Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7

Search results for: Leak detection

7 Non-Revenue Water Management in Palestine

Authors: Samah Jawad Jabari

Abstract:

Water is the most important and valuable resource not only for human life but also for all living things on the planet. The water supply utilities should fulfill the water requirement quantitatively and qualitatively. Drinking water systems are exposed to both natural (hurricanes and flood) and manmade hazards (risks) that are common in Palestine. Non-Revenue Water (NRW) is a manmade risk which remains a major concern in Palestine, as the NRW levels are estimated to be at a high level. In this research, Hebron city water distribution network was taken as a case study to estimate and audit the NRW levels. The research also investigated the state of the existing water distribution system in the study area by investigating the water losses and obtained more information on NRW prevention and management practices. Data and information have been collected from the Palestinian Water Authority (PWA) and Hebron Municipality (HM) archive. In addition to that, a questionnaire has been designed and administered by the researcher in order to collect the necessary data for water auditing. The questionnaire also assessed the views of stakeholder in PWA and HM (staff) on the current status of the NRW in the Hebron water distribution system. The important result obtained by this research shows that NRW in Hebron city was high and in excess of 30%. The main factors that contribute to NRW were the inaccuracies in billing volumes, unauthorized consumption, and the method of estimating consumptions through faulty meters. Policy for NRW reduction is available in Palestine; however, it is clear that the number of qualified staff available to carry out the activities related to leak detection is low, and that there is a lack of appropriate technologies to reduce water losses and undertake sufficient system maintenance, which needs to be improved to enhance the performance of the network and decrease the level of NRW losses.

Keywords: Non-revenue water, water auditing, leak detection, water meters.

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6 Research and Design on a Portable Intravehicular Ultrasonic Leak Detector for Manned Spacecraft

Authors: Yan Rongxin, Sun Wei, Li Weidan

Abstract:

Based on the acoustics cascade sound theory, the mechanism of air leak sound producing, transmitting and signal detecting has been analyzed. A formula of the sound power, leak size and air pressure in the spacecraft has been built, and the relationship between leak sound pressure and receiving direction and distance has been studied. The center frequency in millimeter diameter leak is more than 20 kHz. The situation of air leaking from spacecraft to space has been simulated and an experiment of different leak size and testing distance and direction has been done. The sound pressure is in direct proportion to the cosine of the angle of leak to sensor. The portable ultrasonic leak detector has been developed, whose minimal leak rate is 10-1 Pa·m3/s, the testing radius is longer than 20 mm, the mass is less than 1.0 kg, and the electric power is less than 2.2 W.

Keywords: Leak detection, manned spacecraft, ultrasonic, sound transmitting.

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5 Non-Destructive Visual-Statistical Approach to Detect Leaks in Water Mains

Authors: Alaa Al Hawari, Mohammad Khader, Tarek Zayed, Osama Moselhi

Abstract:

In this paper, an effective non-destructive, noninvasive approach for leak detection was proposed. The process relies on analyzing thermal images collected by an IR viewer device that captures thermo-grams. In this study a statistical analysis of the collected thermal images of the ground surface along the expected leak location followed by a visual inspection of the thermo-grams was performed in order to locate the leak. In order to verify the applicability of the proposed approach the predicted leak location from the developed approach was compared with the real leak location. The results showed that the expected leak location was successfully identified with an accuracy of more than 95%.

Keywords: Thermography, Leakage, Water pipelines, Thermograms.

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4 On Leak Localization in the Main Branched and Simple Inclined Gas Pipelines

Authors: T. Davitashvili, G. Gubelidze

Abstract:

In this paper two mathematical models for definition of gas accidental escape localization in the gas pipelines are suggested. The first model was created for leak localization in the horizontal branched pipeline and second one for leak detection in inclined section of the main gas pipeline. The algorithm of leak localization in the branched pipeline did not demand on knowledge of corresponding initial hydraulic parameters at entrance and ending points of each sections of pipeline. For detection of the damaged section and then leak localization in this section special functions and equations have been constructed. Some results of calculations for compound pipelines having two, four and five sections are presented. Also a method and formula for the leak localization in the simple inclined section of the main gas pipeline are suggested. Some results of numerical calculations defining localization of gas escape for the inclined pipeline are presented.

Keywords: Branched and inclined gas pipelines, leak detection, mathematical modeling.

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3 Can Smart Meters Create Smart Behaviour?

Authors: Candice Moy, Damien Guirco, Thomas Boyle

Abstract:

Intelligent technologies are increasingly facilitating sustainable water management strategies in Australia. While this innovation can present clear cost benefits to utilities through immediate leak detection and deference of capital costs, the impact of this technology on households is less distinct. By offering real-time engagement and detailed end-use consumption breakdowns, there is significant potential for demand reduction as a behavioural response to increased information. Despite this potential, passive implementation without well-planned residential engagement strategies is likely to result in a lost opportunity. This paper begins this research process by exploring the effect of smart water meters through the lens of three behaviour change theories. The Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB), Belief Revision theory (BR) and Practice Theory emphasise different variables that can potentially influence and predict household water engagements. In acknowledging the strengths of each theory, the nuances and complexity of household water engagement can be recognised which can contribute to effective planning for residential smart meter engagement strategies.

Keywords: Behaviour, information, household, smart meters, water.

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2 High Temperature Hydrogen Sensors Based On Pd/Ta2O5/SiC MOS Capacitor

Authors: J. H. Choi, S. J. Kim, M. S. Jung, S. J. Kim, S. J. Joo, S. C. Kim

Abstract:

There are a many of needs for the development of SiC-based hydrogen sensor for harsh environment applications. We fabricated and investigated Pd/Ta2O5/SiC-based hydrogen sensors with MOS capacitor structure for high temperature process monitoring and leak detection applications in such automotive, chemical and petroleum industries as well as direct monitoring of combustion processes. In this work, we used silicon carbide (SiC) as a substrate to replace silicon which operating temperatures are limited to below 200°C. Tantalum oxide was investigated as dielectric layer which has high permeability for hydrogen gas and high dielectric permittivity, compared with silicon dioxide or silicon nitride. Then, electrical response properties, such as I-V curve and dependence of capacitance on hydrogen concentrations were analyzed in the temperature ranges of room temperature to 500°C for performance evaluation of the sensor.

Keywords: High temperature, hydrogen sensor, SiC, Ta2O5 dielectric layer.

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1 Memory Leak Detection in Distributed System

Authors: Roohi Shabrin S., Devi Prasad B., Prabu D., Pallavi R. S., Revathi P.

Abstract:

Due to memory leaks, often-valuable system memory gets wasted and denied for other processes thereby affecting the computational performance. If an application-s memory usage exceeds virtual memory size, it can leads to system crash. Current memory leak detection techniques for clusters are reactive and display the memory leak information after the execution of the process (they detect memory leak only after it occur). This paper presents a Dynamic Memory Monitoring Agent (DMMA) technique. DMMA framework is a dynamic memory leak detection, that detects the memory leak while application is in execution phase, when memory leak in any process in the cluster is identified by DMMA it gives information to the end users to enable them to take corrective actions and also DMMA submit the affected process to healthy node in the system. Thus provides reliable service to the user. DMMA maintains information about memory consumption of executing processes and based on this information and critical states, DMMA can improve reliability and efficaciousness of cluster computing.

Keywords: Dynamic Memory Monitoring Agent (DMMA), Cluster Computing, Memory Leak, Fault Tolerant Framework, Dynamic Memory Leak Detection (DMLD).

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