Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 30172
Broadcasting Mechanism with Less Flooding Packets by Optimally Constructing Forwarding and Non-Forwarding Nodes in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

Authors: R. Reka, R. S. D. Wahidabanu

Abstract:

The conventional routing protocol designed for MANET fail to handle dynamic movement and self-starting behavior of the node effectively. Every node in MANET is considered as forward as well receiver node and all of them participate in routing the packet from source to the destination. While the interconnection topology is highly dynamic, the performance of the most of the routing protocol is not encouraging. In this paper, a reliable broadcast approach for MANET is proposed for improving the transmission rate. The MANET is considered with asymmetric characteristics and the properties of the source and destination nodes are different. The non-forwarding node list is generated with a downstream node and they do not participate in the routing. While the forwarding and non-forwarding node is constructed in a conventional way, the number of nodes in non-forwarding list is more and increases the load. In this work, we construct the forwarding and non-forwarding node optimally so that the flooding and broadcasting is reduced to certain extent. The forwarded packet is considered as acknowledgements and the non-forwarding nodes explicitly send the acknowledgements to the source. The performance of the proposed approach is evaluated in NS2 environment. Since the proposed approach reduces the flooding, we have considered functionality of the proposed approach with AODV variants. The effect of network density on the overhead and collision rate is considered for performance evaluation. The performance is compared with the AODV variants found that the proposed approach outperforms all the variants.

Keywords: Flooding, Forwarded Nodes, MANET, Non-forwarding nodes, Routing protocols.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1091350

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1711

References:


[1] Corson S, Macker J, "Mobile Ad Hoc Networking (MANET): Routing Protocol Performance Issues and Evaluation Considerations”, RFC 2501, January 1999.
[2] Li Vok, Lu Zhenxin, "Ad Hoc Network Routing 2004. In: IEEE International Conference on Networking, Sensing and Control”, Vol. 1, p. 100–5, March 2004.
[3] Ramanathan R, Redi J, A Brief Overview of Ad Hoc Networks: Challenges and Directions. Commun, Mag pp.20–22, IEEE 2002.
[4] Royer E, Toh C-K, "A Review of Current Routing Protocols for Ad Hoc Mobile Wireless Networks. IEEE Pers Commun”, Vol, 6(4):pp.46–55, 1999.
[5] Boukerche A, Das SK, Fabbri A. "Analysis of a Randomized Congestion Control Scheme with DSDV Routing in Ad Hoc Wireless Networks”, J Parallel Distribut Comput 61(7):967–95, 2001.
[6] Choi W, Das SK, and "Performance of Randomized Destination-Sequence Distance Vector (R-DSDV) Protocol for Congestion Control in Ad Hoc Wireless Networks, In: Proceedings of Applied Telecommunications Symposium – Wireless Track (ATS) 2002.
[7] Perkins CE, Bhagwat P. "Highly Dynamic Destination-Sequenced Distance-Vector Routing (DSDV) for Mobile Computers”, In Proceedings of the ACM SIGCOMM; p. 234–44, 1994.
[8] Wata A, Chiang CC, Pei G, Gerla M, Chen TW, "Scalable Routing Strategies for Ad Hoc Wireless Networks”, IEEE J Selected Areas Commun17(8):1369–79,1999.
[9] Chen T-W, Gerla M, "Global State Routing: A New Routing Scheme for Ad-Hoc Wireless Networks”, IEEE IntConfCommun, ICC’98, 1:171–5, 1998.
[10] Pei G, Gerla M, Chen T-W, "Fisheye State Routing: A Routing Scheme for Ad Hoc Wireless Networks”, In: Proceedings of ICC’00, Vol 1, pp. 70–4, January 2000.
[11] Pei G, Gerla M, Chen T-W, "Fisheye State Routing in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks”, In Proceedings of Workshop on Wireless Networks and Mobile Computing, April 2000.
[12] Perkins CE, Belding-Royer EM, Das SR, "Ad Hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV) Routing” RFC 3561, July 2003.
[13] Johnson D, Hu Y, MaltzD, "The Dynamic Source Routing Protocol (DSR) for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks for IPv4”, RFC 4728, February 2007.
[14] Park V, Corson S, "Temporally-Ordered Routing Algorithm (TORA)”, IETF Internet Draft, ; April 2002.
[15] C. Imrich, M. Conti, and J. Liu, "Mobile Ad Hoc Networking: Imperatives and Challenges,” Ad Hoc Networks, Vol. 1, pp. 13–64, Jul. 2003.
[16] L. Yang, S. Conner, X. Guo, M. Hazra and J. Zhu, "Common Wireless Ad Hoc Network Usage Scenarios,” Internet Draft, Oct. 2003, available at http://www.flarion.com/ans-research/Drafts/draft-irtf-yang-ans-scenarios-00.txt.
[17] A. Laouiti, A. Qayyum, and L. Viennot, "Multipoint Relaying: an Efficient Technique for Flooding in Mobile Wireless Networks,” 35th Annual Hawaii Int’l. Conf. System Sciences HICSS’ 2001.
[18] C. Ho, K. Obraczka, G. Tsudik, and K. Viswanath, "Flooding for Reliable Multicast in Multi-Hop Ad Hoc Networks,” Proc. Int’l. Wksp. Discrete Algorithms an Methods for Mobile Computing and Commun. (DIALM), pp. 64-71, 1999.
[19] K. P. Birman, M. Hayden, O. Ozkasap, Z. Xiao, S. Ni, Y. Tseng, Y. Chen and J. Sheu, "The Broadcast Storm Problem in a Mobile Ad Hoc Network,” Proc. 5th Annual ACM/IEEE International Conf. Mobile Computing and Network, pp. 151–62, 1999.
[20] B. Williams and T. Camp, "Comparison of Broadcasting Techniques for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks,” Proc. MOBIHOC, pp. 194–205, 2002.
[21] J. Wu and F. Dai, "A Generic Distributed Broadcast Scheme in Ad Hoc Wireless Networks,” IEEE Trans. Computers, Vol. 53, pp. 1343–54, Oct. 2004.
[22] Chen X, Shen J, "Reducing Connected Dominating Set Size with Multipoint relays in Ad Hoc Wireless Networks”, In: Proceedings of 7th International Symposium on Parallel Architectures, Algorithms and Networks; pp. 539–43, May 2004.
[23] Clausen T, Hansen G, Christensen L, Behrmann G, "The Optimized link State Routing Protocol, Evaluation through Experiments and Simulation”, In IEEE Symposium on Wireless Personal Mobile Communications, September 2001
[24] Joe I, Batsell SG, "MPR-Based Hybrid Routing for Mobile Ad-Hoc Network”, In Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Local Computer Networks (LCN’02), pp.7–12, November 2002.
[25] Gui C, Mohapatra P, "SHORT: A Self-Healing and Optimizing Routing Technique for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks”, ACM M obiHoc’03, pp.279-90, Computer Science Department, UC davis, Technical Report, CSE-2002-23, January 2003.
[26] Yun-Sheng Yen a, Hung-Chieh Chang b, Ruay-Shiung Chang b, Han-Chieh Chao c,d, "Routing with Adaptive Path and Limited Flooding for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks”, Computers and Electrical Engineering 280–290, 2010.
