables on the vibration and stress levels on the gears. The first design variable, module, had little effect on the vibration levels but a higher module resulted to higher bending stress levels. The second design variable, pressure angle, had little effect on the vibration levels, but had a strong effect on the stress levels on the pinion of a high reduction ratio gear pair. A pressure angle of 25o resulted to lower stress levels for a pinion with 14 teeth than a pressure angle of 20o. The third design variable, contact ratio, had a very strong effect on both the vibration levels and bending stress levels. Increasing the contact ratio to 2.0 reduced both the vibration levels and bending stress levels significantly. For the gear train design used in this study, a module of 2.5 and contact ratio of 2.0 for the various meshes was found to yield the best combination of low vibration levels and low bending stresses. The model can therefore be used as a tool for obtaining the optimum gear design parameters for a given multistage spur gear train.

Keywords: bending stress levels, frictional torque, gear designparameters, mesh stiffness, multistage gear train, vibration levels.

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93 A Multistage Sulphidisation Flotation Procedure for a Low Grade Malachite Copper Ore

Authors: Tebogo P. Phetla, Edison Muzenda

Abstract:

This study was carried out to develop a flotation procedure for an oxide copper ore from a Region in Central Africa for producing an 18% copper concentrate for downstream processing at maximum recovery from a 4% copper feed grade. The copper recoveries achieved from the test work were less than 50% despite changes in reagent conditions (multistage sulphidisation, use of RCA emulsion and mixture, use of AM 2, etc). The poor recoveries were attributed to the mineralogy of the ore from which copper silicates accounted for approximately 70% (mass) of the copper minerals in the ore. These can be complex and difficult to float using conventional flotation methods. Best results were obtained using basic sulphidisation procedures, a high flotation temperature and extended flotation residence time.

Keywords: Froth flotation, Sulphidisation, Copper oxide ore, Mineralogy, Recovery

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92 Anomaly Detection with ANN and SVM for Telemedicine Networks

Authors: Edward Guillén, Jeisson Sánchez, Carlos Omar Ramos

Abstract:

In recent years, a wide variety of applications are developed with Support Vector Machines -SVM- methods and Artificial Neural Networks -ANN-. In general, these methods depend on intrusion knowledge databases such as KDD99, ISCX, and CAIDA among others. New classes of detectors are generated by machine learning techniques, trained and tested over network databases. Thereafter, detectors are employed to detect anomalies in network communication scenarios according to user’s connections behavior. The first detector based on training dataset is deployed in different real-world networks with mobile and non-mobile devices to analyze the performance and accuracy over static detection. The vulnerabilities are based on previous work in telemedicine apps that were developed on the research group. This paper presents the differences on detections results between some network scenarios by applying traditional detectors deployed with artificial neural networks and support vector machines.

Keywords: Anomaly detection, back-propagation neural networks, network intrusion detection systems, support vector machines.

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91 Application of MADM in Identifying the Transmission Rate of Dengue fever: A Case Study of Shah Alam, Malaysia

Authors: Nuraini Yusoff, Harun Budin, Salemah Ismail

Abstract:

Identifying parameters in an epidemic model is one of the important aspect of modeling. In this paper, we suggest a method to identify the transmission rate by using the multistage Adomian decomposition method. As a case study, we use the data of the reported dengue fever cases in the city of Shah Alam, Malaysia. The result obtained fairly represents the actual situation. However, in the SIR model, this method serves as an alternative in parameter identification and enables us to make necessary analysis for a smaller interval.

Keywords: dengue fever, multistage Adomian decomposition method, Shah Alam, SIR model

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90 Image Compression Using Hybrid Vector Quantization

Authors: S.Esakkirajan, T. Veerakumar, V. Senthil Murugan, P.Navaneethan

Abstract:

In this paper, image compression using hybrid vector quantization scheme such as Multistage Vector Quantization (MSVQ) and Pyramid Vector Quantization (PVQ) are introduced. A combined MSVQ and PVQ are utilized to take advantages provided by both of them. In the wavelet decomposition of the image, most of the information often resides in the lowest frequency subband. MSVQ is applied to significant low frequency coefficients. PVQ is utilized to quantize the coefficients of other high frequency subbands. The wavelet coefficients are derived using lifting scheme. The main aim of the proposed scheme is to achieve high compression ratio without much compromise in the image quality. The results are compared with the existing image compression scheme using MSVQ.

