Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 627

Search results for: Raja Abdullah Raja Ahmad

627 Local Spectrum Feature Extraction for Face Recognition

Authors: Muhammad Imran Ahmad, Ruzelita Ngadiran, Mohd Nazrin Md Isa, Nor Ashidi Mat Isa, Mohd Zaizu Ilyas, Raja Abdullah Raja Ahmad, Said Amirul Anwar Ab Hamid, Muzammil Jusoh

Abstract:

This paper presents two techniques, local feature extraction using image spectrum and low frequency spectrum modelling using GMM to capture the underlying statistical information to improve the performance of face recognition system. Local spectrum features are extracted using overlap sub block window that are mapped on the face image. For each of this block, spatial domain is transformed to frequency domain using DFT. A low frequency coefficient is preserved by discarding high frequency coefficients by applying rectangular mask on the spectrum of the facial image. Low frequency information is non- Gaussian in the feature space and by using combination of several Gaussian functions that has different statistical properties, the best feature representation can be modelled using probability density function. The recognition process is performed using maximum likelihood value computed using pre-calculated GMM components. The method is tested using FERET datasets and is able to achieved 92% recognition rates.

Keywords: Local features modelling, face recognition system, Gaussian mixture models.

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626 Impact of Machining Parameters on the Surface Roughness of Machined PU Block

Authors: Louis Denis Kevin Catherine, Raja Aziz Raja Ma’arof, Azrina Arshad, Sangeeth Suresh

Abstract:

Machining parameters are very important in determining the surface quality of any material. In the past decade, some new engineering materials were developed for the manufacturing industry which created a need to conduct an investigation on the impact of the said parameters on their surface roughness. Polyurethane (PU) block is widely used in the automotive industry to manufacture parts such as checking fixtures that are used to verify the dimensional accuracy of automotive parts. In this paper, the design of experiment (DOE) was used to investigate on the effect of the milling parameters on the PU block. Furthermore, an analysis of the machined surface chemical composition was done using scanning electron microscope (SEM). It was found that the surface roughness of the PU block is severely affected when PU undergoes a flood machining process instead of a dry condition. In addition the stepover and the silicon content were found to be the most significant parameters that influence the surface quality of the PU block.

Keywords: Polyurethane (PU), design of experiment (DOE), scanning electron microscope (SEM), surface roughness.

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625 The Relationship of Knowledge Management Practices, Competencies and the Organizational Performance of Government Departments in Malaysia

Authors: Raja Suzana Raja Kasim

Abstract:

This paper attempts to highlight the significant role of knowledge management practices (KMP) and competencies in improving the performance and efficiency of public sector organizations. It appears that public sector organizations in developing countries have not received much attention in the research literature of knowledge management and competencies. Therefore, this paper seeks to explore the role of KMP and competencies in achieving superior performance among public sector organizations in Malaysia in the broader perspective. Survey questionnaires were distributed to all Administrative and Diplomatic Officers (ADS) from 28 ministries located in Putrajaya, Malaysia. This paper also examines preliminary empirical results on the relationship between support for knowledge management practices, competencies, and orientation in Malaysia-s public organizations. This paper supports the notion that the practices of knowledge management at the organizational level are a prerequisite for successful organizational performance. In conclusion, the results not only have the potential to contribute theoretically to both management strategy and knowledge management field literature but also to the area of organizational performance.

Keywords: knowledge, knowledge management practices, competencies, organizational performance

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624 Thailand Throne Hall Architecture in the Grand Palace in the Early Days of Ratthanakosin Era

Authors: Somchai Seviset, Lin Jian Qun

Abstract:

Amarindra-vinitchai-mahaisuraya Bhiman throne hall is one of the most significant throne halls in the grand palace in the Ratthanakosin city situated in Bangkok, Thailand. This is the first group of throne halls built in order to serve as a place for meetings, performing state affairs and royal duties until the present time. The structure and pattern of architectural design including the decoration and interior design of the throne hall obviously exhibits and convey the status of the king under the context of Thai society in the early period of Ratthanakosin era. According to the tradition of ruling the kingdom in absolute monarchy which had been in place since Ayutthaya era (A.D.1350-1767), the king was deemed as Deva Raja, the highest power and authority over the kingdom and as the greatest emperor of the universe (Chakkravatin). The architectural design adopted the concept of “Prasada" or Viman which served as the dwelling place of the gods and was presented in the form of “Thai traditional architecture" For the interior design of the throne hall, it had been adopted to be the heaven and the centre of the Universe in line with the cosmological beliefs of ancient people described in scripture Tribhumikatha (Tri Bhumi) written by Phra Maha Thamma Raja (Phraya Lithai) of the Sukhothai era (A.D.1347-1368). According to this belief, the throne hall had been designed to represent mount Meru, the central of the universe. On the top end of Mount Meru is situated the Viman and dwelling place of Indra who is the king of gods according to the idea of Deva Raja (the king god Avatar). At the same time, Indra also existed as the king of the universe simultaneously.

