Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3861

Search results for: human contact networks

3861 A Hypercube Social Feature Extraction and Multipath Routing in Delay Tolerant Networks

Authors: S. Balaji, M. Rajaram, Y. Harold Robinson, E. Golden Julie

Abstract:

Delay Tolerant Networks (DTN) which have sufficient state information include trajectory and contact information, to protect routing efficiency. However, state information is dynamic and hard to obtain without a global and/or long-term collection process. To deal with these problems, the internal social features of each node are introduced in the network to perform the routing process. This type of application is motivated from several human contact networks where people contact each other more frequently if they have more social features in common. Two unique processes were developed for this process; social feature extraction and multipath routing. The routing method then becomes a hypercube–based feature matching process. Furthermore, the effectiveness of multipath routing is evaluated and compared to that of single-path routing.

Keywords: Delay tolerant networks, entropy, human contact networks, hyper cubes, multipath Routing, social features.

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3860 Protein Residue Contact Prediction using Support Vector Machine

Authors: Chan Weng Howe, Mohd Saberi Mohamad

Abstract:

Protein residue contact map is a compact representation of secondary structure of protein. Due to the information hold in the contact map, attentions from researchers in related field were drawn and plenty of works have been done throughout the past decade. Artificial intelligence approaches have been widely adapted in related works such as neural networks, genetic programming, and Hidden Markov model as well as support vector machine. However, the performance of the prediction was not generalized which probably depends on the data used to train and generate the prediction model. This situation shown the importance of the features or information used in affecting the prediction performance. In this research, support vector machine was used to predict protein residue contact map on different combination of features in order to show and analyze the effectiveness of the features.

Keywords: contact map, protein residue contact, support vector machine, protein structure prediction

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3859 Verification Process of Cylindrical Contact Force Models for Internal Contact Modeling

Authors: Cândida M. Pereira, Amílcar L. Ramalho, Jorge A. Ambrósio

Abstract:

In the numerical solution of the forward dynamics of a multibody system, the positions and velocities of the bodies in the system are obtained first. With the information of the system state variables at each time step, the internal and external forces acting on the system are obtained by appropriate contact force models if the continuous contact method is used instead of a discrete contact method. The local deformation of the bodies in contact, represented by penetration, is used to compute the contact force. The ability and suitability with current cylindrical contact force models to describe the contact between bodies with cylindrical geometries with particular focus on internal contacting geometries involving low clearances and high loads simultaneously is discussed in this paper. A comparative assessment of the performance of each model under analysis for different contact conditions, in particular for very different penetration and clearance values, is presented. It is demonstrated that some models represent a rough approximation to describe the conformal contact between cylindrical geometries because contact forces are underestimated.

Keywords: Clearance joints, Contact mechanics, Contact dynamics, Internal cylindrical contact, Multibody dynamics.

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3858 Analysis of Contact Width and Contact Stress of Three-Layer Corrugated Metal Gasket

Authors: I. Made Gatot Karohika, Shigeyuki Haruyama, Ken Kaminishi, Oke Oktavianty, Didik Nurhadiyanto

Abstract:

Contact width and contact stress are important parameters related to the leakage behavior of corrugated metal gasket. In this study, contact width and contact stress of three-layer corrugated metal gasket are investigated due to the modulus of elasticity and thickness of surface layer for 2 type gasket (0-MPa and 400-MPa mode). A finite element method was employed to develop simulation solution to analysis the effect of each parameter. The result indicated that lowering the modulus of elasticity ratio of surface layer will result in better contact width but the average contact stresses are smaller. When the modulus of elasticity ratio is held constant with thickness ratio increase, its contact width has an increscent trend otherwise the average contact stress has decreased trend.

Keywords: Contact width, contact stress, layer, metal gasket, corrugated, simulation.