Keywords: Lifting Scheme, Multistage Vector Quantization and Pyramid Vector Quantization.

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89 Multistage Data Envelopment Analysis Model for Malmquist Productivity Index Using Grey's System Theory to Evaluate Performance of Electric Power Supply Chain in Iran

Authors: Mesbaholdin Salami, Farzad Movahedi Sobhani, Mohammad Sadegh Ghazizadeh

Abstract:

Evaluation of organizational performance is among the most important measures that help organizations and entities continuously improve their efficiency. Organizations can use the existing data and results from the comparison of units under investigation to obtain an estimation of their performance. The Malmquist Productivity Index (MPI) is an important index in the evaluation of overall productivity, which considers technological developments and technical efficiency at the same time. This article proposed a model based on the multistage MPI, considering limited data (Grey’s theory). This model can evaluate the performance of units using limited and uncertain data in a multistage process. It was applied by the electricity market manager to Iran’s electric power supply chain (EPSC), which contains uncertain data, to evaluate the performance of its actors. Results from solving the model showed an improvement in the accuracy of future performance of the units under investigation, using the Grey’s system theory. This model can be used in all case studies, in which MPI is used and there are limited or uncertain data.

Keywords: Malmquist Index, Grey's Theory, Charnes Cooper & Rhodes (CCR) Model, network data envelopment analysis, Iran electricity power chain.

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88 A Comparative Study of Indoor Radon Concentrations between Dwellings and Workplaces in the Ko Samui District, Surat Thani Province, Southern Thailand

Authors: Kanokkan Titipornpun, Tripob Bhongsuwan, Jan Gimsa

Abstract:

The Ko Samui district of Surat Thani province is located in the high amounts of equivalent uranium in the ground surface that is the source of radon. Our research in the Ko Samui district aimed at comparing the indoor radon concentrations between dwellings and workplaces. Measurements of indoor radon concentrations were carried out in 46 dwellings and 127 workplaces, using CR-39 alpha-track detectors in closed-cup. A total of 173 detectors were distributed in 7 sub-districts. The detectors were placed in bedrooms of dwellings and workrooms of workplaces. All detectors were exposed to airborne radon for 90 days. After exposure, the alpha tracks were made visible by chemical etching before they were manually counted under an optical microscope. The track densities were assumed to be correlated with the radon concentration levels. We found that the radon concentrations could be well described by a log-normal distribution. Most concentrations (37%) were found in the range between 16 and 30 Bq.m-3. The radon concentrations in dwellings and workplaces varied from a minimum of 11 Bq.m-3 to a maximum of 305 Bq.m-3. The minimum (11 Bq.m-3) and maximum (305 Bq.m-3) values of indoor radon concentrations were found in a workplace and a dwelling, respectively. Only for four samples (3%), the indoor radon concentrations were found to be higher than the reference level recommended by the WHO (100 Bq.m-3). The overall geometric mean in the surveyed area was 32.6±1.65 Bq.m-3, which was lower than the worldwide average (39 Bq.m-3). The statistic comparison of the geometric mean indoor radon concentrations between dwellings and workplaces showed that the geometric mean in dwellings (46.0±1.55 Bq.m-3) was significantly higher than in workplaces (28.8±1.58 Bq.m-3) at the 0.05 level. Moreover, our study found that the majority of the bedrooms in dwellings had a closed atmosphere, resulting in poorer ventilation than in most of the workplaces that had access to air flow through open doors and windows at daytime. We consider this to be the main reason for the higher geometric mean indoor radon concentration in dwellings compared to workplaces.

Keywords: CR-39 detector, indoor radon, radon in dwelling, radon in workplace.