Keywords: Amarindra-vinitchai-mahaisuraya Bhiman throne hall, throne hall architecture, grand palace, Thai traditional architecture, Ratthanakosin era

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623 The Control of a Highly Nonlinear Two-wheels Balancing Robot: A Comparative Assessment between LQR and PID-PID Control Schemes

Authors: A. N. K. Nasir, M. A. Ahmad, R. M. T. Raja Ismail

Abstract:

The research on two-wheels balancing robot has gained momentum due to their functionality and reliability when completing certain tasks. This paper presents investigations into the performance comparison of Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) and PID-PID controllers for a highly nonlinear 2–wheels balancing robot. The mathematical model of 2-wheels balancing robot that is highly nonlinear is derived. The final model is then represented in statespace form and the system suffers from mismatched condition. Two system responses namely the robot position and robot angular position are obtained. The performances of the LQR and PID-PID controllers are examined in terms of input tracking and disturbances rejection capability. Simulation results of the responses of the nonlinear 2–wheels balancing robot are presented in time domain. A comparative assessment of both control schemes to the system performance is presented and discussed.

Keywords: PID, LQR, Two-wheels balancing robot.

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622 Performance Comparison between Sliding Mode Control (SMC) and PD-PID Controllers for a Nonlinear Inverted Pendulum System

Authors: A. N. K. Nasir, R. M. T. Raja Ismail, M. A. Ahmad

Abstract:

The objective of this paper is to compare the time specification performance between conventional controller PID and modern controller SMC for an inverted pendulum system. The goal is to determine which control strategy delivers better performance with respect to pendulum-s angle and cart-s position. The inverted pendulum represents a challenging control problem, which continually moves toward an uncontrolled state. Two controllers are presented such as Sliding Mode Control (SMC) and Proportional- Integral-Derivatives (PID) controllers for controlling the highly nonlinear system of inverted pendulum model. Simulation study has been done in Matlab Mfile and simulink environment shows that both controllers are capable to control multi output inverted pendulum system successfully. The result shows that Sliding Mode Control (SMC) produced better response compared to PID control strategies and the responses are presented in time domain with the details analysis.

Keywords: SMC, PID, Inverted Pendulum System.

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621 Survey on Jamming Wireless Networks: Attacks and Prevention Strategies

Authors: S. Raja Ratna, R. Ravi

Abstract:

Wireless networks are built upon the open shared medium which makes easy for attackers to conduct malicious activities. Jamming is one of the most serious security threats to information economy and it must be dealt efficiently. Jammer prevents legitimate data to reach the receiver side and also it seriously degrades the network performance. The objective of this paper is to provide a general overview of jamming in wireless network. It covers relevant works, different jamming techniques, various types of jammers and typical prevention techniques. Challenges associated with comparing several anti-jamming techniques are also highlighted.

Keywords: Channel, Cryptography, Frequency, Jamming, Legitimate, Security, Wavelength.

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620 Evolutionary Computing Approach for the Solution of Initial value Problems in Ordinary Differential Equations

Authors: A. Junaid, M. A. Z. Raja, I. M. Qureshi

Abstract:

An evolutionary computing technique for solving initial value problems in Ordinary Differential Equations is proposed in this paper. Neural network is used as a universal approximator while the adaptive parameters of neural networks are optimized by genetic algorithm. The solution is achieved on the continuous grid of time instead of discrete as in other numerical techniques. The comparison is carried out with classical numerical techniques and the solution is found with a uniform accuracy of MSE ≈ 10-9 .

Keywords: Neural networks, Unsupervised learning, Evolutionary computing, Numerical methods, Fitness evaluation function.

