Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 261

Search results for: cancer

261 Use of Magnetic Nanoparticles in Cancer Detection with MRI

Authors: A. Taqaddas

Abstract:

Magnetic Nanoparticles (MNPs) have great potential to overcome many of the shortcomings of the present diagnostic and therapeutic approaches used in cancer diagnosis and treatment. This Literature review discusses the use of Magnetic Nanoparticles focusing mainly on Iron oxide based MNPs in cancer imaging using MRI.

Keywords: Cancer, Imaging, Magnetic Nanoparticles, MRI.

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260 An Overview of the Application of Fuzzy Inference System for the Automation of Breast Cancer Grading with Spectral Data

Authors: Shabbar Naqvi, Jonathan M. Garibaldi

Abstract:

Breast cancer is one of the most frequent occurring cancers in women throughout the world including U.K. The grading of this cancer plays a vital role in the prognosis of the disease. In this paper we present an overview of the use of advanced computational method of fuzzy inference system as a tool for the automation of breast cancer grading. A new spectral data set obtained from Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) of cancer patients has been used for this study. The future work outlines the potential areas of fuzzy systems that can be used for the automation of breast cancer grading.

Keywords: Breast cancer, FTIR, fuzzy inference system, principal component analysis

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259 Association of Overweight and Obesity with Breast Cancer

Authors: Amir Ghasemlouei, Alireza Khalaj

Abstract:

Breast cancer is in the top rate of cancer. We analyzed the prevalence of obesity and its association with breast cancer and finally we reviewed 25 article that 320 patient and 320 control which enrolled to our study. The distribution of breast cancer patients and controls with respect to their anthropometric indices in patients with higher weight, which was statistically significant (60.2 ± 10.2 kg) compared with control group (56.1 ± 11.3 kg). The body mass index of patients was (26.06+/-3.42) and significantly higher than the control group (24.1+/-1.7). Obesity leads to increased levels of adipose tissue in the body that can be stored toxins and carcinogens to produce a continuous supply. Due to the high level of fat and the role of estrogen in a woman which is endogenous estrogen of the tumor and regulates the activities of growth steroids, obesity has confirmed as a risk factor for breast cancer. Our study and other studies have shown that obesity is a risk factor for breast cancer. And it can be prevented with a weight loss intervention for breast cancer in the future.

Keywords: Breast cancer, review study, obesity, overweight.

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258 Oncogene Identification using Filter based Approaches between Various Cancer Types in Lung

Authors: Michael Netzer, Michael Seger, Mahesh Visvanathan, Bernhard Pfeifer, Gerald H. Lushington, Christian Baumgartner

Abstract:

Lung cancer accounts for the most cancer related deaths for men as well as for women. The identification of cancer associated genes and the related pathways are essential to provide an important possibility in the prevention of many types of cancer. In this work two filter approaches, namely the information gain and the biomarker identifier (BMI) are used for the identification of different types of small-cell and non-small-cell lung cancer. A new method to determine the BMI thresholds is proposed to prioritize genes (i.e., primary, secondary and tertiary) using a k-means clustering approach. Sets of key genes were identified that can be found in several pathways. It turned out that the modified BMI is well suited for microarray data and therefore BMI is proposed as a powerful tool for the search for new and so far undiscovered genes related to cancer.

Keywords: lung cancer, micro arrays, data mining, feature selection.

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257 Comparison of Knowledge Regarding Human Papillomavirus (HPV) and Cervical Cancer in Students with or without Sexual Intercourse

Authors: F. Bakiri, T. Rexha, A. Mitre

Abstract:

The aim of our study was to compare knowledge of regarding HPV and cervical cancer in female student of 18 to 26 years old, with or without sexual intercourse. We conducted a questionnaire survey of the students (N=568), in Faculty of Natural Sciences, Tirana, Albania. Sexually experienced students were more likely to have heard of risk factors such as multiple sex partners, sexual intercourse before age 18, having contracted any sexually transmitted diseases, having genital warts, smoking cigarettes, use of oral contraceptive, poor diet or nutrition and using tampons. No significant sexually experience differences were observed in knowledge of the way of transmission of the virus associated with cervical cancer knowledge, the virus associated with cervical cancer knowledge, the prevention of cervical cancer knowledge. On the other hand strong significant sexually experience differences were observed in knowledge of the diagnostic way of cervical cancer and what HPV can cause knowledge.

