Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 39

Search results for: Imran Ihsan

39 Mobile Ad-Hoc Service Grid – MASGRID

Authors: Imran Ihsan, Muhammad Abdul Qadir, Nadeem Iftikhar

Abstract:

Mobile devices, which are progressively surrounded in our everyday life, have created a new paradigm where they interconnect, interact and collaborate with each other. This network can be used for flexible and secure coordinated sharing. On the other hand Grid computing provides dependable, consistent, pervasive, and inexpensive access to high-end computational capabilities. In this paper, efforts are made to map the concepts of Grid on Ad-Hoc networks because both exhibit similar kind of characteristics like Scalability, Dynamism and Heterogeneity. In this context we propose “Mobile Ad-Hoc Services Grid – MASGRID".

Keywords: Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks, Grid Computing, Resource Discovery, Routing

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38 Generic Multimedia Database Architecture

Authors: Mohib ur Rehman, Imran Ihsan, Mobin Uddin Ahmed, Nadeem Iftikhar, Muhammad Abdul Qadir

Abstract:

Multimedia, as it stands now is perhaps the most diverse and rich culture around the globe. One of the major needs of Multimedia is to have a single system that enables people to efficiently search through their multimedia catalogues. Many Domain Specific Systems and architectures have been proposed but up till now no generic and complete architecture is proposed. In this paper, we have suggested a generic architecture for Multimedia Database. The main strengths of our architecture besides being generic are Semantic Libraries to reduce semantic gap, levels of feature extraction for more specific and detailed feature extraction according to classes defined by prior level, and merging of two types of queries i.e. text and QBE (Query by Example) for more accurate yet detailed results.

Keywords: Multimedia Database Architecture, Semantics, Feature Extraction, Ontology.

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37 Moving From Problem Space to Solution Space

Authors: Bilal Saeed Raja, M. Ali Iqbal, Imran Ihsan

Abstract:

Extracting and elaborating software requirements and transforming them into viable software architecture are still an intricate task. This paper defines a solution architecture which is based on the blurred amalgamation of problem space and solution space. The dependencies between domain constraints, requirements and architecture and their importance are described that are to be considered collectively while evolving from problem space to solution space. This paper proposes a revised version of Twin Peaks Model named Win Peaks Model that reconciles software requirements and architecture in more consistent and adaptable manner. Further the conflict between stakeholders- win-requirements is resolved by proposed Voting methodology that is simple adaptation of win-win requirements negotiation model and QARCC.

Keywords: Functional Requirements, Non Functional Requirements, Twin Peaks Model, QARCC.

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36 Passive Solar Techniques to Improve Thermal Comfort and Reduce Energy Consumption of Domestic Use

Authors: Naci Kalkan, Ihsan Dagtekin

Abstract:

Passive design responds to improve indoor thermal comfort and minimize the energy consumption. The present research analyzed the how efficiently passive solar technologies generate heating and cooling and provide the system integration for domestic applications. In addition to this, the aim of this study is to increase the efficiency of solar systems system with integration some innovation and optimization. As a result, outputs of the project might start a new sector to provide environmentally friendly and cheap cooling for domestic use.

Keywords: Passive Solar Systems, Heating, Cooling, Thermal Comfort, Ventilation Systems.

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35 Non-destructive Watermelon Ripeness Determination Using Image Processing and Artificial Neural Network (ANN)

Authors: Shah Rizam M. S. B., Farah Yasmin A.R., Ahmad Ihsan M. Y., Shazana K.

Abstract:

Agriculture products are being more demanding in market today. To increase its productivity, automation to produce these products will be very helpful. The purpose of this work is to measure and determine the ripeness and quality of watermelon. The textures on watermelon skin will be captured using digital camera. These images will be filtered using image processing technique. All these information gathered will be trained using ANN to determine the watermelon ripeness accuracy. Initial results showed that the best model has produced percentage accuracy of 86.51%, when measured at 32 hidden units with a balanced percentage rate of training dataset.

