Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 24

Search results for: Data hiding

24 High Performance Electrocardiogram Steganography Based on Fast Discrete Cosine Transform

Authors: Liang-Ta Cheng, Ching-Yu Yang

Abstract:

Based on fast discrete cosine transform (FDCT), the authors present a high capacity and high perceived quality method for electrocardiogram (ECG) signal. By using a simple adjusting policy to the 1-dimentional (1-D) DCT coefficients, a large volume of secret message can be effectively embedded in an ECG host signal and be successfully extracted at the intended receiver. Simulations confirmed that the resulting perceived quality is good, while the hiding capability of the proposed method significantly outperforms that of existing techniques. In addition, our proposed method has a certain degree of robustness. Since the computational complexity is low, it is feasible for our method being employed in real-time applications.

Keywords: Data hiding, ECG steganography, fast discrete cosine transform, 1-D DCT bundle, real-time applications.

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23 Medical Image Watermark and Tamper Detection Using Constant Correlation Spread Spectrum Watermarking

Authors: Peter U. Eze, P. Udaya, Robin J. Evans

Abstract:

Data hiding can be achieved by Steganography or invisible digital watermarking. For digital watermarking, both accurate retrieval of the embedded watermark and the integrity of the cover image are important. Medical image security in Teleradiology is one of the applications where the embedded patient record needs to be extracted with accuracy as well as the medical image integrity verified. In this research paper, the Constant Correlation Spread Spectrum digital watermarking for medical image tamper detection and accurate embedded watermark retrieval is introduced. In the proposed method, a watermark bit from a patient record is spread in a medical image sub-block such that the correlation of all watermarked sub-blocks with a spreading code, W, would have a constant value, p. The constant correlation p, spreading code, W and the size of the sub-blocks constitute the secret key. Tamper detection is achieved by flagging any sub-block whose correlation value deviates by more than a small value, ℇ, from p. The major features of our new scheme include: (1) Improving watermark detection accuracy for high-pixel depth medical images by reducing the Bit Error Rate (BER) to Zero and (2) block-level tamper detection in a single computational process with simultaneous watermark detection, thereby increasing utility with the same computational cost.

Keywords: Constant correlation, medical image, spread spectrum, tamper detection, watermarking.

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22 High Secure Data Hiding Using Cropping Image and Least Significant Bit Steganography

Authors: Khalid A. Al-Afandy, El-Sayyed El-Rabaie, Osama Salah, Ahmed El-Mhalaway

Abstract:

This paper presents a high secure data hiding technique using image cropping and Least Significant Bit (LSB) steganography. The predefined certain secret coordinate crops will be extracted from the cover image. The secret text message will be divided into sections. These sections quantity is equal the image crops quantity. Each section from the secret text message will embed into an image crop with a secret sequence using LSB technique. The embedding is done using the cover image color channels. Stego image is given by reassembling the image and the stego crops. The results of the technique will be compared to the other state of art techniques. Evaluation is based on visualization to detect any degradation of stego image, the difficulty of extracting the embedded data by any unauthorized viewer, Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio of stego image (PSNR), and the embedding algorithm CPU time. Experimental results ensure that the proposed technique is more secure compared with the other traditional techniques.

Keywords: Steganography, stego, LSB, crop.

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21 Data Hiding by Vector Quantization in Color Image

Authors: Yung-Gi Wu

Abstract:

With the growing of computer and network, digital data can be spread to anywhere in the world quickly. In addition, digital data can also be copied or tampered easily so that the security issue becomes an important topic in the protection of digital data. Digital watermark is a method to protect the ownership of digital data. Embedding the watermark will influence the quality certainly. In this paper, Vector Quantization (VQ) is used to embed the watermark into the image to fulfill the goal of data hiding. This kind of watermarking is invisible which means that the users will not conscious the existing of embedded watermark even though the embedded image has tiny difference compared to the original image. Meanwhile, VQ needs a lot of computation burden so that we adopt a fast VQ encoding scheme by partial distortion searching (PDS) and mean approximation scheme to speed up the data hiding process. The watermarks we hide to the image could be gray, bi-level and color images. Texts are also can be regarded as watermark to embed. In order to test the robustness of the system, we adopt Photoshop to fulfill sharpen, cropping and altering to check if the extracted watermark is still recognizable. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed system can resist the above three kinds of tampering in general cases.

Keywords: Data hiding, vector quantization, watermark.