Keywords: Risk factors, HPV, Cervical cancer, Albanian students.

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256 Parametric and Nonparametric Analysis of Breast Cancer Treatments

Authors: Chunling Cong, Chris.P.Tsokos

Abstract:

The objective of the present research manuscript is to perform parametric, nonparametric, and decision tree analysis to evaluate two treatments that are being used for breast cancer patients. Our study is based on utilizing real data which was initially used in “Tamoxifen with or without breast irradiation in women of 50 years of age or older with early breast cancer" [1], and the data is supplied to us by N.A. Ibrahim “Decision tree for competing risks survival probability in breast cancer study" [2]. We agree upon certain aspects of our findings with the published results. However, in this manuscript, we focus on relapse time of breast cancer patients instead of survival time and parametric analysis instead of semi-parametric decision tree analysis is applied to provide more precise recommendations of effectiveness of the two treatments with respect to reoccurrence of breast cancer.

Keywords: decision tree, breast cancer treatments, parametricanalysis, non-parametric analysis

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255 Endometrial Cancer Recognition via EEG Dependent upon 14-3-3 Protein Leading to an Ontological Diagnosis

Authors: Marios Poulos, Eirini Maliagani, Minas Paschopoulos, George Bokos

Abstract:

The purpose of my research proposal is to demonstrate that there is a relationship between EEG and endometrial cancer. The above relationship is based on an Aristotelian Syllogism; since it is known that the 14-3-3 protein is related to the electrical activity of the brain via control of the flow of Na+ and K+ ions and since it is also known that many types of cancer are associated with 14-3-3 protein, it is possible that there is a relationship between EEG and cancer. This research will be carried out by well-defined diagnostic indicators, obtained via the EEG, using signal processing procedures and pattern recognition tools such as neural networks in order to recognize the endometrial cancer type. The current research shall compare the findings from EEG and hysteroscopy performed on women of a wide age range. Moreover, this practice could be expanded to other types of cancer. The implementation of this methodology will be completed with the creation of an ontology. This ontology shall define the concepts existing in this research-s domain and the relationships between them. It will represent the types of relationships between hysteroscopy and EEG findings.

Keywords: Bioinformatics, Protein 14-3-3, EEG, Endometrial cancer, Ontology.

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254 Calcification Classification in Mammograms Using Decision Trees

Authors: S. Usha, S. Arumugam

Abstract:

Cancer affects people globally with breast cancer being a leading killer. Breast cancer is due to the uncontrollable multiplication of cells resulting in a tumour or neoplasm. Tumours are called ‘benign’ when cancerous cells do not ravage other body tissues and ‘malignant’ if they do so. As mammography is an effective breast cancer detection tool at an early stage which is the most treatable stage it is the primary imaging modality for screening and diagnosis of this cancer type. This paper presents an automatic mammogram classification technique using wavelet and Gabor filter. Correlation feature selection is used to reduce the feature set and selected features are classified using different decision trees.

Keywords: Breast Cancer, Mammogram, Symlet Wavelets, Gabor Filters, Decision Trees

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253 Prediction of MicroRNA-Target Gene by Machine Learning Algorithms in Lung Cancer Study

Authors: Nilubon Kurubanjerdjit, Nattakarn Iam-On, Ka-Lok Ng

Abstract:

MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNA found in many different species. They play crucial roles in cancer such as biological processes of apoptosis and proliferation. The identification of microRNA-target genes can be an essential first step towards to reveal the role of microRNA in various cancer types. In this paper, we predict miRNA-target genes for lung cancer by integrating prediction scores from miRanda and PITA algorithms used as a feature vector of miRNA-target interaction. Then, machine-learning algorithms were implemented for making a final prediction. The approach developed in this study should be of value for future studies into understanding the role of miRNAs in molecular mechanisms enabling lung cancer formation.