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3857 Contact Stress Analysis of Spur Gear Teeth Pair

Authors: Ali Raad Hassan

Abstract:

Contact stress analysis between two spur gear teeth was considered in different contact positions, representing a pair of mating gears during rotation. A programme has been developed to plot a pair of teeth in contact. This programme was run for each 3° of pinion rotation from the first location of contact to the last location of contact to produce 10 cases. Each case was represented a sequence position of contact between these two teeth. The programme gives graphic results for the profiles of these teeth in each position and location of contact during rotation. Finite element models were made for these cases and stress analysis was done. The results were presented and finite element analysis results were compared with theoretical calculations, wherever available.

Keywords: Contact stress, Spur gear, Contact ratio, Finite elements

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3856 Low resistivity Hf/Al/Ni/Au Ohmic Contact Scheme to n-Type GaN

Authors: Y. Liu, M. K. Bera, L. M. Kyaw, G. Q. Lo, E. F. Chor

Abstract:

The electrical and structural properties of Hf/Al/Ni/Au (20/100/25/50 nm) ohmic contact to n-GaN are reported in this study. Specific contact resistivities of Hf/Al/Ni/Au based contacts have been investigated as a function of annealing temperature and achieve the lowest value of 1.09´10-6 Ω·cm2 after annealing at 650 oC in vacuum. A detailed mechanism of ohmic contact formation is discussed. By using different chemical analyses, it is anticipated that the formation of Hf-Al-N alloy might be responsible to form low temperature ohmic contacts for the Hf-based scheme to n-GaN.

Keywords: Gallium nitride, ohmic contact, Hafnium

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3855 Using Ferry Access Points to Improve the Performance of Message Ferrying in Delay-Tolerant Networks

Authors: Farzana Yasmeen, Md. Nurul Huda, Md. Enamul Haque, Michihiro Aoki, Shigeki Yamada

Abstract:

Delay-Tolerant Networks (DTNs) are sparse, wireless networks where disconnections are common due to host mobility and low node density. The Message Ferrying (MF) scheme is a mobilityassisted paradigm to improve connectivity in DTN-like networks. A ferry or message ferry is a special node in the network which has a per-determined route in the deployed area and relays messages between mobile hosts (MHs) which are intermittently connected. Increased contact opportunities among mobile hosts and the ferry improve the performance of the network, both in terms of message delivery ratio and average end-end delay. However, due to the inherent mobility of mobile hosts and pre-determined periodicity of the message ferry, mobile hosts may often -miss- contact opportunities with a ferry. In this paper, we propose the combination of stationary ferry access points (FAPs) with MF routing to increase contact opportunities between mobile hosts and the MF and consequently improve the performance of the DTN. We also propose several placement models for deploying FAPs on MF routes. We evaluate the performance of the FAP placement models through comprehensive simulation. Our findings show that FAPs do improve the performance of MF-assisted DTNs and symmetric placement of FAPs outperforms other placement strategies.

Keywords: Service infrastructure, delay-tolerant network, messageferry routing, placement models.

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3854 A Self-Consistent Scheme for Elastic-Plastic Asperity Contact

Authors: Xu Jianguo

Abstract:

In this paper, a generalized self-consistent scheme, or “three phase model", is used to set up a micro-mechanics model for rough surface contact with randomly distributed asperities. The dimensionless average real pressure p is obtained as function of the ratio of the real contact area to the apparent contact area, 0 A / A r . Both elastic and plastic materials are considered, and the influence of the plasticity of material on p is discussed. Both two-dimensional and three-dimensional rough surface contact problems are considered.

Keywords: Contact mechanics, plastic deformation, self-consistent scheme.

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3853 Evaluation of a Bio-Mechanism by Graphed Static Equilibrium Forces

Authors: A.Y. Bani Hashim, N.A. Abu Osman, W.A.B. Wan Abas, L. Abdul Latif

Abstract:

The unique structural configuration found in human foot allows easy walking. Similar movement is hard to imitate even for an ape. It is obvious that human ambulation relates to the foot structure itself. Suppose the bones are represented as vertices and the joints as edges. This leads to the development of a special graph that represents human foot. On a footprint there are point-ofcontacts which have contact with the ground. It involves specific vertices. Theoretically, for an ideal ambulation, these points provide reactions onto the ground or the static equilibrium forces. They are arranged in sequence in form of a path. The ambulating footprint follows this path. Having the human foot graph and the path crossbred, it results in a representation that describes the profile of an ideal ambulation. This profile cites the locations where the point-of-contact experience normal reaction forces. It highlights the significant of these points.