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619 A Comparative Study of Main Memory Databases and Disk-Resident Databases

Authors: F. Raja, M.Rahgozar, N. Razavi, M. Siadaty

Abstract:

Main Memory Database systems (MMDB) store their data in main physical memory and provide very high-speed access. Conventional database systems are optimized for the particular characteristics of disk storage mechanisms. Memory resident systems, on the other hand, use different optimizations to structure and organize data, as well as to make it reliable. This paper provides a brief overview on MMDBs and one of the memory resident systems named FastDB and compares the processing time of this system with a typical disc resident database based on the results of the implementation of TPC benchmarks environment on both.

Keywords: Disk-Resident Database, FastDB, Main MemoryDatabase.

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618 Automatic Image Alignment and Stitching of Medical Images with Seam Blending

Authors: Abhinav Kumar, Raja Sekhar Bandaru, B Madhusudan Rao, Saket Kulkarni, Nilesh Ghatpande

Abstract:

This paper proposes an algorithm which automatically aligns and stitches the component medical images (fluoroscopic) with varying degrees of overlap into a single composite image. The alignment method is based on similarity measure between the component images. As applied here the technique is intensity based rather than feature based. It works well in domains where feature based methods have difficulty, yet more robust than traditional correlation. Component images are stitched together using the new triangular averaging based blending algorithm. The quality of the resultant image is tested for photometric inconsistencies and geometric misalignments. This method cannot correct rotational, scale and perspective artifacts.

Keywords: Histogram Matching, Image Alignment, ImageStitching, Medical Imaging.

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617 Moving From Problem Space to Solution Space

Authors: Bilal Saeed Raja, M. Ali Iqbal, Imran Ihsan

Abstract:

Extracting and elaborating software requirements and transforming them into viable software architecture are still an intricate task. This paper defines a solution architecture which is based on the blurred amalgamation of problem space and solution space. The dependencies between domain constraints, requirements and architecture and their importance are described that are to be considered collectively while evolving from problem space to solution space. This paper proposes a revised version of Twin Peaks Model named Win Peaks Model that reconciles software requirements and architecture in more consistent and adaptable manner. Further the conflict between stakeholders- win-requirements is resolved by proposed Voting methodology that is simple adaptation of win-win requirements negotiation model and QARCC.

Keywords: Functional Requirements, Non Functional Requirements, Twin Peaks Model, QARCC.

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616 Removal of Iron from Groundwater by Sulfide Precipitation

Authors: H. Jusoh, N. Sapari, R.Z. Raja Azie

Abstract:

Iron in groundwater is one of the problems that render the water unsuitable for drinking. The concentration above 0.3 mg/L is common in groundwater. The conventional method of removal is by precipitation under oxic condition. In this study, iron removal under anaerobic conditions was examined by batch experiment as a main purpose. The process involved by purging of groundwater samples with H2S to form iron sulfide. Removal up to 83% for 1 mg/L iron solution was achieved. The removal efficiency dropped to 82% and 75% for the higher initial iron concentrations 3.55 and 5.01 mg/L, respectively. The average residual sulfide concentration in water after the process was 25*g/L. The Eh level during the process was -272 mV. The removal process was found to follow the first order reaction with average rate constant of 4.52 x 10-3. The half-life for the concentrations to reduce from initial values was 157 minutes.

Keywords: Anaerobic, chemical kinetics, hydrogen sulfide, iron, rate constant

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615 Using Dempster-Shafer Theory in XML Information Retrieval

Authors: F. Raja, M. Rahgozar, F. Oroumchian

Abstract:

XML is a markup language which is becoming the standard format for information representation and data exchange. A major purpose of XML is the explicit representation of the logical structure of a document. Much research has been performed to exploit logical structure of documents in information retrieval in order to precisely extract user information need from large collections of XML documents. In this paper, we describe an XML information retrieval weighting scheme that tries to find the most relevant elements in XML documents in response to a user query. We present this weighting model for information retrieval systems that utilize plausible inferences to infer the relevance of elements in XML documents. We also add to this model the Dempster-Shafer theory of evidence to express the uncertainty in plausible inferences and Dempster-Shafer rule of combination to combine evidences derived from different inferences.

Keywords: Dempster-Shafer theory, plausible inferences, XMLinformation retrieval.