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87 Measurement of Acoustic Loss in Nano-Layered Coating Developed for Thermal Noise Reduction

Authors: E. Cesarini, M. Lorenzini, R. Cardarelli, S. Chao, E. Coccia, V. Fafone, Y. Minenkow, I. Nardecchia, I. M. Pinto, A. Rocchi, V. Sequino, C. Taranto

Abstract:

Structural relaxation processes in optical coatings represent a fundamental limit to the sensitivity of gravitational waves detectors, MEMS, optical metrology and entangled state experiments. To face this problem, many research lines are now active, in particular the characterization of new materials and novel solutions to be employed as coatings in future gravitational wave detectors. Nano-layered coating deposition is among the most promising techniques. We report on the measurement of acoustic loss of nm-layered composites (Ti2O/SiO2), performed with the GeNS nodal suspension, compared with sputtered λ/4 thin films nowadays employed.

Keywords: Mechanical measurement, nanomaterials, optical coating, thermal noise.

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86 Skyline Extraction using a Multistage Edge Filtering

Authors: Byung-Ju Kim, Jong-Jin Shin, Hwa-Jin Nam, Jin-Soo Kim

Abstract:

Skyline extraction in mountainous images can be used for navigation of vehicles or UAV(unmanned air vehicles), but it is very hard to extract skyline shape because of clutters like clouds, sea lines and field borders in images. We developed the edge-based skyline extraction algorithm using a proposed multistage edge filtering (MEF) technique. In this method, characteristics of clutters in the image are first defined and then the lines classified as clutters are eliminated by stages using the proposed MEF technique. After this processing, we select the last line using skyline measures among the remained lines. This proposed algorithm is robust under severe environments with clutters and has even good performance for infrared sensor images with a low resolution. We tested this proposed algorithm for images obtained in the field by an infrared camera and confirmed that the proposed algorithm produced a better performance and faster processing time than conventional algorithms.

Keywords: MEF, mountainous image, navigation, skyline

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85 On Use of Semiconductor Detector Arrays on COMPASS Tokamak

Authors: V. Weinzettl, M. Imrisek, J. Havlicek, J. Mlynar, D. Naydenkova, P. Hacek, M. Hron, F. Janky, D. Sarychev, M. Berta, A. Bencze, T. Szabolics

Abstract:

Semiconductor detector arrays are widely used in high-temperature plasma diagnostics. They have a fast response, which allows observation of many processes and instabilities in tokamaks. In this paper, there are reviewed several diagnostics based on semiconductor arrays as cameras, AXUV photodiodes (referred often as fast “bolometers") and detectors of both soft X-rays and visible light installed on the COMPASS tokamak recently. Fresh results from both spring and summer campaigns in 2012 are introduced. Examples of the utilization of the detectors are shown on the plasma shape determination, fast calculation of the radiation center, two-dimensional plasma radiation tomography in different spectral ranges, observation of impurity inflow, and also on investigation of MHD activity in the COMPASS tokamak discharges.

Keywords: Bolometry, plasma diagnostics, soft X-rays, tokamak.

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84 Change Detector Combination in Remotely Sensed Images Using Fuzzy Integral

Authors: H. Nemmour, Y. Chibani

Abstract:

Decision fusion is one of hot research topics in classification area, which aims to achieve the best possible performance for the task at hand. In this paper, we investigate the usefulness of this concept to improve change detection accuracy in remote sensing. Thereby, outputs of two fuzzy change detectors based respectively on simultaneous and comparative analysis of multitemporal data are fused by using fuzzy integral operators. This method fuses the objective evidences produced by the change detectors with respect to fuzzy measures that express the difference of performance between them. The proposed fusion framework is evaluated in comparison with some ordinary fuzzy aggregation operators. Experiments carried out on two SPOT images showed that the fuzzy integral was the best performing. It improves the change detection accuracy while attempting to equalize the accuracy rate in both change and no change classes.

Keywords: change detection, decision fusion, fuzzy logic, remote sensing.

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83 Reduction of False Positives in Head-Shoulder Detection Based on Multi-Part Color Segmentation

Authors: Lae-Jeong Park

Abstract:

The paper presents a method that utilizes figure-ground color segmentation to extract effective global feature in terms of false positive reduction in the head-shoulder detection. Conventional detectors that rely on local features such as HOG due to real-time operation suffer from false positives. Color cue in an input image provides salient information on a global characteristic which is necessary to alleviate the false positives of the local feature based detectors. An effective approach that uses figure-ground color segmentation has been presented in an effort to reduce the false positives in object detection. In this paper, an extended version of the approach is presented that adopts separate multipart foregrounds instead of a single prior foreground and performs the figure-ground color segmentation with each of the foregrounds. The multipart foregrounds include the parts of the head-shoulder shape and additional auxiliary foregrounds being optimized by a search algorithm. A classifier is constructed with the feature that consists of a set of the multiple resulting segmentations. Experimental results show that the presented method can discriminate more false positive than the single prior shape-based classifier as well as detectors with the local features. The improvement is possible because the presented approach can reduce the false positives that have the same colors in the head and shoulder foregrounds.