Keywords: Artificial Neural Network (ANN), Digital ImageProcessing, YCbCr Colour Space, Watermelon Ripeness.

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34 CFD Analysis of Passive Cooling Building by Using Solar Chimney System

Authors: Naci Kalkan, Ihsan Dagtekin

Abstract:

This research presents the design and analysis of solar air-conditioning systems particularly solar chimney which is a passive strategy for natural ventilation, and demonstrates the structures of these systems’ using Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) and finally compares the results with several examples, which have been studied experimentally and carried out previously. In order to improve the performance of solar chimney system, highly efficient sub-system components are considered for the design. The general purpose of the research is to understand how efficiently solar chimney systems generate cooling, and is to improve the efficient of such systems for integration with existing and future domestic buildings.

Keywords: Solar cooling system, solar chimney, active and passive solar technologies, natural ventilation, cavity depth, CFD models for solar chimney.

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33 Wireless Sensor Networks:Delay Guarentee and Energy Efficient MAC Protocols

Authors: Marwan Ihsan Shukur, Lee Sheng Chyan, Vooi Voon Yap

Abstract:

Wireless sensor networks is an emerging technology that serves as environment monitors in many applications. Yet these miniatures suffer from constrained resources in terms of computation capabilities and energy resources. Limited energy resource in these nodes demands an efficient consumption of that resource either by developing the modules itself or by providing an efficient communication protocols. This paper presents a comprehensive summarization and a comparative study of the available MAC protocols proposed for Wireless Sensor Networks showing their capabilities and efficiency in terms of energy consumption and delay guarantee.

Keywords: MAC (Medium Access Control), SEA (Simple EnergyAware), WSNs (Wireless Sensor Nodes or Networks) RTS (RequestTo Send), CTS (Clear To Send), SYNCH (Synchronize), NS2(Network Simulator 2).

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32 Exact Solution of Some Helical Flows of Newtonian Fluids

Authors: Imran Siddique

Abstract:

This paper deals with the helical flow of a Newtonian fluid in an infinite circular cylinder, due to both longitudinal and rotational shear stress. The velocity field and the resulting shear stress are determined by means of the Laplace and finite Hankel transforms and satisfy all imposed initial and boundary conditions. For large times, these solutions reduce to the well-known steady-state solutions.

Keywords: Newtonian fluids, Velocity field, Exact solutions, Shear stress, Cylindrical domains.

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31 Optimal Path Planner for Autonomous Vehicles

Authors: M. Imran Akram, Ahmed Pasha, Nabeel Iqbal

Abstract:

In this paper a real-time trajectory generation algorithm for computing 2-D optimal paths for autonomous aerial vehicles has been discussed. A dynamic programming approach is adopted to compute k-best paths by minimizing a cost function. Collision detection is implemented to detect intersection of the paths with obstacles. Our contribution is a novel approach to the problem of trajectory generation that is computationally efficient and offers considerable gain over existing techniques.

Keywords: dynamic programming, graph search, path planning.

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30 Standardization of Ayurvedic Formulation (Marichyadi Vati) Using HPLC and HPTLC Methods

Authors: Pathan Imran Khan, Bhandari Anil, Kumar Amit

Abstract:

The present investigation was aimed to develop methodology for the standardization of Marichyadi Vati and its raw materials. Standardization was carried using systematic Pharmacognostical and physicochemical parameters as per WHO guidelines. The detailed standardization of Marichyadi Vati, it is concluded that there are no major differences prevailed in the quality of marketed products and laboratory samples of Marichyadi Vati. However, market samples showed slightly better amount of Piperine than the laboratory sample by both methods. This is the first attempt to generate complete set of standards required for the Marichyadi Vati.

Keywords: Marichyadi Vati, Standardization, Piperine.