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614 Maximum Power Point Tracking by ANN Controller for a Standalone Photovoltaic System

Authors: K. Ranjani, M. Raja, B. Anitha

Abstract:

In this paper, ANN controller for maximum power point tracking of photovoltaic (PV) systems is proposed and PV modeling is discussed. Maximum power point tracking (MPPT) methods are used to maximize the PV array output power by tracking continuously the maximum power point. ANN controller with hill-climbing algorithm offers fast and accurate converging to the maximum operating point during steady-state and varying weather conditions compared to conventional hill-climbing. The proposed algorithm gives a good maximum power operation of the PV system. Simulation results obtained are presented and compared with the conventional hill-climbing algorithm. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed technique.

Keywords: Artificial neural network (ANN), hill-climbing, maximum power-point tracking (MPPT), photovoltaic.

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613 Technological Applications in Automobile Manufacturing Sector: A Case Study Analysis

Authors: Raja Kannusamy

Abstract:

The research focuses on the applicable technologies in the automobile industry and their effects on the productivity and annual revenue of the industry. A study has been conducted on six major automobile manufacturing industries represented in this research as M1, M2, M3, M4, M5 and M6. The results indicate that M1, which is a pioneer in technological applications, remains the market leader, followed by M5 and M2 taking the second and third positions, respectively. M3, M6 and M4 are the followers and are placed next in positions. It has also been observed that M1 and M2 have entered into an agreement to share the basic structural technologies and they maintain long-term and trusted relationships with their suppliers through the Keiretsu system. With technological giants such as Apple, Microsoft, Uber and Google entering the automobile industry in recent years, an upward trend is expected in the futuristic market with self-driving cars to dominate the automobile sector. To keep up with the market trend, it is essential for automobile manufacturers to understand the importance of developing technological capabilities and skills to be competitive in the marketplace.

Keywords: automobile manufacturing industries, competitiveness, performance improvement, technological applications

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612 A Meta-Heuristic Algorithm for Set Covering Problem Based on Gravity

Authors: S. Raja Balachandar, K. Kannan

Abstract:

A new Meta heuristic approach called "Randomized gravitational emulation search algorithm (RGES)" for solving large size set covering problems has been designed. This algorithm is found upon introducing randomization concept along with the two of the four primary parameters -velocity- and -gravity- in physics. A new heuristic operator is introduced in the domain of RGES to maintain feasibility specifically for the set covering problem to yield best solutions. The performance of this algorithm has been evaluated on a large set of benchmark problems from OR-library. Computational results showed that the randomized gravitational emulation search algorithm - based heuristic is capable of producing high quality solutions. The performance of this heuristic when compared with other existing heuristic algorithms is found to be excellent in terms of solution quality.

Keywords: Set covering problem, velocity, gravitational force, Newton's law, meta heuristic, combinatorial optimization.

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611 Adsorption of Cadmium onto Activated and Non-Activated Date Pits

Authors: Munther I. Kandah, Fahmi A. Abu Al-Rub, Lucy Bawarish, Mira Bawarish, Hiba Al-Tamimi, Reem Khalil, Raja'a Sa, ada

Abstract:

In this project cadmium ions were adsorbed from aqueous solutions onto either date pits; a cheap agricultural and nontoxic material, or chemically activated carbon prepared from date pits using phosphoric acid. A series of experiments were conducted in a batch adsorption technique to assess the feasibility of using the prepared adsorbents. The effects of the process variables such as initial cadmium ions concentration, contact time, solution pH and adsorbent dose on the adsorption capacity of both adsorbents were studied. The experimental data were tested using different isotherm models such as Langmuir, Freundlich, Tempkin and Dubinin- Radushkevich. The results showed that although the equilibrium data could be described by all models used, Langmuir model gave slightly better results when using activated carbon while Freundlich model, gave better results with date pits.

Keywords: Adsorption, Cadmium, Chemical Activation, DatePits.

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610 Optimum Design of Trusses by Cuckoo Search

Authors: M. Saravanan, J. Raja Murugadoss, V. Jayanthi

Abstract:

Optimal design of structure has a main role in reduction of material usage which leads to deduction in the final cost of construction projects. Evolutionary approaches are found to be more successful techniques for solving size and shape structural optimization problem since it uses a stochastic random search instead of a gradient search. By reviewing the recent literature works the problem found was the optimization of weight. A new meta-heuristic algorithm called as Cuckoo Search (CS) Algorithm has used for the optimization of the total weight of the truss structures. This paper has used set of 10 bars and 25 bars trusses for the testing purpose. The main objective of this work is to reduce the number of iterations, weight and the total time consumption. In order to demonstrate the effectiveness of the present method, minimum weight design of truss structures is performed and the results of the CS are compared with other algorithms.