Keywords: MicroRNA, miRNAs, lung cancer, machine learning, Naïve Bayes, SVM.

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252 The Cytotoxic Effect of PM 701 and its Fractions on Cell Proliferation of Breast Cancer Cells, McF7

Authors: Faten A. Khorshid

Abstract:

Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in the world among women. Many therapies have been designed to treat this disease. Mamectomy, chemotherapy and radiotherapy are still the main therapies of breast cancer. However, the results were unsatisfactory and still far from the ideal treatment. PM 701is a natural product, has anticancer activity. The bioactive fraction PMF and subfraction PMFK had been isolated from PM701. PM 701 and its fractions were proved to have a cytotoxic properties against different cancer cell lines. This article is directed for the further examination of lyophilized PM701 and its active fractions on the growth of breast cancer cells (MCF-7). PM 701, PMF or PMFK were adding to the cultural medium, where MCF-7 is incubated. PM 701, PMF or PMFK were able to inhibit significantly the proliferation of MCF-7 cells, Moreover these new agents were proved to induce apoptosis of the breast cancer cells; through its direct effect on the nuclei.

Keywords: Anticancer agent, breast carcinoma, MCF-7 cell line, PM 701

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251 Breast Cancer Treatment Evaluation based on Mammographic and Echographic Distance Computing

Authors: M. Caramihai, Irina Severin, H. Balan, A. Blidaru, V. Balanica

Abstract:

Accurate assessment of the primary tumor response to treatment is important in the management of breast cancer. This paper introduces a new set of treatment evaluation indicators for breast cancer cases based on the computational process of three known metrics, the Euclidian, Hamming and Levenshtein distances. The distance principals are applied to pairs of mammograms and/or echograms, recorded before and after treatment, determining a reference point in judging the evolution amount of the studied carcinoma. The obtained numerical results are indeed very transparent and indicate not only the evolution or the involution of the tumor under treatment, but also a quantitative measurement of the benefit in using the selected method of treatment.

Keywords: Breast cancer, Distance metrics, Cancer treatment evaluation.

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250 A Study on Cancer-Cell Invasion Based On the Diffuse Interface Model

Authors: Zhang Linan, Jihwan Song, Dongchoul Kim

Abstract:

In this study, a three-dimensional haptotaxis model to simulate the migration of a population of cancer cells has been proposed. The invasion of cancer cells is related with the hapto-attractant and the effect of the interface energies between the cells and the ECM. The diffuse interface model, which incorporates the haptotaxis mechanism and interface energies, is employed. The semi-implicit Fourier spectral scheme is adopted for efficient evaluation of the simulation. The simulation results thoroughly reveal the dynamics of cancer-cell migration.

Keywords: Haptotaxis, Cancer Cells, Cell Migration, Interface Energy, Diffuse Interface Model

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249 Case Study: Oncological Management of a Patient with Papillary Thyroid Cancer

Authors: A. Taqaddas

Abstract:

The following case study presents the management of stage III Differentiated Thyroid Cancer (DTC) patient in an NHS hospital in London, UK during period of 2004-2005.

Keywords: Differentiated Thyroid Cancer, Oncological Management, Papillary, Thyroid Cancer, Stage III.