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29 Effects of Axial Loads and Soil Density on Pile Group Subjected to Triangular Soil Movement

Authors: Ihsan Al-Abboodi, Tahsin Toma-Sabbagh

Abstract:

Laboratory tests have been carried out to investigate the response of 2x2 pile group subjected to triangular soil movement. The pile group was instrumented with displacement and tilting devices at the pile cap and strain gauges on two piles of the group. In this paper, results from four model tests were presented to study the effects of axial loads and soil density on the lateral behavior of piles. The responses in terms of bending moment, shear force, soil pressure, deflection, and rotation of piles were compared. Test results indicate that increasing the soil strength could increase the measured moment, shear, soil pressure, and pile deformations. Most importantly, adding loads to the pile cap induces additional moment to the head of front-pile row unlike the back-pile row which was influenced insignificantly.

Keywords: Pile group, passive piles, lateral soil movement, soil density, axial loads.

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28 Maximum Entropy Based Image Segmentation of Human Skin Lesion

Authors: Sheema Shuja Khattak, Gule Saman, Imran Khan, Abdus Salam

Abstract:

Image segmentation plays an important role in medical imaging applications. Therefore, accurate methods are needed for the successful segmentation of medical images for diagnosis and detection of various diseases. In this paper, we have used maximum entropy to achieve image segmentation. Maximum entropy has been calculated using Shannon, Renyi and Tsallis entropies. This work has novelty based on the detection of skin lesion caused by the bite of a parasite called Sand Fly causing the disease is called Cutaneous Leishmaniasis.

Keywords: Shannon, Maximum entropy, Renyi, Tsallis entropy.

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27 A New Similarity Measure on Intuitionistic Fuzzy Sets

Authors: Binyamin Yusoff, Imran Taib, Lazim Abdullah, Abd Fatah Wahab

Abstract:

Intuitionistic fuzzy sets as proposed by Atanassov, have gained much attention from past and latter researchers for applications in various fields. Similarity measures between intuitionistic fuzzy sets were developed afterwards. However, it does not cater the conflicting behavior of each element evaluated. We therefore made some modification to the similarity measure of IFS by considering conflicting concept to the model. In this paper, we concentrate on Zhang and Fu-s similarity measures for IFSs and some examples are given to validate these similarity measures. A simple modification to Zhang and Fu-s similarity measures of IFSs was proposed to find the best result according to the use of degree of indeterminacy. Finally, we mark up with the application to real decision making problems.

Keywords: Intuitionistic fuzzy sets, similarity measures, multicriteriadecision making.

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26 Image Authenticity and Perceptual Optimization via Genetic Algorithm and a Dependence Neighborhood

Authors: Imran Usman, Asifullah Khan, Rafiullah Chamlawi, Abdul Majid

Abstract:

Information hiding for authenticating and verifying the content integrity of the multimedia has been exploited extensively in the last decade. We propose the idea of using genetic algorithm and non-deterministic dependence by involving the un-watermarkable coefficients for digital image authentication. Genetic algorithm is used to intelligently select coefficients for watermarking in a DCT based image authentication scheme, which implicitly watermark all the un-watermarkable coefficients also, in order to thwart different attacks. Experimental results show that such intelligent selection results in improvement of imperceptibility of the watermarked image, and implicit watermarking of all the coefficients improves security against attacks such as cover-up, vector quantization and transplantation.

Keywords: Digital watermarking, fragile watermarking, geneticalgorithm, Image authentication.

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25 Capacity and Performance Analysis of Space-Time Block Coded MIMO-OFDM Systems over Rician Fading Channel

Authors: Imran Khan, Shujaat Ali Khan Tanoli, Nandana Rajatheva

Abstract:

This paper presents an analysis on the capacity and performance of MIMO-OFDM systems. The work is focused on the capacity of MIMO-OFDM systems over rician fading channel, in the case of the channel being known at the receiver only, which is more practical case of the channel. Simple expression for capacity is derived for the case of correlated rician fading. The performance of some MIMO-OFDM implementations with rician fading model is presented using an Alamouti coding scheme and Simulation results are obtained for both capacity and performance analysis.

Keywords: MIMO, OFDM, rician distribution, space time blockcodes (STBC).