Keywords: Ambulation, edge, foot, graph, vertex.

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3852 Ruthenium Based Nanoscale Contact Coatings for Magnetically Controlled MEMS Switches

Authors: Sergey M. Karabanov, Dmitry V. Suvorov

Abstract:

Magnetically controlled microelectromechanical system (MCMEMS) switches is one of the directions in the field of micropower switching technology. MCMEMS switches are a promising alternative to Hall sensors and reed switches. The most important parameter for MCMEMS is the contact resistance, which should have a minimum value and is to be stable for the entire duration of service life. The value and stability of the contact resistance is mainly determined by the contact coating material. This paper presents the research results of a contact coating based on nanoscale ruthenium films obtained by electrolytic deposition. As a result of the performed investigations, the deposition modes of ruthenium films are chosen, the regularities of the contact resistance change depending on the number of contact switching, and the coating roughness are established. It is shown that changing the coating roughness makes it possible to minimize the contact resistance.

Keywords: Contact resistance, electrode coating, electrolythic deposition, magnetically controlled MEMS.

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3851 Development of 25A-Size Three-Layer Metal Gasket by Using FEM Simulation

Authors: Shigeyuki Haruyama, I Made Gatot Karohika, Akinori Sato, Didik Nurhadiyanto, Ken Kaminishi

Abstract:

Contact width and contact stress are important design parameters for optimizing corrugated metal gasket performance based on elastic and plastic contact stress. In this study, we used a three-layer metal gasket with Al, Cu, Ni as the outer layer, respectively. A finite element method was employed to develop simulation solution. The gasket model was simulated by using two simulation stages which are forming and tightening simulation. The simulation result shows that aluminum with tangent modulus, Ehal = Eal/150 has the highest slope for contact width. The slope of contact width for plastic mode gasket was higher than the elastic mode gasket.

Keywords: Contact width, contact stress, layer, metal gasket, corrugated, simulation.

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3850 Thermal Analysis of a Sliding Electric Contact System Using Finite Element Method

Authors: Adrian T. Pleșca

Abstract:

In this paper a three dimensional thermal model of a sliding contact system is proposed for both steady-state or transient conditions. The influence of contact force, electric current and ambient temperature on the temperature distribution, has been investigated. A thermal analysis of the different type of the graphite material of fixed electric contact and its influence on contact system temperature rise, has been performed. To validate the three dimensional thermal model, some experimental tests have been done. There is a good correlation between experimental and simulation results.

Keywords: Sliding electric contact, temperature distribution, thermal analysis.

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3849 Next Generation Networks and Their Relation with Ad-hoc Networks

Authors: Hamid Barati, Ali Movaghar, Ali Barati, Arash Azizi Mazreah , Ehsan Shahsavari Gogheri, Faranak Mohsenzadeh

Abstract:

The communication networks development and advancement during two last decades has been toward a single goal and that is gradual change from circuit-switched networks to packed switched ones. Today a lot of networks operates are trying to transform the public telephone networks to multipurpose packed switch. This new achievement is generally called "next generation networks". In fact, the next generation networks enable the operators to transfer every kind of services (sound, data and video) on a network. First, in this report the definition, characteristics and next generation networks services and then ad-hoc networks role in the next generation networks are studied.

Keywords: NGNs services, Ad-hoc Networks, NGN.

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3848 Optimization of New 25A-size Metal Gasket Design Based on Contact Width Considering Forming and Contact Stress Effect

Authors: Didik Nurhadiyanto , Moch Agus Choiron , Ken Kaminishi , Shigeyuki Haruyama

Abstract:

At the previous study of new metal gasket, contact width and contact stress were important design parameter for optimizing metal gasket performance. However, the range of contact stress had not been investigated thoroughly. In this study, we conducted a gasket design optimization based on an elastic and plastic contact stress analysis considering forming effect using FEM. The gasket model was simulated by using two simulation stages which is forming and tightening simulation. The optimum design based on an elastic and plastic contact stress was founded. Final evaluation was determined by helium leak quantity to check leakage performance of both type of gaskets. The helium leak test shows that a gasket based on the plastic contact stress design better than based on elastic stress design.

