Search results for: Shah A. Qader
71 Application of MADM in Identifying the Transmission Rate of Dengue fever: A Case Study of Shah Alam, Malaysia
Authors: Nuraini Yusoff, Harun Budin, Salemah Ismail
Abstract:Identifying parameters in an epidemic model is one of the important aspect of modeling. In this paper, we suggest a method to identify the transmission rate by using the multistage Adomian decomposition method. As a case study, we use the data of the reported dengue fever cases in the city of Shah Alam, Malaysia. The result obtained fairly represents the actual situation. However, in the SIR model, this method serves as an alternative in parameter identification and enables us to make necessary analysis for a smaller interval.
Keywords: dengue fever, multistage Adomian decomposition method, Shah Alam, SIR modelProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2057
70 Simulation of Population Dynamics of Aedes aegypti using Climate Dependent Model
Authors: Nuraini Yusoff, Harun Budin, Salemah Ismail
Abstract:A climate dependent model is proposed to simulate the population of Aedes aegypti mosquito. In developing the model, average temperature of Shah Alam, Malaysia was used to determine the development rate of each stage of the life cycle of mosquito. Rainfall dependent function was proposed to simulate the hatching rate of the eggs under several assumptions. The proposed transition matrix was obtained and used to simulate the population of eggs, larvae, pupae and adults mosquito. It was found that the peak of mosquito abundance comes during a relatively dry period following a heavy rainfall. In addition, lag time between the peaks of mosquito abundance and dengue fever cases in Shah Alam was estimated.
Keywords: simulation, Aedes aegypti, Lefkovitch matrix, rainfall dependent model, Shah AlamProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2340
69 Serum Nitric Oxide and Sialic Acid: Possible Biochemical Markers for Progression of Diabetic Nephropathy
Authors: Syed M. Shahid, Rozeena Shaikh, Syeda N. Nawab, Shah A. Qader, Abid Azhar, Tabassum Mahboob
This study was designed to investigate the role of serum nitric oxide and sialic acid in the development of diabetic nephropathy as disease marker. Total 210 diabetic patients (age and sex matched) were selected followed by informed consent and divided into four groups (70 each) as I: control; II: diabetic; III: diabetic hypertensive; IV: diabetic nephropathy. The blood samples of all subjects were collected and analyzed for serum nitric oxide, sialic acid, fasting blood glucose, serum urea, creatinine, HbA1c and GFR. The BMI, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, blood glucose, HbA1c and serum sialic acid levels were high (p<0.01) in group II as compared to control subjects. The higher levels (p<0.01) of BMI, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, blood glucose, HbA1c, serum urea, creatinine and sialic acid were observed in group III and IV as compared to controls. Significantly low levels of GFR and serum nitric oxide (p<0.01) were observed in group III and IV as compared to controls. Results indicated that serum nitric oxide and sialic acid are the major biochemical indicators for micro and macrovascular complications of diabetes such as hypertension and nephropathy. These should be taken into account during screening procedures regarding identifications of the diabetic patients to get them rid of progressive renal impairment to ESRD.
Keywords: Diabetic nephropathy, hypertension, nitric oxide, sialic acid.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1544
68 Fast Segmentation for the Piecewise Smooth Mumford-Shah Functional
Authors: Yingjie Zhang
Abstract:This paper is concerned with an improved algorithm based on the piecewise-smooth Mumford and Shah (MS) functional for an efficient and reliable segmentation. In order to speed up convergence, an additional force, at each time step, is introduced further to drive the evolution of the curves instead of only driven by the extensions of the complementary functions u + and u - . In our scheme, furthermore, the piecewise-constant MS functional is integrated to generate the extra force based on a temporary image that is dynamically created by computing the union of u + and u - during segmenting. Therefore, some drawbacks of the original algorithm, such as smaller objects generated by noise and local minimal problem also are eliminated or improved. The resulting algorithm has been implemented in Matlab and Visual Cµ, and demonstrated efficiently by several cases.