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24 Conflicts Identification among Non-functional Requirements using Matrix Maps

Authors: Abdul H, Jamil A, Imran U

Abstract:

Conflicts identification among non-functional requirements is often identified intuitively which impairs conflict analysis practices. This paper proposes a new model to identify conflicts among non-functional requirements. The proposed model uses the matrix mechanism to identify the quality based conflicts among non-functional requirements. The potential conflicts are identified through the mapping of low level conflicting quality attributes to low level functionalities using the matrices. The proposed model achieves the identification of conflicts among product and process requirements, identifies false conflicts, decreases the documentation overhead, and maintains transparency of identified conflicts. The attributes are not concomitantly taken into account by current models in practice.

Keywords: Conflict Identification, Matrix Maps, Non-functional Requirements, Requirements Analysis, Software Engineering

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23 A New Condition for Conflicting Bifuzzy Sets Based On Intuitionistic Evaluation

Authors: Imran C.T., Syibrah M.N., Mohd Lazim A.

Abstract:

Fuzzy sets theory affirmed that the linguistic value for every contraries relation is complementary. It was stressed in the intuitionistic fuzzy sets (IFS) that the conditions for contraries relations, which are the fuzzy values, cannot be greater than one. However, complementary in two contradict phenomena are not always true. This paper proposes a new idea condition for conflicting bifuzzy sets by relaxing the condition of intuitionistic fuzzy sets. Here, we will critically forward examples using triangular fuzzy number in formulating a new condition for conflicting bifuzzy sets (CBFS). Evaluation of positive and negative in conflicting phenomena were calculated concurrently by relaxing the condition in IFS. The hypothetical illustration showed the applicability of the new condition in CBFS for solving non-complement contraries intuitionistic evaluation. This approach can be applied to any decision making where conflicting is very much exist.

Keywords: Conflicting bifuzzy set, conflicting degree, fuzzy sets, fuzzy numbers.

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22 Parametric Investigation of Diode and CO2 Laser in Direct Metal Deposition of H13 Tool Steel on Copper Substrate

Authors: M. Khalid Imran, Syed Masood, Milan Brandt, Sudip Bhattacharya, Jyotirmoy Mazumder

Abstract:

In the present investigation, H13 tool steel has been deposited on copper alloy substrate using both CO2 and diode laser. A detailed parametric analysis has been carried out in order to find out optimum processing zone for coating defect free H13 tool steel on copper alloy substrate. Followed by parametric optimization, the microstructure and microhardness of the deposited clads have been evaluated. SEM micrographs revealed dendritic microstructure in both clads. However, the microhardness of CO2 laser deposited clad was much higher compared to diode laser deposited clad.

Keywords: CO2 laser, Diode laser, Direct Metal Deposition, Microstructure, Microhardness, Porosity.

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21 SOA and BPM Partnership: A Paradigm for Dynamic and Flexible Process and I.T. Management

Authors: Imran Sarwar Bajwa, Rafaqut Kazmi, Shahzad Mumtaz, M. Abbas Choudhary, M. Shahid Naweed

Abstract:

Business Process Management (BPM) helps in optimizing the business processes inside an enterprise. But BPM architecture does not provide any help for extending the enterprise. Modern business environments and rapidly changing technologies are asking for brisk changes in the business processes. Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) can help in enabling the success of enterprise-wide BPM. SOA supports agility in software development that is directly related to achieve loose coupling of interacting software agents. Agility is a premium concern of the current software designing architectures. Together, BPM and SOA provide a perfect combination for enterprise computing. SOA provides the capabilities for services to be combined together and to support and create an agile, flexible enterprise. But there are still many questions to answer; BPM is better or SOA? and what is the future track of BPM and SOA? This paper tries to answer some of these important questions.

Keywords: Information Systems, BPM, SOA, Process management, IT management.