Keywords: Contact stress, metal gasket, plastic, elastic

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3847 Extraction of Graphene-Titanium Contact Resistances using Transfer Length Measurement and a Curve-Fit Method

Authors: Johanna Anteroinen, Wonjae Kim, Kari Stadius, Juha Riikonen, Harri Lipsanen, Jussi Ryynanen

Abstract:

Graphene-metal contact resistance limits the performance of graphene-based electrical devices. In this work, we have fabricated both graphene field-effect transistors (GFET) and transfer length measurement (TLM) test devices with titanium contacts. The purpose of this work is to compare the contact resistances that can be numerically extracted from the GFETs and measured from the TLM structures. We also provide a brief review of the work done in the field to solve the contact resistance problem.

Keywords: Contact resistance, graphene, TLM

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3846 A Performance Evaluation of Cellular Network Suitability for VANET

Authors: Ho-Yeon Kim, Dong-Min Kang, Jun-Ho Lee, Tai-Myoung Chung

Abstract:

Recently, a vehicular ad-hoc networks(VANETs) for Intelligent Transport System(ITS) have become able safety and convenience services surpassing the simple services such as an electronic toll collection system. To provide the proper services, VANET needs infrastructure over the country infrastructure. Thus, we have to spend a huge sum of human resources. In this reason, several studies have been made on the usage of cellular networks instead of new protocols this study is to assess a performance evaluation of the cellular network for VANET. In this paper, the result of a for the suitability of cellular networks for VANET experiment, The LTE(Long Term Evolution) of cellular networks found to be most suitable among the others cellular networks

Keywords: Vehicle communication, VANET, Cellular network

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3845 Simulation and Experimentation on the Contact Width of New Metal Gasket for Asbestos Substitution

Authors: Moch. Agus Choiron, Yoshihiro Kurata, Shigeyuki Haruyama, Ken Kaminishi

Abstract:

The contact width is important design parameter for optimizing the design of new metal gasket for asbestos substitution gasket. The contact width is found have relationship with the helium leak quantity. In the increasing of axial load value, the helium leak quantity is decreasing and the contact width is increasing. This study provides validity method using simulation analysis and the result is compared to experimental using pressure sensitive paper. The results denote similar trend data between simulation and experimental result. Final evaluation is determined by helium leak quantity to check leakage performance of gasket design. Considering the phenomena of position change on the convex contact, it can be developed the optimization of gasket design by increasing contact width.

Keywords: contact width, simulation, pressure sensitive paper.

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3844 A Study on Removal Characteristics of (Mn2+) from Aqueous Solution by CNT

Authors: Nassereldeen A. Kabashi, Suleyman A. Muyibi. Mohammed E. Saeed., Farhana I. Yahya

Abstract:

It is important to remove manganese from water because of its effects on human and the environment. Human activities are one of the biggest contributors for excessive manganese concentration in the environment. The proposed method to remove manganese in aqueous solution by using adsorption as in carbon nanotubes (CNT) at different parameters: The parameters are CNT dosage, pH, agitation speed and contact time. Different pHs are pH 6.0, pH 6.5, pH 7.0, pH 7.5 and pH 8.0, CNT dosages are 5mg, 6.25mg, 7.5mg, 8.75mg or 10mg, contact time are 10 min, 32.5 min, 55 min, 87.5 min and 120 min while the agitation speeds are 100rpm, 150rpm, 200rpm, 250rpm and 300rpm. The parameters chosen for experiments are based on experimental design done by using Central Composite Design, Design Expert 6.0 with 4 parameters, 5 levels and 2 replications. Based on the results, condition set at pH 7.0, agitation speed of 300 rpm, 7.5mg and contact time 55 minutes gives the highest removal with 75.5%. From ANOVA analysis in Design Expert 6.0, the residual concentration will be very much affected by pH and CNT dosage. Initial manganese concentration is 1.2mg/L while the lowest residual concentration achieved is 0.294mg/L, which almost satisfy DOE Malaysia Standard B requirement. Therefore, further experiments must be done to remove manganese from model water to the required standard (0.2 mg/L) with the initial concentration set to 0.294 mg/L.