[27] Yang Xia, Chai Kiat Yeo, "Mitigating the Impact of Node Mobility Using Mobile Backbone for Heterogeneous MANETs”, Computer Communications 35, 1217–1230, 2012.
[28] Vaskar Raychoudhury, Jiannong Cao, Weigang Wu, Yi Lai, Canfeng Chen, Jia n Ma, "K-Directory Community: Reliable Service Discovery in MANET”, Pervasive and Mobile Computing 7 ,140–158,2011.
[29] Sookyoung Lee ⇑, Mohamed Younis, "Optimized Relay Node Placement for Connecting Disjoint Wireless Sensor Networks”, Computer Networks 56, 2788–2804, 2012.
[30] Fernando Correia , Teresa Vazão, "Simple Ant Routing Algorithm Strategies for a (Multipurpose) MANET Model”, Ad Hoc Networks 810–823, 2008.
[31] Ahmed M. Abdalla, Imane A. Saroit, AmiraKotb, Ali H. Afsari, "Misbehavior Nodes Detection and Isolation for MANETs OLSR Protocol”, Procedia Computer Science 3, pp.115-121, 2011.
[32] Huda Al Amri, Mehran Abolhasan, Tadeusz Wysocki, "Scalability of MANET Routing Protocols for Heterogeneous and Homogenous Networks”, Computers and Electrical Engineering 36, pp- 752–765, 2010.
[33] M. Mohanapriya, Ilango Krishnamurthi, "Modified DSR Protocol for Detection and Removal of Selective Black Hole Attack in MANET”, Computers and Electrical Engineering, Elsevier science, 2013.
[34] Mahmoud Al-shugran, Osman Ghazali, Suhaidi Hassan, Kashif Nisar, A. Suki, M. Arif, "A Qualitative Comparison Evaluation of the Greedy Forwarding Strategies in Mobile Ad Hoc Network”, Journal of Network and Computer Applications 36 pp.887–89,2013.
[35] Byung-GulRyu, Jae-Ho Choi, SangKeun Lee, "Impact of Node Distance on Selfish Replica Allocation in a Mobile Ad-Hoc Network”, Ad Hoc Networks pp. 2187–2202, 2013.
[36] Oussama Souihli, Mounir Frikha, Mahmoud Ben Hamouda, "Load-Balancing in MANET Shortest-Path Routing Protocols”, Ad Hoc Networks pp. 431–442, 2009.
[37] M. Bani Yassein, M. Ould-Khaoua, and S. Papanastasiou, "On the Performance of Probabilistic Flooding in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks,” pp. 125–129, 2005.
[38] M. M. B. Yassein, M. O. Khaoua, L. M. Mackenzie, and S. Papanastasiou,” Performance Evaluation of Adjusted Probabilistic Broadcasting in MANETs. Dependable, Autonomic and Secure Computing,” 2nd IEEE International Symposium on, pp. 245 –249, October, 2006.
[39] Sze-Yao Ni, Yu-Chee Tseng, Yuh-Shyan Chen, and Jang-Ping Sheu, "The Broadcast Storm Problem in a Mobile Ad Hoc Network,” pp. 151–162, 1999.
[40] M. Bani Yassein, M.Bani Khalaf and Ahmed Al-Dubai, "A New Probabilistic Broadcasting Scheme for Mobile Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV) Routed Networks,” The Journal of Supercomputing, Vol. 53, pp 196 – 211, 2010.
[41] Aminu, M, Ould-Khaoua, M, Mackenzie, L.M. and Abdulai, J, ”Performance Evaluation of an Efficient Counter-Based Scheme for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks Based On Realistic Mobility Model,” In International Symposium on Performance Evaluation of Computer and Telecommunication Systems SPECTS. Edinburgh, Scotland, 16-18 June 2008.
[42] S. Ni, Y. Tseng, Y. Chen, and J. Sheu. "The Broadcast Storm Problem in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks,” In Proceeding of the ACM/IEEE International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking (MOBICOM), pp. 151-162, 1999.
[43] Yang, Wu Shuhui Yang and Jie Wu, "Efficient Broadcasting Using Network Coding and Directional Antennas in MANETs,” IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems, Vol. 21, No. 2, pp.148-161, February 2010.
[44] Kuiper, Nadjm-Tehrani, Erik Kuiper and Simin Nadjm-Tehrani, "Geographical Routing with Location Service in Intermittently Connected MANETs,” IEEE Transactions on Vehicular on Vehicular Technology, Vol.60, No.2, pp.592-604, February 2011.
[45] Lue and Chang, S. Leu R.-S. Chang, "Simple Algorithm for Solving Broadcast Storm in Mobile Ad Hoc Network,” IET Communication., Vol. 5, No.16, pp. 2356–2363, 2011.
[46] Chen, J. Chen, "AMNP: Ad Hoc Multichannel Negotiation Protocol with Broadcast Solutions for Multi-Hop Mobile Wireless Networks”, IET Communications, Vol. 4, No. 5, pp. 521–531, 2010.
[47] Andy An-Kai Jeng and Rong-Hong Jan, "Adaptive Topology Control for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks”, IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems, Vol. 22, No. 12, pp.1953-1960, December 2011.
[48] Mustsfa Bani Khalaf, Ahmed Y.Al-Dubai and William Buchanan, "A New Adaptive Broadcasting Approach for Mobile Ad hoc Networks,” Proc. of International conference on Wireless Advanced (WiAD), London, pp.1-6, 2010.
[49] Emmanuel Baccelli, Philippe Jacquet, "Flooding Techniques in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks”, Réseaux et systèmes, November 2003.