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248 Hypothesis of a Holistic Treatment of Cancer: Crab Method

Authors: Devasis Ghosh

Abstract:

The main hindrance to total cure of cancer is a) the failure to control continued production of cancer cells, b) its sustenance and c) its metastasis. This review study has tried to address this issue of total cancer cure in a more innovative way. A 10-pronged “CRAB METHOD”, a novel holistic scientific approach of Cancer treatment has been hypothesized in this paper. Apart from available Chemotherapy, Radiotherapy and Oncosurgery, (which shall not be discussed here), seven other points of interference and treatment has been suggested, i.e. 1. Efficient stress management. 2. Dampening of ATF3 expression. 3. Selective inhibition of Platelet Activity. 4. Modulation of serotonin production, metabolism and 5HT receptor antagonism. 5. Auxin, its anti-proliferative potential and its modulation. 6. Melatonin supplementation because of its oncostatic properties. 7. HDAC Inhibitors especially valproic acid use due to its apoptotic role in many cancers. If all the above stated seven steps are thoroughly taken care of at the time of initial diagnosis of cancer along with the available treatment modalities of Chemotherapy, Radiotherapy and Oncosurgery, then perhaps, the morbidity and mortality rate of cancer may be greatly reduced.

Keywords: ATF3 dampening, auxin modulation, cancer, platelet activation, serotonin, stress, valproic acid.

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247 Metabolomics Profile Recognition for Cancer Diagnostics

Authors: Valentina L. Kouznetsova, Jonathan W. Wang, Igor F. Tsigelny

Abstract:

Metabolomics has become a rising field of research for various diseases, particularly cancer. Increases or decreases in metabolite concentrations in the human body are indicative of various cancers. Further elucidation of metabolic pathways and their significance in cancer research may greatly spur medicinal discovery. We analyzed the metabolomics profiles of lung cancer. Thirty-three metabolites were selected as significant. These metabolites are involved in 37 metabolic pathways delivered by MetaboAnalyst software. The top pathways are glyoxylate and dicarboxylate pathway (its hubs are formic acid and glyoxylic acid) along with Citrate cycle pathway followed by Taurine and hypotaurine pathway (the hubs in the latter are taurine and sulfoacetaldehyde) and Glycine, serine, and threonine pathway (the hubs are glycine and L-serine). We studied interactions of the metabolites with the proteins involved in cancer-related signaling networks, and developed an approach to metabolomics biomarker use in cancer diagnostics. Our analysis showed that a significant part of lung-cancer-related metabolites interacts with main cancer-related signaling pathways present in this network: PI3K–mTOR–AKT pathway, RAS–RAF–ERK1/2 pathway, and NFKB pathway. These results can be employed for use of metabolomics profiles in elucidation of the related cancer proteins signaling networks.

Keywords: Cancer, metabolites, metabolic pathway, signaling pathway.

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246 Feasibility of Leukemia Cancer Treatment (K562) by Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet

Authors: Mashayekh Amir Shahriar, Akhlaghi Morteza, Rajaee Hajar, Khani Mohammad Reza, Shokri Babak

Abstract:

A new and novel approach in medicine is the use of cold plasma for various applications such as sterilization blood coagulation and cancer cell treatment. In this paper a pin-to-hole plasma jet suitable for biological applications is investigated and characterized and the possibility and feasibility of cancer cell treatment is evaluated. The characterization includes power consumption via Lissajous method, thermal behavior of plasma using Infra-red camera as a novel method, Optical Emission Spectroscopy (OES) to determine the species that are generated. Treatment of leukemia cancer cells is also implemented and MTT assay is used to evaluate viability.

Keywords: Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet (APPJ), Plasma Medicine, Cancer cell treatment, leukemia.

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245 Identification of Disease Causing DNA Motifs in Human DNA Using Clustering Approach

Authors: G. Tamilpavai, C. Vishnuppriya

Abstract:

Studying DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) sequence is useful in biological processes and it is applied in the fields such as diagnostic and forensic research. DNA is the hereditary information in human and almost all other organisms. It is passed to their generations. Earlier stage detection of defective DNA sequence may lead to many developments in the field of Bioinformatics. Nowadays various tedious techniques are used to identify defective DNA. The proposed work is to analyze and identify the cancer-causing DNA motif in a given sequence. Initially the human DNA sequence is separated as k-mers using k-mer separation rule. The separated k-mers are clustered using Self Organizing Map (SOM). Using Levenshtein distance measure, cancer associated DNA motif is identified from the k-mer clusters. Experimental results of this work indicate the presence or absence of cancer causing DNA motif. If the cancer associated DNA motif is found in DNA, it is declared as the cancer disease causing DNA sequence. Otherwise the input human DNA is declared as normal sequence. Finally, elapsed time is calculated for finding the presence of cancer causing DNA motif using clustering formation. It is compared with normal process of finding cancer causing DNA motif. Locating cancer associated motif is easier in cluster formation process than the other one. The proposed work will be an initiative aid for finding genetic disease related research.