Keywords: Adsorption, CNT, DOE, Manganese, Parameters.

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3843 Annealing of the Contact between Graphene and Metal: Electrical and Raman Study

Authors: A. Sakavičius, A. Lukša, V. Nargelienė, V. Bukauskas, G. Astromskas, A. Šetkus

Abstract:

We investigate the influence of annealing on the properties of a contact between graphene and metal (Au and Ni), using circular transmission line model (CTLM) contact geometry. Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) and Raman spectroscopy are applied for characterization of the surface and interface properties. Annealing causes a decrease of the metal-graphene contact resistance for both Ni and Au.

Keywords: Graphene, Kelvin force probe microscopy, Raman spectroscopy.

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3842 Frictionless Contact Problem Between Two Orthotropic Elastic Layers

Authors: V. Kahya, A. Birinci, R. Erdol

Abstract:

A frictionless contact problem for a two-layer orthotropic elastic medium loaded through a rigid flat stamp is considered. It is assumed that tensile tractions are not allowed and only compressive tractions can be transmitted across the interface. In the solution, effect of gravity is taken into consideration. If the external load on the rigid stamp is less than or equal to a critical value, continuous contact between the layers is maintained. The problem is expressed in terms of a singular integral equation by using the theory of elasticity and the Fourier transforms. Numerical results for initial separation point, critical separation load and contact stress distribution are presented.

Keywords: Frictionless contact, Initial separation, Orthotropicmaterial, Singular integral equation.

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3841 Securing Message in Wireless Sensor Network by using New Method of Code Conversions

Authors: Ahmed Chalak Shakir, GuXuemai, Jia Min

Abstract:

Recently, wireless sensor networks have been paid more interest, are widely used in a lot of commercial and military applications, and may be deployed in critical scenarios (e.g. when a malfunctioning network results in danger to human life or great financial loss). Such networks must be protected against human intrusion by using the secret keys to encrypt the exchange messages between communicating nodes. Both the symmetric and asymmetric methods have their own drawbacks for use in key management. Thus, we avoid the weakness of these two cryptosystems and make use of their advantages to establish a secure environment by developing the new method for encryption depending on the idea of code conversion. The code conversion-s equations are used as the key for designing the proposed system based on the basics of logic gate-s principals. Using our security architecture, we show how to reduce significant attacks on wireless sensor networks.

Keywords: logic gates, code conversions, Gray-code, and clustering.

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3840 Developing Models for Predicting Physiologically Impaired Arm Reaching Paths

Authors: Nina Robson, Kenneth John Faller II, Vishalkumar Ahir, Mustafa Mhawesh, Reza Langari

Abstract:

This paper describes the development of a model of an impaired human arm performing a reaching motion, which will be used to predict hand path trajectories for people with reduced arm joint mobility. Assuming that the arm was in contact with a surface during the entire movement, the contact conditions at the initial and final task locations were determined and used to generate the entire trajectory. The model was validated by comparing it to experimental data, which simulated an arm joint impairment by physically constraining the joint motion with a brace. Future research will include using the model in the development of physical training protocols that avoid early recruitment of “healthy” Degrees-Of-Freedom (DOF) for reaching motions, thus facilitating an Active Range-Of-Motion Recovery (AROM) for a particular impaired joint.

Keywords: Higher order kinematic specifications, human motor coordination, impaired movement, kinematic synthesis.

