Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 31435
Autism Spectrum Disorder: Main Problem Waiting for Solution in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Authors: Rana M. Zeina, Laila Al-Ayadhi, Shahid Bashir

Abstract:

Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) are characterized by abnormalities in social interaction and communication, as well as repetitive and stereotyped behaviors. Although various studies have been conducted in ASDs etiology across the world, it seems that they are still unknown in Middle East. Some scientific researches have been conducted on ASDs in Middle East (ME) especially in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). A systematic literature review was performed to identify the ASDs studies in KSA. Accordingly, PubMed, ISI web of Science and Google were searched to find KSA and ME studies in ASDs. The main focus of this review work is to outline an improved understanding of the underpinnings of ASD in order to achieve therapeutic interventions and we will discuss the main problem we waiting for solution with reference with role of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) to modulate cortical activity improve understanding ASD.

Keywords: Autism, Neurodevelopmental disorder

Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1095971

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3607

References:


[1] Howlin P. Autism and Asperger syndrome, 2 th ed. United States of America: Routledge; 2005
[2] Mohammadi MR, Akhondzadeh S. Autism Spectrum Disorders: Etiology and Pharmacotherapy. Curr Drug ther 2007; 2: 97-103
[3] Gomez SL, Torres RMR, Ares EMT. Reviews on Autism. Rev Latinoam Psicol 2009; 41: 555-570
[4] Grafodatskaya D, Chung B, Szatmari P, Weksberg R. Autism spectrum disorders and epigenetics. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2010; 49: 794-809
[5] Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2009. Prevalence of autism spectrum disorders—autism and developmental disabilities monitoring network, United States, 2006. MMWR Surveill. Summ. 58:1–20.
[6] World Health Organization (WHO), Fourth Conference, 2nd of October 2013.
[7] Matson JL, Worley JA, Fodstad JC, Chung KM, Suh D, Jhin HK, et al. A multinational study examining the cross cultural differences in reported symptoms of autism spectrum disorders: Israel, South Korea, the United Kingdom, and the United States of America. Res Autism Spectr Disord 2011; 5: 1598-1604
[8] Zaroff CM, Uhm SY. Prevalence of autism spectrum disorders and influence of country of measurement and ethnicity. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 2011; published online
[9] Al Masoud Hanan. The Education of Children with autism in Saudi Arabia: A Teaching Guide (2010). King Saud University Saudi Arabia Riyadh.
[10] Williams JG, Higgins JP, Brayne CE. Systematic review of prevalence studies of autism spectrum disorders. Arch Dis Child 2006; 91: 8-15
[11] Shamsi-pour M, Yonesian M, Mansouri A. Epidemiology of autism: recent challenges in prevalence of autism and its risk factors. Journal of health and knowledge 2010; 5: 133
[12] Al-Salehi SM, Al-Hifthy EH, Ghaziuddin M. Autism in Saudi Arabia: presentation, clinical correlates and comorbidity. King Fahd Medical City Hospital 2009, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
[13] Nickl-Jockschat T, Michel TM. Genetic and brain structure anomalies in autism spectrum disorders. Towards an understanding of the aetiopathogenesis?. Nervenarzt 2011; 82: 618-627
[14] Dodds L, Fell DB, Shea S, Armson BA, Allen AC, Bryson S. The role of prenatal, obstetric and neonatal factors in the development of autism. J Autism Dev Disord 2011; 41: 891-902
[15] Hussein H, Taha GR, Almanasef A . Characteristics of autism spectrum disorders in a sample of egyptian and saudi patients: transcultural cross sectional study. Okasha's Institute of Psychiatry, WHO Collaborative Center for Training and Research 2011, Ain Shams University Hospitals, Abbasia, Cairo, Egypt.
[16] Al-Eithan MH, Balkhi SH, Al-Bluwi AM. Autism and parents' education. New data from the developing world. Psychology Department & Research Center, Sultan Bin Abdulaziz Humanitarian City 2010, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia .
[17] Zachor DA, Ben-Itzchak E, Rabinovich AL, Lahat E. Change in autism core symptoms with intervention. Res Autism Spectr Disord 2007; 1: 304-317
[18] Callahan K, Shukla-Mehta S, Magee S, Wie M. ABA versus TEACCH: the case for defining and validating comprehensive treatment models in autism. J Autism DevDisord 2010; 40: 74-88
[19] Gould E, Dixon DR, Najdowski AC, Smith MN, Tarbox J. A review of assessments for determining the content of early intensive behavioral intervention programs for autism spectrum disorders. Res Autism Spectr Disord 2011; 5: 990-1002,
[20] Peters-Scheffer N, Didden R, Korzilius H, Sturmey P. A meta-analytic study on the effectiveness of comprehensive ABA-based early intervention programs for children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. Res Autism Spectr Disord 2011; 5: 60-69,
[21] Chimeh N, Pouretemad HR, Khoramabadi R. Need assessment of mothers with autistic children. Journal of family research 2007; 3: 697- 707
[22] Mohammadi A, Pouretemad HR, Khosravi G. An initial examination of the effect of guided imagery via music on reduction of stress, depression, and anxiety of mothers with autistic children. Journal of family research 2005; 1: 289-303
[23] Al faisal fahda, The effectiveness of cognitive behavioral program to reduce the degree of psychological stress among a sample of mothers of children with autism. King Saud University Saudi Arabia Riyadh 2010.
[24] Bromley J, Hare DJ, Davison K, Emerson E. Mothers supporting children with autistic spectrum disorders: social support, mental health status and satisfaction with services. Central Manchester and Manchester Children's University Hospitals NHS Trust 2004, UK.
[25] Barker AT, Jalinous R, Freeston IL. Non-invasive magnetic stimulation of human motor cortex. Lancet 1985; 1: 1106–07.
[26] Pascual-Leone, A., Valls-Solé, J., Wassermann, E.M., Hallett, M. Responses to rapid-rate transcranial magnetic stimulation of the human motor cortex. Brain 1994, 117, 847-58.
[27] Oberman L, Ifert-Miller F, Najib U, Bashir S, Woollacott I, Gonzalez- Heydrich J, Picker J, Rotenberg A, Pascual-Leone A. Transcranial magnetic stimulation provides means to assess cortical plasticity and excitability in humans with fragile x syndrome and autism spectrum disorder. Front Synaptic Neurosci 2010 2:26
[28] Frye, R.E., Rotenberg, A., Ousley, M., Pascual-Leone, A. Transcranial magnetic stimulation in child neurology: current and future directions. J. Child Neurol 2008., 23, 79–96.
[29] Johnson, C.P. Early Clinical Characteristics of Children with Autism. In: Gupta, V.B. ed: Autistic Spectrum Disorders in Children. New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc., 2004:85-123
[30] Ganz ML. The lifetime distribution of the incremental societal costs of autism. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2007;161(4):343–34