Keywords: Active contours, energy minimization, image segmentation, level sets.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1744
67 Review of the Characteristics of Mahan Garden:One Type of Persian Gardens
Authors: Ladan Tajaddini
Abstract:Iranians- imagination of heaven, which is the reward of a person-s good deeds during their life, has shown itself in pleasant and green gardens where earthly gardens were made as representations of paradise. Iranians are also quite interested in making their earthly gardens and plantations around their buildings. With Iran-s hot and dry climate with a lack of sufficient water for plantation coverage, it becomes noticeable how important it is to Iranians- art in making gardens. This study, with regard to examples, documents and library studies, investigates the characteristics of Persian gardens. The result shows that elements such as soil, water, plants and layout have been used in forming a unique style of Persian gardens. Bagh-e Shah Zadeh Mahan (Mahan prince garden) is a typical example and has been carefully studied. In this paper I try to investigate and evaluate the characteristics of a Persian garden by means of a descriptive approach.
Keywords: environmental planning, Persian garden, landscape, shah zadeh garden, soil and water, gardening.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2776
66 Improving Image Segmentation Performance via Edge Preserving Regularization
Authors: Ying-jie Zhang, Li-ling Ge
Abstract:This paper presents an improved image segmentation model with edge preserving regularization based on the piecewise-smooth Mumford-Shah functional. A level set formulation is considered for the Mumford-Shah functional minimization in segmentation, and the corresponding partial difference equations are solved by the backward Euler discretization. Aiming at encouraging edge preserving regularization, a new edge indicator function is introduced at level set frame. In which all the grid points which is used to locate the level set curve are considered to avoid blurring the edges and a nonlinear smooth constraint function as regularization term is applied to smooth the image in the isophote direction instead of the gradient direction. In implementation, some strategies such as a new scheme for extension of u+ and u- computation of the grid points and speedup of the convergence are studied to improve the efficacy of the algorithm. The resulting algorithm has been implemented and compared with the previous methods, and has been proved efficiently by several cases.
Keywords: Energy minimization, image segmentation, level sets, edge regularization.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1409
65 Isolation and Identification Fibrinolytic Protease Endophytic Fungi from Hibiscus Leaves in Shah Alam
Authors: Mohd Sidek Ahmad, Zainon Mohd Noor, Zaidah Zainal Ariffin
Fibrin degradation is an important part in prevention or treatment of intravascular thrombosis and cardiovascular diseases. Plasmin like fibrinolytic enzymes has given new hope to patient with cardiovascular diseases by treating fibrin aggregation related diseases with traditional plasminogen activator which have many side effects. Various researches involving wide range of sources for production of fibrinolytic proteases, from bacteria, fungi, insects and fermented foods. But few have looked into endophytic fungi as a potential source. Sixteen (16) endophytic fungi were isolated from Hibiscus sp. leaves from six different locations in Shah Alam, Selangor. Only two endophytic fungi, FH3 and S13 showed positive fibrinolytic protease activities. FH3 produced 5.78cm and S13 produced 4.48cm on Skim Milk Agar after 4 days of incubation at 27°C. Fibrinolytic activity was observed; 3.87cm and 1.82cm diameter clear zone on fibrin plate of FH3 and S13 respectively. 18srRNA was done for identification of the isolated fungi with positive fibrinolytic protease. S13 had the highest similarity (100%) to that of Penicillium citrinum strain TG2 and FH3 had the highest similarity (99%) to that of Fusarium sp. FW2PhC1, Fusarium sp. 13002, Fusarium sp. 08006, Fusarium equiseti strain Salicorn 8 and Fungal sp. FCASAn-2. Media composition variation showed the effects of carbon nitrogen on protein concentration, where the decrement of 50% of media composition caused drastic decrease in protease of FH3 from 1.081 to 0.056 and also S13 from 2.946 to 0.198.
Keywords: Isolation, identification, fibrinolytic protease, endophytic fungi, Hibiscus leaves.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3065
64 PP-FSM: Peer to Peer File Share for Multimedia
Authors: Arsalan Ali Shah, Zafar I. Malik, Shaukat Ali
Peer-to-Peer (P2P) is a self-organizing resource sharing network with no centralized authority or infrastructure, which makes it unpredictable and vulnerable. In this paper, we propose architecture to make the peer-to-peer network more centralized, predictable, and safer to use by implementing trust and stopping free riding.