Keywords: Bioinformatics, cancer motif, DNA, k-mers, Levenshtein distance, SOM.

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244 Assessing Chemo-Radiotherapy Induced Toxicity and Quality of Life of Cancer Patients

Authors: A. Taqaddas

Abstract:

Chemotherapy and radiotherapy are one of the major treatment modalities that play important role in the management of a number of different cancers. This study for the first time evaluates the toxicity of these treatment modalities and its impact on quality of life of cancer patients in Pakistan. The study also for the first time determines what cancer patients of different ages and cancer stages believe would be an effective intervention to manage their psychosocial needs and treatment induced toxicity. The article also provides evidence based approach for the use of variety of interventions to mange cancer treatment induced morbidity and toxicity. In light of the present study and reviewed research data, evidence based recommendations are also made for selection of appropriate interventions to manage Pain, Nausea and Vomiting, Anxiety and Depression, Fatigue and Overall QOL of cancer survivors.

Keywords: Chemotherapy Toxicity, Psycho-Social Interventions, Quality of Life, Radiotherapy Toxicity.

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243 The Risk Assessment of Cancer Risk during Normal Operation of Tehran Research Reactor Due to Radioactive Gas Emission

Authors: B. Salmasian, A. Rabiee, T. Yousefzadeh

Abstract:

In this research, the risk assessment of radiation hazard for the Research Nuclear Reactor has been studied. In the current study, the MCNPx computational code has been used and coupled with a developed program using MATLAB software to evaluate Total Effective Dose Equivalent (TEDE) and cancer risk according to the BEIR equations for various human organs. In this study, the risk assessment of cancer has been calculated for ten years after exposure, in each of body organs of different ages and sexes. Also, the risk assessment of cancer has been calculated in each of body organs of different ages and sexes due to exposure after the retirement of the reactor staff. According to obtained results, a conservative whole-body dose rate, during a year, is 0.261 Sv and the probability the cancer risk for women is more than men and for children is more than adults. It has been shown that thyroid cancer was more possible than others.

Keywords: MCNPx code, BEIR equation, equivalent dose, risk analysis.

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242 A Review on the Importance of Nursing Approaches in Nutrition of Children with Cancer

Authors: Ş. Çiftcioğlu, E. Efe

Abstract:

In recent years, cancer has been at the top of diseases that cause death in children. Adequate and balanced nutrition plays an important role in the treatment of cancer. Cancer and cancer treatment is affecting food intake, absorption and metabolism, causing nutritional disorders. Appropriate nutrition is very important for the cancerous child to feel well before, during and after the treatment. There are various difficulties in feeding children with cancer. These are the cancer-related factors. Other factors are environmental and behavioral. As health professionals who spend more time with children in the hospital, nurses should be able to support the children on nutrition and help them to have balanced nutrition. This study aimed to evaluate the importance of nursing approaches in the nutrition of children with cancer. This article is planned as a review article by searching the literature on this field. Anorexia may develop due to psychogenic causes or chemotherapeutic agents or accompanying infections and nutrient uptake may be reduced.  In addition, stomatitis, mucositis, taste and odor changes in the mouth, the feeling of nausea, vomiting and diarrhea can also reduce oral intake and result in significant losses in the energy deficit. In assessing the nutritional status of children with cancer, determining weight loss and good nutrition is essential anamnesis of a child.  Some anthropometric measurements and biochemical tests should be used to evaluate the nutrition of the child. The nutritional status of pediatric cancer patients has been studied for a long time and malnutrition, in particular under nutrition, in this population has long been recognized. Yet, its management remains variable with many malnourished children going unrecognized and consequently untreated. Nutritional support is important to pediatric cancer patients and should be integrated into the overall treatment of these children.