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3839 Increasing the Forecasting Fidelity of Current Collection System Operating Capability by Means of Contact Pressure Simulation Modelling

Authors: Anton Golubkov, Gleb Ermachkov, Aleksandr Smerdin, Oleg Sidorov, Victor Philippov

Abstract:

Current collection quality is one of the limiting factors when increasing trains movement speed in the rail sector. With the movement speed growth, the impact forces on the current collector from the rolling stock and the aerodynamic influence increase, which leads to the spread in the contact pressure values, separation of the current collector head from the contact wire, contact arcing and excessive wear of the contact elements. The upcoming trend in resolving this issue is the use of the automatic control systems providing stabilization of the contact pressure value. The present paper considers the features of the contemporary automatic control systems of the current collector’s pressure; their major disadvantages have been stated. A scheme of current collector pressure automatic control has been proposed, distinguished by a proactive influence on undesirable effects. A mathematical model of contact strips wearing has been presented, obtained in accordance with the provisions of the central composition rotatable design program. The analysis of the obtained dependencies has been carried out. The procedures for determining the optimal current collector pressure on the contact wire and the pressure control principle in the pneumatic drive have been described.

Keywords: High-speed running, current collector, contact strip, mathematical model, contact pressure, program control, wear, life cycle.

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3838 An Integrative Bayesian Approach to Supporting the Prediction of Protein-Protein Interactions: A Case Study in Human Heart Failure

Authors: Fiona Browne, Huiru Zheng, Haiying Wang, Francisco Azuaje

Abstract:

Recent years have seen a growing trend towards the integration of multiple information sources to support large-scale prediction of protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks in model organisms. Despite advances in computational approaches, the combination of multiple “omic" datasets representing the same type of data, e.g. different gene expression datasets, has not been rigorously studied. Furthermore, there is a need to further investigate the inference capability of powerful approaches, such as fullyconnected Bayesian networks, in the context of the prediction of PPI networks. This paper addresses these limitations by proposing a Bayesian approach to integrate multiple datasets, some of which encode the same type of “omic" data to support the identification of PPI networks. The case study reported involved the combination of three gene expression datasets relevant to human heart failure (HF). In comparison with two traditional methods, Naive Bayesian and maximum likelihood ratio approaches, the proposed technique can accurately identify known PPI and can be applied to infer potentially novel interactions.

Keywords: Bayesian network, Classification, Data integration, Protein interaction networks.

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3837 Effect of Band Contact on the Temperature Distribution for Dry Friction Clutch

Authors: Oday I. Abdullah, J. Schlattmann

Abstract:

In this study, the two dimensional heat conduction problem for the dry friction clutch disc is modeled mathematically analysis and is solved numerically using finite element method, to determine the temperature field when band contacts occurs between the rubbing surfaces during the operation of an automotive clutch. Temperature calculation have been made for contact area of different band width and the results obtained compared with these attained when complete contact occurs. Furthermore, the effects of slipping time and sliding velocity function are investigated as well. Both single and repeated engagements made at regular interval are considered.

Keywords: Band contact, dry friction clutch, frictional heating, temperature field, 2D FEM.

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3836 Characterization of Chemically Modified Biomass as a Coating Material for Controlled Released Urea by Contact Angle Measurement

Authors: Nur Zahirah Zulhaimi, KuZilati KuShaari, Zakaria Man

Abstract:

Controlled release urea has become popular in agricultural industry as it helps to solve environmental issues and increase crop yield. Recently biomass was identified to replace the polymer used as a coating material in the conventional coated urea. In this paper spreading and contact angle of biomass droplet (lignin, cellulose and clay) on urea surface are investigated experimentally. There were two tests were conducted, sessile drop for contact angle measurement and pendant drop for contact angle measurement. A different concentration of biomass droplet was released from 30 mm above a substrate. Glass was used as a controlled substrate. Images were recorded as soon as the droplet impacted onto the urea before completely adsorb into the urea. Digitized droplets were then used to identify the droplet-s surface tension and contact angle. There is large difference observed between the low surface tension and high surface tension liquids, where the wetting and spreading diameter is higher for lower surface tension. From the contact angle results, the data showed that the biomass coating films were possible as wetting liquid (θ < 90º). Contact angle of biomass coating material gives good indication for the wettablity of a liquid on urea surface.

Keywords: Fluid, Dynamics, Droplet, Spreading, Contact Angle, Surface Tension.