Keywords: File Share, Free Riding, Peer-to-Peer, Trust.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1913
63 Classification of Extreme Ground-Level Ozone Based on Generalized Extreme Value Model for Air Monitoring Station
Authors: Siti Aisyah Zakaria, Nor Azrita Mohd Amin, Noor Fadhilah Ahmad Radi, Nasrul Hamidin
Higher ground-level ozone (GLO) concentration adversely affects human health, vegetations as well as activities in the ecosystem. In Malaysia, most of the analysis on GLO concentration are carried out using the average value of GLO concentration, which refers to the centre of distribution to make a prediction or estimation. However, analysis which focuses on the higher value or extreme value in GLO concentration is rarely explored. Hence, the objective of this study is to classify the tail behaviour of GLO using generalized extreme value (GEV) distribution estimation the return level using the corresponding modelling (Gumbel, Weibull, and Frechet) of GEV distribution. The results show that Weibull distribution which is also known as short tail distribution and considered as having less extreme behaviour is the best-fitted distribution for four selected air monitoring stations in Peninsular Malaysia, namely Larkin, Pelabuhan Kelang, Shah Alam, and Tanjung Malim; while Gumbel distribution which is considered as a medium tail distribution is the best-fitted distribution for Nilai station. The return level of GLO concentration in Shah Alam station is comparatively higher than other stations. Overall, return levels increase with increasing return periods but the increment depends on the type of the tail of GEV distribution’s tail. We conduct this study by using maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) method to estimate the parameters at four selected stations in Peninsular Malaysia. Next, the validation for the fitted block maxima series to GEV distribution is performed using probability plot, quantile plot and likelihood ratio test. Profile likelihood confidence interval is tested to verify the type of GEV distribution. These results are important as a guide for early notification on future extreme ozone events.
Keywords: Extreme value theory, generalized extreme value distribution, ground-level ozone, return level.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 323
62 Fabrication and Study of Nickel Phthalocyanine based Surface Type Capacitive Sensors
Authors: Mutabar Shah, Muhammad Hassan Sayyad, Khasan S. Karimov
Abstract:Thin films of Nickel phthalocynine (NiPc) of different thicknesses (100, 150 and 200 nm) were deposited by thermal evaporator on glass substrates with preliminary deposited aluminum electrodes to form Al/NiPc/Al surface-type capacitive humidity sensors. The capacitance-humidity relationships of the sensors were investigated at humidity levels from 35 to 90% RH. It was observed that the capacitance value increases nonlinearly with increasing humidity level. All measurements were taken at room temperature.
Keywords: Capacitive sensor, Humidity, Nickel phthalocyanine, Organic semiconductor.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1648
61 Software Architectural Design Ontology
Authors: Muhammad Irfan Marwat, Sadaqat Jan, Syed Zafar Ali Shah
Software Architecture plays a key role in software development but absence of formal description of Software Architecture causes different impede in software development. To cope with these difficulties, ontology has been used as artifact. This paper proposes ontology for Software Architectural design based on IEEE model for architecture description and Kruchten 4+1 model for viewpoints classification. For categorization of style and views, ISO/IEC 42010 has been used. Corpus method has been used to evaluate ontology. The main aim of the proposed ontology is to classify and locate Software Architectural design information.
Keywords: Software Architecture Ontology, Semantic based Software Architecture, Software Architecture, Ontology, Software Engineering.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3982
60 Preliminary Study on Determining Stem Diameter Variations of Sympodial Orchid
Authors: N.M Khairi, M.I. Naimah, M.S.B. Shah Rizam, M.T. Nooritawati, Z.A. Husna
Abstract:Changes in stem diameter of orchid plants were investigated in a control growing climate. Previous studies have focused on stem diameter in relation to plant water on terrestrial plants in order to schedule the irrigation. The objective of this work was to evaluate the ability of the strain gauges to capture changes in the epiphytes plant stem. Experiments were carried out by using the sympodial orchid, Dendrobium Sonia in a stressed condition. From the findings, the sensor can detect changes in the plant stem and the result can easily be used as a reference for further studies for the development of a proper watering system.