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20 A New Authenticable Steganographic Method via the Use of Numeric Data on Public Websites

Authors: Che-Wei Lee, Bay-Erl Lai

Abstract:

A new steganographic method via the use of numeric data on public websites with a self-authentication capability is proposed. The proposed technique transforms a secret message into partial shares by Shamir’s (k, n)-threshold secret sharing scheme with n = k + 1. The generated k+1 partial shares then are embedded into the numeric items to be disguised as part of the website’s numeric content, yielding the stego numeric content. Afterward, a receiver links to the website and extracts every k shares among the k+1 ones from the stego numeric content to compute k+1 copies of the secret, and the phenomenon of value consistency of the computed k+1 copies is taken as an evidence to determine whether the extracted message is authentic or not, attaining the goal of self-authentication of the extracted secret message. Experimental results and discussions are provided to show the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method.

Keywords: Steganography, data hiding, secret authentication, secret sharing.

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19 High Capacity Data Hiding based on Predictor and Histogram Modification

Authors: Hui-Yu Huang, Shih-Hsu Chang

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose a high capacity image hiding technology based on pixel prediction and the difference of modified histogram. This approach is used the pixel prediction and the difference of modified histogram to calculate the best embedding point. This approach can improve the predictive accuracy and increase the pixel difference to advance the hiding capacity. We also use the histogram modification to prevent the overflow and underflow. Experimental results demonstrate that our proposed method within the same average hiding capacity can still keep high quality of image and low distortion

Keywords: data hiding, predictor

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18 The Comparison of Data Replication in Distributed Systems

Authors: Iman Zangeneh, Mostafa Moradi, Ali Mokhtarbaf

Abstract:

The necessity of ever-increasing use of distributed data in computer networks is obvious for all. One technique that is performed on the distributed data for increasing of efficiency and reliablity is data rplication. In this paper, after introducing this technique and its advantages, we will examine some dynamic data replication. We will examine their characteristies for some overus scenario and the we will propose some suggestion for their improvement.

Keywords: data replication, data hiding, consistency, dynamicdata replication strategy

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17 A Robust Data Hiding Technique based on LSB Matching

Authors: Emad T. Khalaf, Norrozila Sulaiman

Abstract:

Many researchers are working on information hiding techniques using different ideas and areas to hide their secrete data. This paper introduces a robust technique of hiding secret data in image based on LSB insertion and RSA encryption technique. The key of the proposed technique is to encrypt the secret data. Then the encrypted data will be converted into a bit stream and divided it into number of segments. However, the cover image will also be divided into the same number of segments. Each segment of data will be compared with each segment of image to find the best match segment, in order to create a new random sequence of segments to be inserted then in a cover image. Experimental results show that the proposed technique has a high security level and produced better stego-image quality.

Keywords: steganography; LSB Matching; RSA Encryption; data segments

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16 A Novel Reversible Watermarking Method based on Adaptive Thresholding and Companding Technique

Authors: Nisar Ahmed Memon

Abstract:

Embedding and extraction of a secret information as well as the restoration of the original un-watermarked image is highly desirable in sensitive applications like military, medical, and law enforcement imaging. This paper presents a novel reversible data-hiding method for digital images using integer to integer wavelet transform and companding technique which can embed and recover the secret information as well as can restore the image to its pristine state. The novel method takes advantage of block based watermarking and iterative optimization of threshold for companding which avoids histogram pre and post-processing. Consequently, it reduces the associated overhead usually required in most of the reversible watermarking techniques. As a result, it keeps the distortion small between the marked and the original images. Experimental results show that the proposed method outperforms the existing reversible data hiding schemes reported in the literature.

Keywords: Adaptive Thresholding, Companding Technique, Integer Wavelet Transform, Reversible Watermarking

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15 Reversible Watermarking for H.264/AVC Videos

Authors: Yih-Chuan Lin, Jung-Hong Li

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose a reversible watermarking scheme based on histogram shifting (HS) to embed watermark bits into the H.264/AVC standard videos by modifying the last nonzero level in the context adaptive variable length coding (CAVLC) domain. The proposed method collects all of the last nonzero coefficients (or called last level coefficient) of 4×4 sub-macro blocks in a macro block and utilizes predictions for the current last level from the neighbor block-s last levels to embed watermark bits. The feature of the proposed method is low computational and has the ability of reversible recovery. The experimental results have demonstrated that our proposed scheme has acceptable degradation on video quality and output bit-rate for most test videos.