Keywords: Cancer treatment, children, complication, nutrition, nursing approaches.

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241 Assessment of Predictive Confounders for the Prevalence of Breast Cancer among Iraqi Population: A Retrospective Study from Baghdad, Iraq

Authors: Nadia H. Mohammed, Anmar Al-Taie, Fadia H. Al-Sultany

Abstract:

Although breast cancer prevalence continues to increase, mortality has been decreasing as a result of early detection and improvement in adjuvant systemic therapy. Nevertheless, this disease required further efforts to understand and identify the associated potential risk factors that could play a role in the prevalence of this malignancy among Iraqi women. The objective of this study was to assess the perception of certain predictive risk factors on the prevalence of breast cancer types among a sample of Iraqi women diagnosed with breast cancer. This was a retrospective observational study carried out at National Cancer Research Center in College of Medicine, Baghdad University from November 2017 to January 2018. Data of 100 patients with breast cancer whose biopsies examined in the National Cancer Research Center were included in this study. Data were collected to structure a detailed assessment regarding the patients’ demographic, medical and cancer records. The majority of study participants (94%) suffered from ductal breast cancer with mean age 49.57 years. Among those women, 48.9% were obese with body mass index (BMI) 35 kg/m2. 68.1% of them had positive family history of breast cancer and 66% had low parity. 40.4% had stage II ductal breast cancer followed by 25.5% with stage III. It was found that 59.6% and 68.1% had positive oestrogen receptor sensitivity and positive human epidermal growth factor (HER2/neu) receptor sensitivity respectively. In regard to the impact of prediction of certain variables on the incidence of ductal breast cancer, positive family history of breast cancer (P < 0.0001), low parity (P< 0.0001), stage I and II breast cancer (P = 0.02) and positive HER2/neu status (P < 0.0001) were significant predictive factors among the study participants. The results from this study provide relevant evidence for a significant positive and potential association between certain risk factors and the prevalence of breast cancer among Iraqi women.

Keywords: Ductal breast cancer, hormone sensitivity, Iraq, risk factors.

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240 Automatic Detection of Mass Type Breast Cancer using Texture Analysis in Korean Digital Mammography

Authors: E. B. Jo, J. H. Lee, J. Y. Park, S. M. Kim

Abstract:

In this study, we present an advanced detection technique for mass type breast cancer based on texture information of organs. The proposed method detects the cancer areas in three stages. In the first stage, the midpoints of mass area are determined based on AHE (Adaptive Histogram Equalization). In the second stage, we set the threshold coefficient of homogeneity by using MLE (Maximum Likelihood Estimation) to compute the uniformity of texture. Finally, mass type cancer tissues are extracted from the original image. As a result, it was observed that the proposed method shows an improved detection performance on dense breast tissues of Korean women compared with the existing methods. It is expected that the proposed method may provide additional diagnostic information for detection of mass-type breast cancer.

Keywords: Mass Type Breast Cancer, Mammography, Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE), Ranklets, SVM

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239 A Data Warehouse System to Help Assist Breast Cancer Screening in Diagnosis, Education and Research

Authors: Souâd Demigha

Abstract:

Early detection of breast cancer is considered as a major public health issue. Breast cancer screening is not generalized to the entire population due to a lack of resources, staff and appropriate tools. Systematic screening can result in a volume of data which can not be managed by present computer architecture, either in terms of storage capabilities or in terms of exploitation tools. We propose in this paper to design and develop a data warehouse system in radiology-senology (DWRS). The aim of such a system is on one hand, to support this important volume of information providing from multiple sources of data and images and for the other hand, to help assist breast cancer screening in diagnosis, education and research.

Keywords: Breast cancer screening, data warehouse, diagnosis, education, research.