Keywords: Strain gauge, stem diameter, Dendrobium Sonia, epiphyte, terrestrialProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1292
59 Error Detection and Correction for Onboard Satellite Computers Using Hamming Code
Authors: Rafsan Al Mamun, Md. Motaharul Islam, Rabana Tajrin, Nabiha Noor, Shafinaz Qader
In an attempt to enrich the lives of billions of people by providing proper information, security and a way of communicating with others, the need for efficient and improved satellites is constantly growing. Thus, there is an increasing demand for better error detection and correction (EDAC) schemes, which are capable of protecting the data onboard the satellites. The paper is aimed towards detecting and correcting such errors using a special algorithm called the Hamming Code, which uses the concept of parity and parity bits to prevent single-bit errors onboard a satellite in Low Earth Orbit. This paper focuses on the study of Low Earth Orbit satellites and the process of generating the Hamming Code matrix to be used for EDAC using computer programs. The most effective version of Hamming Code generated was the Hamming (16, 11, 4) version using MATLAB, and the paper compares this particular scheme with other EDAC mechanisms, including other versions of Hamming Codes and Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC), and the limitations of this scheme. This particular version of the Hamming Code guarantees single-bit error corrections as well as double-bit error detections. Furthermore, this version of Hamming Code has proved to be fast with a checking time of 5.669 nanoseconds, that has a relatively higher code rate and lower bit overhead compared to the other versions and can detect a greater percentage of errors per length of code than other EDAC schemes with similar capabilities. In conclusion, with the proper implementation of the system, it is quite possible to ensure a relatively uncorrupted satellite storage system.
Keywords: Bit-flips, Hamming code, low earth orbit, parity bits, satellite, single error upset.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 690
58 Variable Guard Channels for Efficient Traffic Management
Authors: G. M. Mir, N. A. Shah, Moinuddin
Abstract:Guard channels improve the probability of successful handoffs by reserving a number of channels exclusively for handoffs. This concept has the risk of underutilization of radio spectrum due to the fact that fewer channels are granted to originating calls even if these guard channels are not always used, when originating calls are starving for the want of channels. The penalty is the reduction of total carried traffic. The optimum number of guard channels can help reduce this problem. This paper presents fuzzy logic based guard channel scheme wherein guard channels are reorganized on the basis of traffic density, so that guard channels are provided on need basis. This will help in incorporating more originating calls and hence high throughput of the radio spectrum
Keywords: Free channels, fuzzy logic, guard channels, HandoffProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1177
57 Non-destructive Watermelon Ripeness Determination Using Image Processing and Artificial Neural Network (ANN)
Authors: Shah Rizam M. S. B., Farah Yasmin A.R., Ahmad Ihsan M. Y., Shazana K.
Abstract:Agriculture products are being more demanding in market today. To increase its productivity, automation to produce these products will be very helpful. The purpose of this work is to measure and determine the ripeness and quality of watermelon. The textures on watermelon skin will be captured using digital camera. These images will be filtered using image processing technique. All these information gathered will be trained using ANN to determine the watermelon ripeness accuracy. Initial results showed that the best model has produced percentage accuracy of 86.51%, when measured at 32 hidden units with a balanced percentage rate of training dataset.
Keywords: Artificial Neural Network (ANN), Digital ImageProcessing, YCbCr Colour Space, Watermelon Ripeness.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2745
56 Kinematic Analysis of 2-DOF Planer Robot Using Artificial Neural Network
Authors: Jolly Shah, S.S.Rattan, B.C.Nakra
Abstract:Automatic control of the robotic manipulator involves study of kinematics and dynamics as a major issue. This paper involves the forward and inverse kinematics of 2-DOF robotic manipulator with revolute joints. In this study the Denavit- Hartenberg (D-H) model is used to model robot links and joints. Also forward and inverse kinematics solution has been achieved using Artificial Neural Networks for 2-DOF robotic manipulator. It shows that by using artificial neural network the solution we get is faster, acceptable and has zero error.