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20 A Robust Method for Encrypted Data Hiding Technique Based on Neighborhood Pixels Information

Authors: Ali Shariq Imran, M. Younus Javed, Naveed Sarfraz Khattak

Abstract:

This paper presents a novel method for data hiding based on neighborhood pixels information to calculate the number of bits that can be used for substitution and modified Least Significant Bits technique for data embedding. The modified solution is independent of the nature of the data to be hidden and gives correct results along with un-noticeable image degradation. The technique, to find the number of bits that can be used for data hiding, uses the green component of the image as it is less sensitive to human eye and thus it is totally impossible for human eye to predict whether the image is encrypted or not. The application further encrypts the data using a custom designed algorithm before embedding bits into image for further security. The overall process consists of three main modules namely embedding, encryption and extraction cm.

Keywords: Data hiding, image processing, information security, stagonography.

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19 Effect of Confinement on the Bearing Capacity and Settlement of Spread Foundations

Authors: Tahsin Toma Sabbagh, Ihsan Al-Abboodi, Ali Al-Jazaairry

Abstract:

Allowable-bearing capacity is the competency of soil to safely carries the pressure from the superstructure without experiencing a shear failure with accompanying excessive settlements. Ensuring a safe bearing pressure with respect to failure does not tolerate settlement of the foundation will be within acceptable limits. Therefore, settlement analysis should always be performed since most structures are settlement sensitive. When visualising the movement of a soil wedge in the bearing capacity criterion, both vertically and horizontally, it becomes clear that by confining the soil surrounding the foundation, both the bearing capacity and settlement values improve. In this study, two sizes of spread foundation were considered; (2×4) m and (3×5) m. These represent two real problem case studies of an existing building. The foundations were analysed in terms of dimension as well as position with respect to a confining wall (i.e., sheet piles on both sides). Assuming B is the least foundation dimension, the study comprised the analyses of three distances; (0.1 B), (0.5 B), and (0.75 B) between the sheet piles and foundations alongside three depths of confinement (0.5 B), (1 B), and (1.5 B). Nonlinear three-dimensional finite element analysis (ANSYS) was adopted to perform an analytical investigation on the behaviour of the two foundations contained by the case study. Results showed that confinement of foundations reduced the overall stresses near the foundation by 65% and reduced the vertical displacement by 90%. Moreover, the most effective distance between the confinement wall and the foundation was found to be 0.5 B.

Keywords: Bearing capacity, cohesionless soils, spread footings, soil confinement, soil modelling.

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18 Implementation of Cloud Customer Relationship Management in Banking Sector: Strategies, Benefits and Challenges

Authors: Ngoc Dang Khoa Nguyen, Imran Ali

Abstract:

The cloud customer relationship management (CRM) has emerged as an innovative tool to augment the customer satisfaction and performance of banking systems. Cloud CRM allows to collect, analyze and utilize customer-associated information and update the systems, thereby offer superior customer service. Cloud technologies have invaluable potential to ensure innovative customer experiences, successful collaboration, enhanced speed to marketplace and IT effectiveness. As such, many leading banks have been attracted towards adoption of such innovative and customer-driver solutions to revolutionize their existing business models. Chief Information Officers (CIOs) are already implemented or in the process of implementation of cloud CRM. However, many organizations are still reluctant to take such initiative due to the lack of information on the factors influencing its implementation. This paper, therefore, aims to delve into the strategies, benefits and challenges intertwined in the implementation of cloud CRM in banking sector and provide reliable solutions.

Keywords: Banking sector, cloud computing, cloud CRM, strategy.

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17 A Framework for Urdu Language Translation using LESSA

Authors: Imran Sarwar Bajwa

Abstract:

Internet is one of the major sources of information for the person belonging to almost all the fields of life. Major language that is used to publish information on internet is language. This thing becomes a problem in a country like Pakistan, where Urdu is the national language. Only 10% of Pakistan mass can understand English. The reason is millions of people are deprived of precious information available on internet. This paper presents a system for translation from English to Urdu. A module LESSA is used that uses a rule based algorithm to read the input text in English language, understand it and translate it into Urdu language. The designed approach was further incorporated to translate the complete website from English language o Urdu language. An option appears in the browser to translate the webpage in a new window. The designed system will help the millions of users of internet to get benefit of the internet and approach the latest information and knowledge posted daily on internet.