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238 Development of a 3D Mathematical Model for a Doxorubicin Controlled Release System using Pluronic Gel for Breast Cancer Treatment

Authors: W. Kaowumpai, D. Koolpiruck, K. Viravaidya

Abstract:

Female breast cancer is the second in frequency after cervical cancer. Surgery is the most common treatment for breast cancer, followed by chemotherapy as a treatment of choice. Although effective, it causes serious side effects. Controlled-release drug delivery is an alternative method to improve the efficacy and safety of the treatment. It can release the dosage of drug between the minimum effect concentration (MEC) and minimum toxic concentration (MTC) within tumor tissue and reduce the damage of normal tissue and the side effect. Because an in vivo experiment of this system can be time-consuming and labor-intensive, a mathematical model is desired to study the effects of important parameters before the experiments are performed. Here, we describe a 3D mathematical model to predict the release of doxorubicin from pluronic gel to treat human breast cancer. This model can, ultimately, be used to effectively design the in vivo experiments.

Keywords: Breast Cancer, Doxorubicin, Controlled ReleaseSystem, Diffusion and Convection Equation.

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237 Feature Selection for Breast Cancer Diagnosis: A Case-Based Wrapper Approach

Authors: Mohammad Darzi, Ali AsgharLiaei, Mahdi Hosseini, HabibollahAsghari

Abstract:

This article addresses feature selection for breast cancer diagnosis. The present process contains a wrapper approach based on Genetic Algorithm (GA) and case-based reasoning (CBR). GA is used for searching the problem space to find all of the possible subsets of features and CBR is employed to estimate the evaluation result of each subset. The results of experiment show that the proposed model is comparable to the other models on Wisconsin breast cancer (WDBC) dataset.

Keywords: Case-based reasoning; Breast cancer diagnosis; Genetic algorithm; Wrapper feature selection

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236 Comparison of Mamdani and Sugeno Fuzzy Interference Systems for the Breast Cancer Risk

Authors: Alshalaa A. Shleeg, Issmail M. Ellabib

Abstract:

Breast cancer is a major health burden worldwide being a major cause of death amongst women. In this paper, Fuzzy Inference Systems (FIS) are developed for the evaluation of breast cancer risk using Mamdani-type and Sugeno-type models. The paper outlines the basic difference between Mamdani-type FIS and Sugeno-type FIS. The results demonstrated the performance comparison of the two systems and the advantages of using Sugeno- type over Mamdani-type.

Keywords: Breast cancer diagnosis, Fuzzy Inference System (FIS), Fuzzy Logic, fuzzy intelligent technique.

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235 On Improving Breast Cancer Prediction Using GRNN-CP

Authors: Kefaya Qaddoum

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to predict breast cancer and to construct a supportive model that will stimulate a more reliable prediction as a factor that is fundamental for public health. In this study, we utilize general regression neural networks (GRNN) to replace the normal predictions with prediction periods to achieve a reasonable percentage of confidence. The mechanism employed here utilises a machine learning system called conformal prediction (CP), in order to assign consistent confidence measures to predictions, which are combined with GRNN. We apply the resulting algorithm to the problem of breast cancer diagnosis. The results show that the prediction constructed by this method is reasonable and could be useful in practice.

Keywords: Neural network, conformal prediction, cancer classification, regression.

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234 Cytotoxic Effect of Crude Extract of Sea Pen Virgularia gustaviana on HeLa and MDA-MB-231 Cancer Cell Lines

Authors: Sharareh Sharifi, Pargol Ghavam Mostafavi, Ali Mashinchian Moradi, Mohammad Hadi Givianrad, Hassan Niknejad

Abstract:

Marine organisms such as soft coral, sponge, ascidians, and tunicate containing rich source of natural compound have been studied in last decades because of their special chemical compounds with anticancer properties. The aim of this study was to investigate anti-cancer property of ethyl acetate extracted from marine sea pen Virgularia gustaviana found from Persian Gulf coastal (Bandar Abbas). The extraction processes were carried out with ethyl acetate for five days. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were used for qualitative identification of crude extract. The viability of HeLa and MDA-Mb-231 cancer cells was investigated using MTT assay at the concentration of 25, 50, and a 100 µl/ml of ethyl acetate is extracted. The crude extract of Virgularia gustaviana demonstrated ten fractions with different Retention factor (Rf) by TLC and Retention time (Rt) evaluated by HPLC. The crude extract dose-dependently decreased cancer cell viability compared to control group. According to the results, the ethyl acetate extracted from Virgularia gustaviana inhibits the growth of cancer cells, an effect which needs to be further investigated in the future studies.

Keywords: Virgularia gustaviana, Cembrane Diterpene, anti-cancer, HeLa cancer Cell, MDA-Md-231 Cancer cell.

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233 Comparative Evaluation of Accuracy of Selected Machine Learning Classification Techniques for Diagnosis of Cancer: A Data Mining Approach

Authors: Rajvir Kaur, Jeewani Anupama Ginige

Abstract:

With recent trends in Big Data and advancements in Information and Communication Technologies, the healthcare industry is at the stage of its transition from clinician oriented to technology oriented. Many people around the world die of cancer because the diagnosis of disease was not done at an early stage. Nowadays, the computational methods in the form of Machine Learning (ML) are used to develop automated decision support systems that can diagnose cancer with high confidence in a timely manner. This paper aims to carry out the comparative evaluation of a selected set of ML classifiers on two existing datasets: breast cancer and cervical cancer. The ML classifiers compared in this study are Decision Tree (DT), Support Vector Machine (SVM), k-Nearest Neighbor (k-NN), Logistic Regression, Ensemble (Bagged Tree) and Artificial Neural Networks (ANN). The evaluation is carried out based on standard evaluation metrics Precision (P), Recall (R), F1-score and Accuracy. The experimental results based on the evaluation metrics show that ANN showed the highest-level accuracy (99.4%) when tested with breast cancer dataset. On the other hand, when these ML classifiers are tested with the cervical cancer dataset, Ensemble (Bagged Tree) technique gave better accuracy (93.1%) in comparison to other classifiers.

Keywords: Artificial neural networks, breast cancer, cancer dataset, classifiers, cervical cancer, F-score, logistic regression, machine learning, precision, recall, support vector machine.

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232 Oral Cancer Screening Intentions of Residents in Eastern Taiwan

Authors: Chi-Shan Chen, Mao-Chou Hsu, Feng-Chuan Pan

Abstract:

The incidence of oral cancer in Taiwan increased year by year. It replaced the nasopharyngeal as the top incurrence among head and neck cancers since 1994. Early examination and earlier identification for earlier treatment is the most effective medical treatment for these cancers. Although the government fully subsidized the expenses with tremendous promotion program for oral cancer screening, the citizen-s participation remained low. Purpose of this study is to understand the factors affecting the citizens- behavior intensions of taking an oral cancer screening. Based on the Theory of Planned Behavior, this study adopted four distinctive variables in explaining the captioned behavior intentions.700 questionnaires were dispatched with 500 valid responses or 71.4% returned by the citizens with an age 30 or above from the eastern counties of Taiwan. Test results has shown that attitude toward, subjective norms of, and perceived behavioral control over the oral cancer screening varied from some demographic factors to another. The study proofed that attitude toward, subjective norms of, and perceived behavioral control over the oral cancer screening had positive impacts on the corresponding behavior intention. The test concluded that the theory of planned behavior was appropriate as a theoretical framework in explaining the influencing factors of intentions of taking oral cancer screening. This study suggested the healthcare professional should provide high accessibility of screening services other than just delivering knowledge on oral cancer to promote the citizens- intentions of taking the captioned screening. This research also provided a practical implication to the healthcare professionals when formulating and implementing promotion instruments for lifting the screening rate of oral cancer.

Keywords: Theory of planned behavior, oral cancer, cancer screening

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