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3835 The Automated Selective Acquisition System

Authors: Atisthan Wuttimanop, Suchada Rianmora

Abstract:

To support design process for launching the product on time, reverse engineering (RE) process has been introduced for quickly generating 3D CAD model from its physical object. The accuracy of the 3D CAD model depends upon the data acquisition technique selected, contact or non-contact methods. In order to reduce times used for acquiring surface and eliminating noises, the automated selective acquisition system has been developed and presented in this research as the alternative channel for non-contact acquisition technique where the data is selectively and locally scanned contour by contour without performing data reduction process. The results present as the organized contour points which are directly used to generate 3D virtual model. The comparison between the proposed technique and another non-contact scanning technique has been presented and discussed.

Keywords: Automated selective acquisition system, Non-contact acquisition, Reverse engineering, 3D scanners.

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3834 Elastic-Plastic Contact Analysis of Single Layer Solid Rough Surface Model using FEM

Authors: A. Megalingam, M.M.Mayuram

Abstract:

Evaluation of contact pressure, surface and subsurface contact stresses are essential to know the functional response of surface coatings and the contact behavior mainly depends on surface roughness, material property, thickness of layer and the manner of loading. Contact parameter evaluation of real rough surface contacts mostly relies on statistical single asperity contact approaches. In this work, a three dimensional layered solid rough surface in contact with a rigid flat is modeled and analyzed using finite element method. The rough surface of layered solid is generated by FFT approach. The generated rough surface is exported to a finite element method based ANSYS package through which the bottom up solid modeling is employed to create a deformable solid model with a layered solid rough surface on top. The discretization and contact analysis are carried by using the same ANSYS package. The elastic, elastoplastic and plastic deformations are continuous in the present finite element method unlike many other contact models. The Young-s modulus to yield strength ratio of layer is varied in the present work to observe the contact parameters effect while keeping the surface roughness and substrate material properties as constant. The contacting asperities attain elastic, elastoplastic and plastic states with their continuity and asperity interaction phenomena is inherently included. The resultant contact parameters show that neighboring asperity interaction and the Young-s modulus to yield strength ratio of layer influence the bulk deformation consequently affect the interface strength.

Keywords: Asperity interaction, finite element method, rough surface contact, single layered solid

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3833 Understanding Health Behavior Using Social Network Analysis

Authors: Namrata Mishra

Abstract:

Health of a person plays a vital role in the collective health of his community and hence the well-being of the society as a whole. But, in today’s fast paced technology driven world, health issues are increasingly being associated with human behaviors – their lifestyle. Social networks have tremendous impact on the health behavior of individuals. Many researchers have used social network analysis to understand human behavior that implicates their social and economic environments. It would be interesting to use a similar analysis to understand human behaviors that have health implications. This paper focuses on concepts of those behavioural analyses that have health implications using social networks analysis and provides possible algorithmic approaches. The results of these approaches can be used by the governing authorities for rolling out health plans, benefits and take preventive measures, while the pharmaceutical companies can target specific markets, helping health insurance companies to better model their insurance plans.

Keywords: Health behaviors, social network analysis, directed graph, breadth first search.

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3832 Guidelines for Selecting the Appropriate Heel Insert for Long-Standing Ladies

Authors: Atisthan Wuttimanop, Suchada Rianmora, Mahint Mahattanakorn

Abstract:

Feet and ankles are parts of human body that receive high-pressure in every day. Feet disorders such as ankle sprain, achilles tendonitis, heel pain, and plantar fasciitis are very common. There are many causes for these feet disorders such as wearing high heels, obesity, sports activity, and standing for a long time. There are many reliefs for feet disorders such as heel insert. However, they come in various shapes and use different materials. There are no specifications in which type is suitable for specific user. This has led to the proposed research to provide guidelines for selecting the appropriate heel insert for ladies who face with long-standing carriers. This research uses contact-measuring techniques to test forces, contact area, and pressure acting on a person’s feet in various standing positions with different insert materials and shapes. The proper material for making insert will be presented and discussed.

Keywords: Heel inserts, Long-standing person, Contact-data acquisition, Finite element analysis, Ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA).

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