Keywords: Pedestrian detection, color segmentation, false positives, feature extraction.

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82 Effectiveness of Radon Remedial Action Implemented in a School on the Island of Ischia

Authors: F. Loffredo, M. Quarto, M. Pugliese, A. Mazzella, F. De Cicco, V. Roca

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of radon remedial action in a school on the Ischia island, South Italy, affected by indoor radon concentration higher than the value of 500 Bq/m3. This value is the limit imposed by the Italian legislation, to above which corrective actions in schools are necessary. Before the application of remedial action, indoor radon concentrations were measured in 9 rooms of the school. The measurements were performed with LR-115 passive alpha detectors (SSNTDs) and E-Perm. The remedial action was conducted in one of the office affected by high radon concentration using a Radonstop paint applied after the construction of a concrete slab under the floor. The effect of remedial action was the reduction of the concentration of radon of 41% and moreover it has demonstrated to be durable over time. The chosen method is cheap and easy to apply and it could be designed for various types of building. This method can be applied to new and existing buildings that show high dose values.

Keywords: E-Perm, LR 115 detectors, radon remediation, school.

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81 Development of a Remote Testing System for Performance of Gas Leakage Detectors

Authors: Gyoutae Park, Woosuk Kim, Sangguk Ahn, Seungmo Kim, Minjun Kim, Jinhan Lee, Youngdo Jo, Jongsam Moon, Hiesik Kim

Abstract:

In this research, we designed a remote system to test parameters of gas detectors such as gas concentration and initial response time. This testing system is available to measure two gas instruments simultaneously. First of all, we assembled an experimental jig with a square structure. Those parts are included with a glass flask, two high-quality cameras, and two Ethernet modems for transmitting data. This remote gas detector testing system extracts numerals from videos with continually various gas concentrations while LCDs show photographs from cameras. Extracted numeral data are received to a laptop computer through Ethernet modem. And then, the numerical data with gas concentrations and the measured initial response speeds are recorded and graphed. Our remote testing system will be diversely applied on gas detector’s test and will be certificated in domestic and international countries.

Keywords: Gas leakage detector, inspection instrument, extracting numerals, concentration.

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80 Specification of Irradiation Conditions in the DONA 5 Rotational Channel of the LVR-15 Reactor

Authors: Zdena Lahodová, Michal Koleška, Ladislav Viererbl

Abstract:

This article summarizes ways to verify neutron fluence for neutron transmutation doping of silicon with phosphorus on the LVR-15 reactor. Neutron fluence is determined using activation detectors placed along the crystal in a strip or encapsulated in a rod holder. Holders are placed at the centre of a water-filled capsule or in an aluminum or silicon ingot that simulates a real single crystal. If the diameter of the crystal is significantly less than the capsule diameter and water from the primary circuit enters the free space in the capsule, neutron interaction in the water changes neutron fluence, affecting axial irradiation homogeneity. The effect of moving the capsule vertically in the channel relative to maximum neutron fluence in the reactor core was also measured. Even a small shift of the capsule-s centre causes great irradiation inhomogeneity. This effect was measured using activation detectors, and was also confirmed by MCNP calculation.

Keywords: Irradiation homogeneity, neutron fluence, neutron transmutation doping, rotational channel.

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79 Feature Point Detection by Combining Advantages of Intensity-based Approach and Edge-based Approach

Authors: Sungho Kim, Chaehoon Park, Yukyung Choi, Soon Kwon, In So Kweon

Abstract:

In this paper, a novel corner detection method is presented to stably extract geometrically important corners. Intensity-based corner detectors such as the Harris corner can detect corners in noisy environments but has inaccurate corner position and misses the corners of obtuse angles. Edge-based corner detectors such as Curvature Scale Space can detect structural corners but show unstable corner detection due to incomplete edge detection in noisy environments. The proposed image-based direct curvature estimation can overcome limitations in both inaccurate structural corner detection of the Harris corner detector (intensity-based) and the unstable corner detection of Curvature Scale Space caused by incomplete edge detection. Various experimental results validate the robustness of the proposed method.