Keywords: Reversible data hiding, H.264/AVC standard, CAVLC, Histogram shifting

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14 Stego Machine – Video Steganography using Modified LSB Algorithm

Authors: Mritha Ramalingam

Abstract:

Computer technology and the Internet have made a breakthrough in the existence of data communication. This has opened a whole new way of implementing steganography to ensure secure data transfer. Steganography is the fine art of hiding the information. Hiding the message in the carrier file enables the deniability of the existence of any message at all. This paper designs a stego machine to develop a steganographic application to hide data containing text in a computer video file and to retrieve the hidden information. This can be designed by embedding text file in a video file in such away that the video does not loose its functionality using Least Significant Bit (LSB) modification method. This method applies imperceptible modifications. This proposed method strives for high security to an eavesdropper-s inability to detect hidden information.

Keywords: Data hiding, LSB, Stego machine, VideoSteganography

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13 A Data Hiding Model with High Security Features Combining Finite State Machines and PMM method

Authors: Souvik Bhattacharyya, Gautam Sanyal

Abstract:

Recent years have witnessed the rapid development of the Internet and telecommunication techniques. Information security is becoming more and more important. Applications such as covert communication, copyright protection, etc, stimulate the research of information hiding techniques. Traditionally, encryption is used to realize the communication security. However, important information is not protected once decoded. Steganography is the art and science of communicating in a way which hides the existence of the communication. Important information is firstly hidden in a host data, such as digital image, video or audio, etc, and then transmitted secretly to the receiver.In this paper a data hiding model with high security features combining both cryptography using finite state sequential machine and image based steganography technique for communicating information more securely between two locations is proposed. The authors incorporated the idea of secret key for authentication at both ends in order to achieve high level of security. Before the embedding operation the secret information has been encrypted with the help of finite-state sequential machine and segmented in different parts. The cover image is also segmented in different objects through normalized cut.Each part of the encoded secret information has been embedded with the help of a novel image steganographic method (PMM) on different cuts of the cover image to form different stego objects. Finally stego image is formed by combining different stego objects and transmit to the receiver side. At the receiving end different opposite processes should run to get the back the original secret message.

Keywords: Cover Image, Finite state sequential machine, Melaymachine, Pixel Mapping Method (PMM), Stego Image, NCUT.

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12 Data Hiding in Images in Discrete Wavelet Domain Using PMM

Authors: Souvik Bhattacharyya, Gautam Sanyal

Abstract:

Over last two decades, due to hostilities of environment over the internet the concerns about confidentiality of information have increased at phenomenal rate. Therefore to safeguard the information from attacks, number of data/information hiding methods have evolved mostly in spatial and transformation domain.In spatial domain data hiding techniques,the information is embedded directly on the image plane itself. In transform domain data hiding techniques the image is first changed from spatial domain to some other domain and then the secret information is embedded so that the secret information remains more secure from any attack. Information hiding algorithms in time domain or spatial domain have high capacity and relatively lower robustness. In contrast, the algorithms in transform domain, such as DCT, DWT have certain robustness against some multimedia processing.In this work the authors propose a novel steganographic method for hiding information in the transform domain of the gray scale image.The proposed approach works by converting the gray level image in transform domain using discrete integer wavelet technique through lifting scheme.This approach performs a 2-D lifting wavelet decomposition through Haar lifted wavelet of the cover image and computes the approximation coefficients matrix CA and detail coefficients matrices CH, CV, and CD.Next step is to apply the PMM technique in those coefficients to form the stego image. The aim of this paper is to propose a high-capacity image steganography technique that uses pixel mapping method in integer wavelet domain with acceptable levels of imperceptibility and distortion in the cover image and high level of overall security. This solution is independent of the nature of the data to be hidden and produces a stego image with minimum degradation.

Keywords: Cover Image, Pixel Mapping Method (PMM), StegoImage, Integer Wavelet Tranform.

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11 A Metric Framework for Analysis of Quality of Object Oriented Design

Authors: Amandeep Kaur, Satwinder Singh, Dr. K. S. Kahlon

Abstract:

The impact of OO design on software quality characteristics such as defect density and rework by mean of experimental validation. Encapsulation, inheritance, polymorphism, reusability, Data hiding and message-passing are the major attribute of an Object Oriented system. In order to evaluate the quality of an Object oriented system the above said attributes can act as indicators. The metrics are the well known quantifiable approach to express any attribute. Hence, in this paper we tried to formulate a framework of metrics representing the attributes of object oriented system. Empirical Data is collected from three different projects based on object oriented paradigms to calculate the metrics.

Keywords: Object Oriented, Software metrics, Methods, Attributes, cohesion, coupling, Inheritance.