Keywords: Natural Language Translation, Text Understanding, Knowledge extraction, Text Processing

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16 SOA Embedded in BPM: A High Level View of Object Oriented Paradigm

Authors: Imran S.Bajwa

Abstract:

The trends of design and development of information systems have undergone a variety of ongoing phases and stages. These variations have been evolved due to brisk changes in user requirements and business needs. To meet these requirements and needs, a flexible and agile business solution was required to come up with the latest business trends and styles. Another obstacle in agility of information systems was typically different treatment of same diseases of two patients: business processes and information services. After the emergence of information technology, the business processes and information systems have become counterparts. But these two business halves have been treated under totally different standards. There is need to streamline the boundaries of these both pillars that are equally sharing information system's burdens and liabilities. In last decade, the object orientation has evolved into one of the major solutions for modern business needs and now, SOA is the solution to shift business on ranks of electronic platform. BPM is another modern business solution that assists to regularize optimization of business processes. This paper discusses how object orientation can be conformed to incorporate or embed SOA in BPM for improved information systems.

Keywords: Object Oriented Business Solutions, Services forBusiness Processes; Mixing SOA and BPM.

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15 Sound Absorption of Arenga Pinnata Natural Fiber

Authors: Lindawati Ismail, Mohd. Imran Ghazali, Shahruddin Mahzan, Ahmad Mujahid Ahmad Zaidi

Abstract:

Arenga pinnata is an abundantly natural fiber that can be used for sound proof material. However, the scientific data of acoustics properties of Arenga pinnata was not available yet. In this study the sound absorption of pure arenga pinnata was measured. The thickness of Arenga pinnata was varied in 10 mm, 20 mm, 30mm, and 40mm. This work was carried out to investigate the potential of using Arenga pinnata fiber as raw material for sound absorbing material. Impedance Tube Method was used to measure sound absorption coefficient (α). The Measurements was done in accordance with ASTM E1050-98, that is the standard test method for impedance and absorption of acoustical materials using a tube, two microphones and a digital frequency analysis system . The results showed that sound absorption coefficients of Arenga pinnata were good from 2000 Hz to 5000 Hz within the range of 0.75 – 0.90. The optimum sound absorption coefficient was obtained from the thickness of 40 mm. These results indicated that Arenga pinnata fiber is promising to be used as raw material of sound absorbing material with low cost, light, and biodegradable.

Keywords: Sound absorption, Arenga pinnata, raw material.

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14 Phase Transformation Temperatures for Shape Memory Alloy Wire

Authors: Tan Wee Choon, Abdul Saad Salleh, Saifulnizan Jamian, Mohd. Imran Ghazali

Abstract:

Phase transformation temperature is one of the most important parameters for the shape memory alloys (SMAs). The most popular method to determine these phase transformation temperatures is the Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC), but due to the limitation of the DSC testing itself, it made it difficult for the finished product which is not in the powder form. A novel method which uses the Universal Testing Machine has been conducted to determine the phase transformation temperatures. The Flexinol wire was applied with force and maintained throughout the experiment and at the same time it was heated up slowly until a temperature of approximately 1000C with direct current. The direct current was then slowly decreased to cool down the temperature of the Flexinol wire. All the phase transformation temperatures for Flexinol wire were obtained. The austenite start at 52.540C and austenite finish at 60.900C, while martensite start at 44.780C and martensite finish at 32.840C.

Keywords: Phase transformation temperature, Robotic, Shapememory alloy, Universal Testing Machine.