Keywords: Feature, intensity, contour, hybrid.

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78 Interference Reduction Technique in Multistage Multiuser Detector for DS-CDMA System

Authors: Lokesh Tharani, R.P.Yadav

Abstract:

This paper presents the results related to the interference reduction technique in multistage multiuser detector for asynchronous DS-CDMA system. To meet the real-time requirements for asynchronous multiuser detection, a bit streaming, cascade architecture is used. An asynchronous multiuser detection involves block-based computations and matrix inversions. The paper covers iterative-based suboptimal schemes that have been studied to decrease the computational complexity, eliminate the need for matrix inversions, decreases the execution time, reduces the memory requirements and uses joint estimation and detection process that gives better performance than the independent parameter estimation method. The stages of the iteration use cascaded and bits processed in a streaming fashion. The simulation has been carried out for asynchronous DS-CDMA system by varying one parameter, i.e., number of users. The simulation result exhibits that system gives optimum bit error rate (BER) at 3rd stage for 15-users.

Keywords: Multi-user detection (MUD), multiple accessinterference (MAI), near-far effect, decision feedback detector, successive interference cancellation detector (SIC) and parallelinterference cancellation (PIC) detector.

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77 The Data Processing Electronics of the METIS Coronagraph aboard the ESA Solar Orbiter Mission

Authors: M. Focardi, M. Pancrazzi, M. Uslenghi, G. Nicolini, E. Magli, F. Landini, M. Romoli, A. Bemporad, E. Antonucci, S. Fineschi, G. Naletto, P. Nicolosi, D. Spadaro, V. Andretta

Abstract:

METIS is the Multi Element Telescope for Imaging and Spectroscopy, a Coronagraph aboard the European Space Agency-s Solar Orbiter Mission aimed at the observation of the solar corona via both VIS and UV/EUV narrow-band imaging and spectroscopy. METIS, with its multi-wavelength capabilities, will study in detail the physical processes responsible for the corona heating and the origin and properties of the slow and fast solar wind. METIS electronics will collect and process scientific data thanks to its detectors proximity electronics, the digital front-end subsystem electronics and the MPPU, the Main Power and Processing Unit, hosting a space-qualified processor, memories and some rad-hard FPGAs acting as digital controllers.This paper reports on the overall METIS electronics architecture and data processing capabilities conceived to address all the scientific issues as a trade-off solution between requirements and allocated resources, just before the Preliminary Design Review as an ESA milestone in April 2012.

Keywords: Solar Coronagraph, Data Processing Electronics, VIS and UV/EUV Detectors, LEON Processor, Rad-hard FPGAs

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76 Certain Data Dimension Reduction Techniques for application with ANN based MCS for Study of High Energy Shower

Authors: Gitanjali Devi, Kandarpa Kumar Sarma, Pranayee Datta, Anjana Kakoti Mahanta

Abstract:

Cosmic showers, from their places of origin in space, after entering earth generate secondary particles called Extensive Air Shower (EAS). Detection and analysis of EAS and similar High Energy Particle Showers involve a plethora of experimental setups with certain constraints for which soft-computational tools like Artificial Neural Network (ANN)s can be adopted. The optimality of ANN classifiers can be enhanced further by the use of Multiple Classifier System (MCS) and certain data - dimension reduction techniques. This work describes the performance of certain data dimension reduction techniques like Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Independent Component Analysis (ICA) and Self Organizing Map (SOM) approximators for application with an MCS formed using Multi Layer Perceptron (MLP), Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) and Probabilistic Neural Network (PNN). The data inputs are obtained from an array of detectors placed in a circular arrangement resembling a practical detector grid which have a higher dimension and greater correlation among themselves. The PCA, ICA and SOM blocks reduce the correlation and generate a form suitable for real time practical applications for prediction of primary energy and location of EAS from density values captured using detectors in a circular grid.

Keywords: EAS, Shower, Core, ANN, Location.

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