Keywords: Artificial Neural Network, Forward Kinematics, Inverse Kinematics, Robotic ManipulatorProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 4214
55 Estimation of Reconnaissance Drought Index (RDI) for Bhavnagar District, Gujarat, India
Authors: Ravi Shah, V. L. Manekar, R. A. Christian, N. J. Mistry
There are two types of drought as conceptual drought and operational drought. The three parameters as the beginning, the end and the degree of severity of the drought can be identifying in operational drought by average precipitation in the whole region. One of the methods classified to measure drought is Reconnaissance Drought Index (RDI). Evapotranspiration is calculated using Penman-Monteith method by analyzing thirty nine years prolong climatic data. The evapotranspiration is then utilized in RDI to classify normalized and standardized RDI. These RDI classifications led to what kind of drought faced in Bhavnagar region on 12 month time scale basis. The comparison between actual drought conditions and RDI method used to find out drought are also illustrated. It can be concluded that the index results of drought in a particular year are same in both methods but having different index values where as severity remain same.
Keywords: Drought, Drought index, Reconnaissance Drought Index (RDI), Precipitation.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3315
54 Aspect based Reusable Synchronization Schemes
Authors: Nathar Shah
Abstract:Concurrency and synchronization are becoming big issues as every new PC comes with multi-core processors. A major reason for Object-Oriented Programming originally was to enable easier reuse: encode your algorithm into a class and thoroughly debug it, then you can reuse the class again and again. However, when we get to concurrency and synchronization, this is often not possible. Thread-safety issues means that synchronization constructs need to be entangled into every class involved. We contributed a detailed literature review of issues and challenges in concurrent programming and present a methodology that uses the Aspect- Oriented paradigm to address this problem. Aspects will allow us to extract the synchronization concerns as schemes to be “weaved in" later into the main code. This allows the aspects to be separately tested and verified. Hence, the functional components can be weaved with reusable synchronization schemes that are robust and scalable.
Keywords: Aspect-orientation, development methodologysoftware concurrency, synchronization.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1122
53 A NXM Version of 5X5 Playfair Cipher for any Natural Language (Urdu as Special Case)
Authors: Muhammad Salam, Nasir Rashid, Shah Khalid, Muhammad Raees Khan
In this paper a modified version NXM of traditional 5X5 playfair cipher is introduced which enable the user to encrypt message of any Natural language by taking appropriate size of the matrix depending upon the size of the natural language. 5X5 matrix has the capability of storing only 26 characters of English language and unable to store characters of any language having more than 26 characters. To overcome this limitation NXM matrix is introduced which solve this limitation. In this paper a special case of Urdu language is discussed. Where # is used for completing odd pair and * is used for repeating letters.
Keywords: cryptography, decryption, encryption, playfair cipher, traditional cipher.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2012
52 CScheme in Traditional Concurrency Problems
Authors: Nathar Shah, Visham Cheerkoot
Abstract:CScheme, a concurrent programming paradigm based on scheme concept enables concurrency schemes to be constructed from smaller synchronization units through a GUI based composer and latter be reused on other concurrency problems of a similar nature. This paradigm is particularly important in the multi-core environment prevalent nowadays. In this paper, we demonstrate techniques to separate concurrency from functional code using the CScheme paradigm. Then we illustrate how the CScheme methodology can be used to solve some of the traditional concurrency problems – critical section problem, and readers-writers problem - using synchronization schemes such as Single Threaded Execution Scheme, and Readers Writers Scheme.
Keywords: Concurrent Programming, Object Oriented Programming, Environments for multiple-processor systems, Programming paradigms.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1554
51 Challenges for Security in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs)
Authors: Muazzam A. Khan, Ghalib A. Shah, Muhammad Sher
Wireless sensor network is formed with the combination of sensor nodes and sink nodes. Recently Wireless sensor network has attracted attention of the research community. The main application of wireless sensor network is security from different attacks both for mass public and military. However securing these networks, by itself is a critical issue due to many constraints like limited energy, computational power and lower memory. Researchers working in this area have proposed a number of security techniques for this purpose. Still, more work needs to be done.In this paper we provide a detailed discussion on security in wireless sensor networks. This paper will help to identify different obstacles and requirements for security of wireless sensor networks as well as highlight weaknesses of existing techniques.