Keywords: Cuckoo search algorithm, levy’s flight, meta-heuristic, optimal weight.

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609 A Meta-Heuristic Algorithm for Vertex Covering Problem Based on Gravity

Authors: S. Raja Balachandar, K.Kannan

Abstract:

A new Meta heuristic approach called "Randomized gravitational emulation search algorithm (RGES)" for solving vertex covering problems has been designed. This algorithm is found upon introducing randomization concept along with the two of the four primary parameters -velocity- and -gravity- in physics. A new heuristic operator is introduced in the domain of RGES to maintain feasibility specifically for the vertex covering problem to yield best solutions. The performance of this algorithm has been evaluated on a large set of benchmark problems from OR-library. Computational results showed that the randomized gravitational emulation search algorithm - based heuristic is capable of producing high quality solutions. The performance of this heuristic when compared with other existing heuristic algorithms is found to be excellent in terms of solution quality.

Keywords: Vertex covering Problem, Velocity, Gravitational Force, Newton's Law, Meta Heuristic, Combinatorial optimization.

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608 The Methodology of Flip Chip Using Astro Place and Route Tool

Authors: Rohaya Abdul Wahab, Raja Mohd Fuad Tengku Aziz, Nazaliza Othman, Sharifah Saleh, Nabihah Razali, Rozaimah Baharim, Md Hanif Md Nasir

Abstract:

This paper will discuss flip chip methodology, in which I/O pads, standard cells, macros and bump cells array are placed in the floorplan, then routed using Astro place and route tool. Final DRC and LVS checking is done using Calibre verification tool. The design vehicle to run this methodology is an OpenRISC design targeted to Silterra 0.18 micrometer technology with 6 metal layers for routing. Astro has extensive support for flip chip placement and routing. Astro tool commands for flip chip are straightforward approach like the conventional standard wire bond packaging. However since we do not have flip chip commands in our Astro tool, no LEF file for bump cell and no LEF file for flip chip I/O pad, we create our own methodology to prepare for future flip chip tapeout. 

Keywords: Astro, bump cell, Calibre, flip chip, LEF, methodology, SCHEME, TCL.

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607 Improved Small-Signal Characteristics of Infrared 850 nm Top-Emitting Vertical-Cavity Lasers

Authors: Ahmad Al-Omari, Osama Khreis, Ahmad M. K. Dagamseh, Abdullah Ababneh, Kevin Lear

Abstract:

High-speed infrared vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser diodes (VCSELs) with Cu-plated heat sinks were fabricated and tested. VCSELs with 10 mm aperture diameter and 4 mm of electroplated copper demonstrated a -3dB modulation bandwidth (f-3dB) of 14 GHz and a resonance frequency (fR) of 9.5 GHz at a bias current density (Jbias) of only 4.3 kA/cm2, which corresponds to an improved f-3dB2/Jbias ratio of 44 GHz2/kA/cm2. At higher and lower bias current densities, the f-3dB2/ Jbias ratio decreased to about 30 GHz2/kA/cm2 and 18 GHz2/kA/cm2, respectively. Examination of the analogue modulation response demonstrated that the presented VCSELs displayed a steady f-3dB/ fR ratio of 1.41±10% over the whole range of the bias current (1.3Ith to 6.2Ith). The devices also demonstrated a maximum modulation bandwidth (f-3dB max) of more than 16 GHz at a bias current less than the industrial bias current standard for reliability by 25%.

Keywords: Current density, High-speed VCSELs, Modulation bandwidth, Small-Signal Characteristics, Thermal impedance, Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers.

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606 Evolutionary Computation Technique for Solving Riccati Differential Equation of Arbitrary Order

Authors: Raja Muhammad Asif Zahoor, Junaid Ali Khan, I. M. Qureshi

Abstract:

In this article an evolutionary technique has been used for the solution of nonlinear Riccati differential equations of fractional order. In this method, genetic algorithm is used as a tool for the competent global search method hybridized with active-set algorithm for efficient local search. The proposed method has been successfully applied to solve the different forms of Riccati differential equations. The strength of proposed method has in its equal applicability for the integer order case, as well as, fractional order case. Comparison of the method has been made with standard numerical techniques as well as the analytic solutions. It is found that the designed method can provide the solution to the equation with better accuracy than its counterpart deterministic approaches. Another advantage of the given approach is to provide results on entire finite continuous domain unlike other numerical methods which provide solutions only on discrete grid of points.