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13 An Expert System for Assessment of Learning Outcomes for ABET Accreditation

Authors: M. H. Imam, Imran A. Tasadduq, Abdul-Rahim Ahmad, Fahd M. Aldosari

Abstract:

Learning outcomes of a course (CLOs) and the abilities at the time of graduation referred to as Student Outcomes (SOs) are required to be assessed for ABET accreditation. A question in an assessment must target a CLO as well as an SO and must represent a required level of competence. This paper presents the idea of an Expert System (ES) to select a proper question to satisfy ABET accreditation requirements. For ES implementation, seven attributes of a question are considered including the learning outcomes and Bloom’s Taxonomy level. A database contains all the data about a course including course content topics, course learning outcomes and the CLO-SO relationship matrix. The knowledge base of the presented ES contains a pool of questions each with tags of the specified attributes. Questions and the attributes represent expert opinions. With implicit rule base the inference engine finds the best possible question satisfying the required attributes. It is shown that the novel idea of such an ES can be implemented and applied to a course with success. An application example is presented to demonstrate the working of the proposed ES.

Keywords: Expert system, student outcomes, course learning outcomes, question attributes.

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12 New Fuzzy Preference Relations and its Application in Group Decision Making

Authors: Nur Syibrah Muhamad Naim, Mohd Lazim Abdullah, Che Mohd Imran Che Taib, Abu OsmanMd. Tap

Abstract:

Decision making preferences to certain criteria usually focus on positive degrees without considering the negative degrees. However, in real life situation, evaluation becomes more comprehensive if negative degrees are considered concurrently. Preference is expected to be more effective when considering both positive and negative degrees of preference to evaluate the best selection. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to propose the conflicting bifuzzy preference relations in group decision making by utilization of a novel score function. The conflicting bifuzzy preference relation is obtained by introducing some modifications on intuitionistic fuzzy preference relations. Releasing the intuitionistic condition by taking into account positive and negative degrees simultaneously and utilizing the novel score function are the main modifications to establish the proposed preference model. The proposed model is tested with a numerical example and proved to be simple and practical. The four-step decision model shows the efficiency of obtaining preference in group decision making.

Keywords: Fuzzy preference relations, score function, conflicting bifuzzy, decision making.

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11 Assessing the Viability of Solar Water Pumps Economically, Socially and Environmentally in Soan Valley, Punjab

Authors: Zenab Naseem, Sadia Imran

Abstract:

One of the key solutions to the climate change crisis is to develop renewable energy resources, such as solar and wind power and biogas. This paper explores the socioeconomic and environmental viability of solar energy, based on a case study of the Soan Valley Development Program. Under this project, local farmers were provided solar water pumps at subsidized rates. These have been functional for the last seven years and have gained popularity among the local communities. The study measures the economic viability of using solar energy in agriculture, based on data from 36 households, of which 12 households each use diesel, electric and solar water pumps. Our findings are based on the net present value of each technology type. We also carry out a qualitative assessment of the social impact of solar water pumps relative to diesel and electric pumps. Finally, we conduct an environmental impact assessment, using the lifecycle assessment approach. All three analyses indicate that solar energy is a viable alternative to diesel and electricity.

Keywords: Alternative energy sources, pollution control adoption and costs, solar energy pumps, sustainable development.

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10 Local Spectrum Feature Extraction for Face Recognition

Authors: Muhammad Imran Ahmad, Ruzelita Ngadiran, Mohd Nazrin Md Isa, Nor Ashidi Mat Isa, Mohd Zaizu Ilyas, Raja Abdullah Raja Ahmad, Said Amirul Anwar Ab Hamid, Muzammil Jusoh

Abstract:

This paper presents two techniques, local feature extraction using image spectrum and low frequency spectrum modelling using GMM to capture the underlying statistical information to improve the performance of face recognition system. Local spectrum features are extracted using overlap sub block window that are mapped on the face image. For each of this block, spatial domain is transformed to frequency domain using DFT. A low frequency coefficient is preserved by discarding high frequency coefficients by applying rectangular mask on the spectrum of the facial image. Low frequency information is non- Gaussian in the feature space and by using combination of several Gaussian functions that has different statistical properties, the best feature representation can be modelled using probability density function. The recognition process is performed using maximum likelihood value computed using pre-calculated GMM components. The method is tested using FERET datasets and is able to achieved 92% recognition rates.

Keywords: Local features modelling, face recognition system, Gaussian mixture models.

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