Keywords: Wireless senor networks (WSNs), security, denial of service, black hole, cryptography, stenography.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2771
50 Effects of Skim Milk Powder Supplementation to Soy Yogurts on Biotransformation of Isoflavone Glycosides to Biologically Active Forms during Storage
Authors: T. T. Pham, N. P. Shah
Abstract:Three batches of yogurts were made with soy protein isolate (SPI) supplemented with 2% (S2), 4% (S4) or 6% (S6) of skim milk powder (SMP). The fourth batch (control; S0) was prepared from SPI without SMP supplementation. Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus ATCC 11842 (Lb 11842) and Streptococcus thermophilus ST 1342 (ST 1342) were used as the starter culture. Biotransformation of the inactive forms, isoflavone glycosides (IG) to biologically active forms, isoflavone aglycones (IA), was determined during 28 d storage. The viability of both microorganisms was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in S2, S4, and S6 than that in S0. The ratio of lactic acid/acetic acid in S0 was in the range of 15.53 – 22.31 compared to 7.24 – 12.81 in S2, S4 and S6. The biotransformation of IG to IA in S2, S4 and S6 was also enhanced by 9.9 -13.3% compared to S0.
Keywords: Isoflavone aglycones, isoflavone glycosides, skim milk powder and soy yogurt.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1812
49 Optimized Detection in Multi-Antenna System using Particle Swarm Algorithm
Authors: A. A. Khan, M. Naeem, S. Bashir, S. I. Shah
Abstract:In this paper we propose a Particle Swarm heuristic optimized Multi-Antenna (MA) system. Efficient MA systems detection is performed using a robust stochastic evolutionary computation algorithm based on movement and intelligence of swarms. This iterative particle swarm optimized (PSO) detector significantly reduces the computational complexity of conventional Maximum Likelihood (ML) detection technique. The simulation results achieved with this proposed MA-PSO detection algorithm show near optimal performance when compared with ML-MA receiver. The performance of proposed detector is convincingly better for higher order modulation schemes and large number of antennas where conventional ML detector becomes non-practical.
Keywords: Multi Antenna (MA), Multi-input Multi-output(MIMO), Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), ML detection.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1345
48 Catalytic Activity of Aluminum Impregnated Catalysts for the Degradation of Waste Polystyrene
Authors: J. Shah, M. Rasul Jan, Adnan
The aluminum impregnated catalysts of Al-alumina (Al-Al2O3), Al-montmorillonite (Al-Mmn) and Al-activated charcoal (Al-AC) of various percent loadings were prepared by wet impregnation method and characterized by SEM, XRD and N2 adsorption/desorption (BET). The catalytic properties were investigated in the degradation of waste polystyrene (WPS). The results of catalytic degradation of Al metal, 20% Al-Al2O3, 5% Al-Mmn and 20% Al-AC were compared with each other for optimum conditions. Among the catalyst used 20% Al-Al2O3 was found the most effective catalyst. The BET surface area of 20% Al-Al2O3 determined was 70.2 m2/g. The SEM data revealed the catalyst with porous structure throughout the frame work with small nanosized crystallites. The yield of liquid products with 20% Al-Al2O3 (91.53 ± 2.27 wt%) was the same as compared to Al metal (91.20 ± 0.35 wt%) but the selectivity of hydrocarbons and yield of styrene monomer (56.32 wt%) was higher with 20% Al-Al2O3 catalyst.
Keywords: Impregnation, catalytic degradation, waste polystyrene, styrene.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1843
47 A Review on Terrestrial Multimedia Communication using OFDM Technology
Authors: Shweta Shah, Upena Dalal
The development of wireless communication technologies has changed our living style in global level. After the international success of mobile telephony standards, the location and time independent voice connection has become a default method in daily telecommunications. As for today, highly advanced multimedia messaging plays a key role in value added service handling. Along with evolving data services, the need for more complex applications can be seen, including the mobile usage of broadcast technologies. Here performance of a system design for terrestrial multimedia content is examined with emphasis on mobile reception. This review paper has accommodated the understanding of physical layer role and the flavour of terrestrial channel effects on the terrestrial multimedia transmission using OFDM keeping DVB-H as benchmark standard.