Keywords: Riccati Equation, Non linear ODE, Fractional differential equation, Genetic algorithm.

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605 Investigation of Constant Transconductance Circuit for Low Power Low-Noise Amplifier

Authors: Wei Yi Lim, M. Annamalai Arasu, M. Kumarasamy Raja, Minkyu Je

Abstract:

In this paper, the design of wide-swing constant transconductance (gm) bias circuit that generates bias voltage for low-noise amplifier (LNA) circuit design by using an off-chip resistor is demonstrated. The overall transconductance (Gm) generated by the constant gm bias circuit is important to maintain the overall gain and noise figure of the LNA circuit. Therefore, investigation is performed to study the variation in Gm with process, temperature and supply voltage (PVT).  Temperature and supply voltage are swept from -10 °C to 85 °C and 1.425 V to 1.575 V respectively, while the process conditions are also varied to the extreme and the gm variation is eventually concluded at between -3 % to 7 %. With the slight variation in the gm value, through simulation, at worst condition of state SS, we are able to attain a conversion gain (S21) variation of -3.10 % and a noise figure (NF) variation of 18.71 %. The whole constant gm circuit draws approximately 100 µA from a 1.5V supply and is designed based on 0.13 µm CMOS process. 

Keywords: Transconductance, LNA, temperature, process.

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604 Feature Extraction of Dorsal Hand Vein Pattern Using a Fast Modified PCA Algorithm Based On Cholesky Decomposition and Lanczos Technique

Authors: Maleika Heenaye- Mamode Khan , Naushad Mamode Khan, Raja K.Subramanian

Abstract:

Dorsal hand vein pattern is an emerging biometric which is attracting the attention of researchers, of late. Research is being carried out on existing techniques in the hope of improving them or finding more efficient ones. In this work, Principle Component Analysis (PCA) , which is a successful method, originally applied on face biometric is being modified using Cholesky decomposition and Lanczos algorithm to extract the dorsal hand vein features. This modified technique decreases the number of computation and hence decreases the processing time. The eigenveins were successfully computed and projected onto the vein space. The system was tested on a database of 200 images and using a threshold value of 0.9 to obtain the False Acceptance Rate (FAR) and False Rejection Rate (FRR). This modified algorithm is desirable when developing biometric security system since it significantly decreases the matching time.

Keywords: Dorsal hand vein pattern, PCA, Cholesky decomposition, Lanczos algorithm.

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603 Centre Of Mass Selection Operator Based Meta-Heuristic For Unbounded Knapsack Problem

Authors: D.Venkatesan, K.Kannan, S. Raja Balachandar

Abstract:

In this paper a new Genetic Algorithm based on a heuristic operator and Centre of Mass selection operator (CMGA) is designed for the unbounded knapsack problem(UKP), which is NP-Hard combinatorial optimization problem. The proposed genetic algorithm is based on a heuristic operator, which utilizes problem specific knowledge. This center of mass operator when combined with other Genetic Operators forms a competitive algorithm to the existing ones. Computational results show that the proposed algorithm is capable of obtaining high quality solutions for problems of standard randomly generated knapsack instances. Comparative study of CMGA with simple GA in terms of results for unbounded knapsack instances of size up to 200 show the superiority of CMGA. Thus CMGA is an efficient tool of solving UKP and this algorithm is competitive with other Genetic Algorithms also.

Keywords: Genetic Algorithm, Unbounded Knapsack Problem, Combinatorial Optimization, Meta-Heuristic, Center of Mass

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602 A General Segmentation Scheme for Contouring Kidney Region in Ultrasound Kidney Images using Improved Higher Order Spline Interpolation

Authors: K. Bommanna Raja, M.Madheswaran, K.Thyagarajah

Abstract:

A higher order spline interpolated contour obtained with up-sampling of homogenously distributed coordinates for segmentation of kidney region in different classes of ultrasound kidney images has been developed and presented in this paper. The performance of the proposed method is measured and compared with modified snake model contour, Markov random field contour and expert outlined contour. The validation of the method is made in correspondence with expert outlined contour using maximum coordinate distance, Hausdorff distance and mean radial distance metrics. The results obtained reveal that proposed scheme provides optimum contour that agrees well with expert outlined contour. Moreover this technique helps to preserve the pixels-of-interest which in specific defines the functional characteristic of kidney. This explores various possibilities in implementing computer-aided diagnosis system exclusively for US kidney images.