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10 Authentication and Data Hiding Using a Reversible ROI-based Watermarking Scheme for DICOM Images

Authors: Osamah M. Al-Qershi, Khoo Bee Ee

Abstract:

In recent years image watermarking has become an important research area in data security, confidentiality and image integrity. Many watermarking techniques were proposed for medical images. However, medical images, unlike most of images, require extreme care when embedding additional data within them because the additional information must not affect the image quality and readability. Also the medical records, electronic or not, are linked to the medical secrecy, for that reason, the records must be confidential. To fulfill those requirements, this paper presents a lossless watermarking scheme for DICOM images. The proposed a fragile scheme combines two reversible techniques based on difference expansion for patient's data hiding and protecting the region of interest (ROI) with tamper detection and recovery capability. Patient's data are embedded into ROI, while recovery data are embedded into region of non-interest (RONI). The experimental results show that the original image can be exactly extracted from the watermarked one in case of no tampering. In case of tampered ROI, tampered area can be localized and recovered with a high quality version of the original area.

Keywords: DICOM, reversible, ROI-based, watermarking.

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9 Novel Security Strategy for Real Time Digital Videos

Authors: Prakash Devale, R. S. Prasad, Amol Dhumane, Pritesh Patil

Abstract:

Now a days video data embedding approach is a very challenging and interesting task towards keeping real time video data secure. We can implement and use this technique with high-level applications. As the rate-distortion of any image is not confirmed, because the gain provided by accurate image frame segmentation are balanced by the inefficiency of coding objects of arbitrary shape, with a lot factors like losses that depend on both the coding scheme and the object structure. By using rate controller in association with the encoder one can dynamically adjust the target bitrate. This paper discusses about to keep secure videos by mixing signature data with negligible distortion in the original video, and to keep steganographic video as closely as possible to the quality of the original video. In this discussion we propose the method for embedding the signature data into separate video frames by the use of block Discrete Cosine Transform. These frames are then encoded by real time encoding H.264 scheme concepts. After processing, at receiver end recovery of original video and the signature data is proposed.

Keywords: Data Hiding, Digital Watermarking, video coding H.264, Rate Control, Block DCT.

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8 Key Based Text Watermarking of E-Text Documents in an Object Based Environment Using Z-Axis for Watermark Embedding

Authors: Mussarat Abdullah, Fazal Wahab

Abstract:

Data hiding into text documents itself involves pretty complexities due to the nature of text documents. A robust text watermarking scheme targeting an object based environment is presented in this research. The heart of the proposed solution describes the concept of watermarking an object based text document where each and every text string is entertained as a separate object having its own set of properties. Taking advantage of the z-ordering of objects watermark is applied with the z-axis letting zero fidelity disturbances to the text. Watermark sequence of bits generated against user key is hashed with selected properties of given document, to determine the bit sequence to embed. Bits are embedded along z-axis and the document has no fidelity issues when printed, scanned or photocopied.

Keywords: Digital Watermarking, Object Based Environment, Watermark, z-ordering.

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7 A New Algorithm for Enhanced Robustness of Copyright Mark

Authors: Harsh Vikram Singh, S. P. Singh, Anand Mohan

Abstract:

This paper discusses a new heavy tailed distribution based data hiding into discrete cosine transform (DCT) coefficients of image, which provides statistical security as well as robustness against steganalysis attacks. Unlike other data hiding algorithms, the proposed technique does not introduce much effect in the stegoimage-s DCT coefficient probability plots, thus making the presence of hidden data statistically undetectable. In addition the proposed method does not compromise on hiding capacity. When compared to the generic block DCT based data-hiding scheme, our method found more robust against a variety of image manipulating attacks such as filtering, blurring, JPEG compression etc.

Keywords: Information Security, Robust Steganography, Steganalysis, Pareto Probability Distribution function.

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6 EPR Hiding in Medical Images for Telemedicine

Authors: K. A. Navas, S. Archana Thampy, M. Sasikumar

Abstract:

Medical image data hiding has strict constrains such as high imperceptibility, high capacity and high robustness. Achieving these three requirements simultaneously is highly cumbersome. Some works have been reported in the literature on data hiding, watermarking and stegnography which are suitable for telemedicine applications. None is reliable in all aspects. Electronic Patient Report (EPR) data hiding for telemedicine demand it blind and reversible. This paper proposes a novel approach to blind reversible data hiding based on integer wavelet transform. Experimental results shows that this scheme outperforms the prior arts in terms of zero BER (Bit Error Rate), higher PSNR (Peak Signal to Noise Ratio), and large EPR data embedding capacity with WPSNR (Weighted Peak Signal to Noise Ratio) around 53 dB, compared with the existing reversible data hiding schemes.

Keywords: Biomedical imaging, Data security, Datacommunication, Teleconferencing.