Keywords: Digital Video Broadcast-Handhelds, Multimedia, OFDM, Physical LayerProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1839
46 Analytical Solutions for Corotational Maxwell Model Fluid Arising in Wire Coating inside a Canonical Die
Authors: Muhammad Sohail Khan, Rehan Ali Shah
Abstract:The present paper applies the optimal homotopy perturbation method (OHPM) and the optimal homotopy asymptotic method (OHAM) introduced recently to obtain analytic approximations of the non-linear equations modeling the flow of polymer in case of wire coating of a corotational Maxwell fluid. Expression for the velocity field is obtained in non-dimensional form. Comparison of the results obtained by the two methods at different values of non-dimensional parameter l10, reveal that the OHPM is more effective and easy to use. The OHPM solution can be improved even working in the same order of approximation depends on the choices of the auxiliary functions.
Keywords: Wire coating die, Corotational Maxwell model, optimal homotopy asymptotic method, optimal homotopy perturbation method.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 919
45 Empirical Evaluation of Performance Optimization Techniques Used in Mobile Applications
Authors: Nathar Shah, Bu Kiat Seng
Mobile application development is different from regular application development due to the hardware resource limitations existed in the mobile platforms. In the mobile environment, the application needs to be optimized by the developer to produce optimal software with least overhead. This study discussed about performance optimization techniques that are employed in general application development, and how such techniques are performing on mobile platforms through some empirical evaluations on a mobile emulator, Nokia X3-02 and Nokia C5-03devices. The scope of the work is only confined to mobile platform based on Java Mobile edition architecture. The empirical results showed that techniques such as loop unrolling, dependency chain, and linearized getter and setter performed better by a factor of 3 to 7. Whereas declaration and initialization on the same line or separate line did not improve the performance.
Keywords: Optimization Techniques, Mobile Applications, Performance Evaluation, J2ME, Empirical ExperimentsProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1388
44 Multiuser Detection in CDMA Fast Fading Multipath Channel using Heuristic Genetic Algorithms
Authors: Muhammad Naeem, Syed Ismail Shah, Habibullah Jamal
Abstract:In this paper, a simple heuristic genetic algorithm is used for Multistage Multiuser detection in fast fading environments. Multipath channels, multiple access interference (MAI) and near far effect cause the performance of the conventional detector to degrade. Heuristic Genetic algorithms, a rapidly growing area of artificial intelligence, uses evolutionary programming for initial search, which not only helps to converge the solution towards near optimal performance efficiently but also at a very low complexity as compared with optimal detector. This holds true for Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) and multipath fading channels. Experimental results are presented to show the superior performance of the proposed techque over the existing methods.
Keywords: Genetic Algorithm (GA), Multiple AccessInterference (MAI), Multistage Detectors (MSD), SuccessiveInterference Cancellation.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1870
43 Seismic Analysis of Structurally Hybrid Wind Mill Tower
Authors: Atul K. Desai, Hemal J. Shah
The tall windmill towers are designed as monopole tower or lattice tower. In the present research, a 125-meter high hybrid tower which is a combination of lattice and monopole type is proposed. The response of hybrid tower is compared with conventional monopole tower. The towers were analyzed in finite element method software considering nonlinear seismic time history load. The synthetic seismic time history for different soil is derived using the SeismoARTIF software. From the present research, it is concluded that, in the hybrid tower, we are not getting resonance condition. The base shear is less in hybrid tower compared to monopole tower for different soil conditions.
Keywords: Dynamic analysis, hybrid wind mill tower, resonance condition, synthetic time history.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 608
42 Finite Element Simulation of Deep Drawing Process to Minimize Earing
Authors: Pawan S. Nagda, Purnank S. Bhatt, Mit K. Shah
Abstract:Earing defect in drawing process is highly undesirable not only because it adds on an additional trimming operation but also because the uneven material flow demands extra care. The objective of this work is to study the earing problem in the Deep Drawing of circular cup and to optimize the blank shape to reduce the earing. A finite element model is developed for 3-D numerical simulation of cup forming process in ABAQUS. Extra-deep-drawing (EDD) steel sheet has been used for simulation. Properties and tool design parameters were used as input for simulation. Earing was observed in the simulated cup and it was measured at various angles with respect to rolling direction. To reduce the earing defect initial blank shape was modified with the help of anisotropy coefficient. Modified blanks showed notable reduction in earing.
Keywords: Finite element simulation, deep drawing, earing, anisotropy.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1674