Keywords: Ultrasound Kidney Image – Kidney Segmentation –Active Contour – Markov Random Field – Higher Order SplineInterpolation

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601 Network Coding with Buffer Scheme in Multicast for Broadband Wireless Network

Authors: Gunasekaran Raja, Ramkumar Jayaraman, Rajakumar Arul, Kottilingam Kottursamy

Abstract:

Broadband Wireless Network (BWN) is the promising technology nowadays due to the increased number of smartphones. Buffering scheme using network coding considers the reliability and proper degree distribution in Worldwide interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX) multi-hop network. Using network coding, a secure way of transmission is performed which helps in improving throughput and reduces the packet loss in the multicast network. At the outset, improved network coding is proposed in multicast wireless mesh network. Considering the problem of performance overhead, degree distribution makes a decision while performing buffer in the encoding / decoding process. Consequently, BuS (Buffer Scheme) based on network coding is proposed in the multi-hop network. Here the encoding process introduces buffer for temporary storage to transmit packets with proper degree distribution. The simulation results depend on the number of packets received in the encoding/decoding with proper degree distribution using buffering scheme.

Keywords: Encoding and decoding, buffer, network coding, degree distribution, broadband wireless networks, multicast.

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600 A Genetic-Algorithm-Based Approach for Audio Steganography

Authors: Mazdak Zamani , Azizah A. Manaf , Rabiah B. Ahmad , Akram M. Zeki , Shahidan Abdullah

Abstract:

In this paper, we present a novel, principled approach to resolve the remained problems of substitution technique of audio steganography. Using the proposed genetic algorithm, message bits are embedded into multiple, vague and higher LSB layers, resulting in increased robustness. The robustness specially would be increased against those intentional attacks which try to reveal the hidden message and also some unintentional attacks like noise addition as well.

Keywords: Artificial Intelligence, Audio Steganography, DataHiding, Genetic Algorithm, Substitution Techniques.

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599 Development of Accident Predictive Model for Rural Roadway

Authors: Fajaruddin Mustakim, Motohiro Fujita

Abstract:

This paper present the study carried out of accident analysis, black spot study and to develop accident predictive models based on the data collected at rural roadway, Federal Route 50 (F050) Malaysia. The road accident trends and black spot ranking were established on the F050. The development of the accident prediction model will concentrate in Parit Raja area from KM 19 to KM 23. Multiple non-linear regression method was used to relate the discrete accident data with the road and traffic flow explanatory variable. The dependent variable was modeled as the number of crashes namely accident point weighting, however accident point weighting have rarely been account in the road accident prediction Models. The result show that, the existing number of major access points, without traffic light, rise in speed, increasing number of Annual Average Daily Traffic (AADT), growing number of motorcycle and motorcar and reducing the time gap are the potential contributors of increment accident rates on multiple rural roadway.

Keywords: Accident Trends, Black Spot Study, Accident Prediction Model

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598 A New Heuristic Approach for Large Size Zero-One Multi Knapsack Problem Using Intercept Matrix

Authors: K. Krishna Veni, S. Raja Balachandar

Abstract:

This paper presents a heuristic to solve large size 0-1 Multi constrained Knapsack problem (01MKP) which is NP-hard. Many researchers are used heuristic operator to identify the redundant constraints of Linear Programming Problem before applying the regular procedure to solve it. We use the intercept matrix to identify the zero valued variables of 01MKP which is known as redundant variables. In this heuristic, first the dominance property of the intercept matrix of constraints is exploited to reduce the search space to find the optimal or near optimal solutions of 01MKP, second, we improve the solution by using the pseudo-utility ratio based on surrogate constraint of 01MKP. This heuristic is tested for benchmark problems of sizes upto 2500, taken from literature and the results are compared with optimum solutions. Space and computational complexity of solving 01MKP using this approach are also presented. The encouraging results especially for relatively large size test problems indicate that this heuristic can successfully be used for finding good solutions for highly constrained NP-hard problems.

Keywords: 0-1 Multi constrained Knapsack problem, heuristic, computational complexity, NP-Hard problems.

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