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5 Entropy Based Data Hiding for Document Images

Authors: Swetha Kurup, Sridhar G., Sridhar V.

Abstract:

In this paper we present a novel technique for data hiding in binary document images. We use the concept of entropy in order to identify document specific least distortive areas throughout the binary document image. The document image is treated as any other image and the proposed method utilizes the standard document characteristics for the embedding process. Proposed method minimizes perceptual distortion due to embedding and allows watermark extraction without the requirement of any side information at the decoder end.

Keywords: Entropy, Steganography, Watermarking.

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4 An Improved Method to Watermark Images Sensitive to Blocking Artifacts

Authors: Afzel Noore

Abstract:

A new digital watermarking technique for images that are sensitive to blocking artifacts is presented. Experimental results show that the proposed MDCT based approach produces highly imperceptible watermarked images and is robust to attacks such as compression, noise, filtering and geometric transformations. The proposed MDCT watermarking technique is applied to fingerprints for ensuring security. The face image and demographic text data of an individual are used as multiple watermarks. An AFIS system was used to quantitatively evaluate the matching performance of the MDCT-based watermarked fingerprint. The high fingerprint matching scores show that the MDCT approach is resilient to blocking artifacts. The quality of the extracted face and extracted text images was computed using two human visual system metrics and the results show that the image quality was high.

Keywords: Digital watermarking, data hiding, modified discretecosine transformation (MDCT).

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3 Cellular Automata Based Robust Watermarking Architecture towards the VLSI Realization

Authors: V. H. Mankar, T. S. Das, S. K. Sarkar

Abstract:

In this paper, we have proposed a novel blind watermarking architecture towards its hardware implementation in VLSI. In order to facilitate this hardware realization, cellular automata (CA) concept is introduced. The CA has been already accepted as an attractive structure for VLSI implementation because of its modularity, parallelism, high performance and reliability. The hardware realizable multiresolution spread spectrum watermarking techniques are very few in numbers in spite of their best ever resiliency against signal impairments. This is because of the computational cost and complexity associated with their different filter banks and lifting techniques. The concept of cellular automata theory in order to form a new transform domain technique i.e. Cellular Automata Transform (CAT) have been incorporated. Since CA provides spreading sequences having very low cross-correlation properties, the CA based pseudorandom sequence generator is considered in the present work. Considering the watermarking technique as a digital communication process, an error control coding (ECC) must be incorporated in the data hiding schemes. Besides the hardware implementation of entire CA based data hiding technique, the individual blocks of the algorithm using CA provide the best result than that of some other methods irrespective of the hardware and software technique. The Cellular Automata Transform, CA based PN sequence generator, and CA ECC are the requisite blocks that are developed not only to meet the reliable hardware requirements but also for the basic spread spectrum watermarking features. The proposed algorithm shows statistical invisibility and resiliency against various common signal-processing operations. This algorithmic design utilizes the existing allocated bandwidth in the data transmission channel in a more efficient manner.

Keywords: Cellular automata, watermarking, error control coding, PN sequence, VLSI.

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2 A Robust Method for Encrypted Data Hiding Technique Based on Neighborhood Pixels Information

Authors: Ali Shariq Imran, M. Younus Javed, Naveed Sarfraz Khattak

Abstract:

This paper presents a novel method for data hiding based on neighborhood pixels information to calculate the number of bits that can be used for substitution and modified Least Significant Bits technique for data embedding. The modified solution is independent of the nature of the data to be hidden and gives correct results along with un-noticeable image degradation. The technique, to find the number of bits that can be used for data hiding, uses the green component of the image as it is less sensitive to human eye and thus it is totally impossible for human eye to predict whether the image is encrypted or not. The application further encrypts the data using a custom designed algorithm before embedding bits into image for further security. The overall process consists of three main modules namely embedding, encryption and extraction cm.

Keywords: Data hiding, image processing, information security, stagonography.

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1 Steganalysis of Data Hiding via Halftoning and Coordinate Projection

Authors: Woong Hee Kim, Ilhwan Park

Abstract:

Steganography is the art of hiding and transmitting data through apparently innocuous carriers in an effort to conceal the existence of the data. A lot of steganography algorithms have been proposed recently. Many of them use the digital image data as a carrier. In data hiding scheme of halftoning and coordinate projection, still image data is used as a carrier, and the data of carrier image are modified for data embedding. In this paper, we present three features for analysis of data hiding via halftoning and coordinate projection. Also, we present a classifier using the proposed three features.

Keywords: Steganography, steganalysis, digital halftoning, data hiding.

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