Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1621

Search results for: Multimedia Database Architecture

1621 Generic Multimedia Database Architecture

Authors: Mohib ur Rehman, Imran Ihsan, Mobin Uddin Ahmed, Nadeem Iftikhar, Muhammad Abdul Qadir

Abstract:

Multimedia, as it stands now is perhaps the most diverse and rich culture around the globe. One of the major needs of Multimedia is to have a single system that enables people to efficiently search through their multimedia catalogues. Many Domain Specific Systems and architectures have been proposed but up till now no generic and complete architecture is proposed. In this paper, we have suggested a generic architecture for Multimedia Database. The main strengths of our architecture besides being generic are Semantic Libraries to reduce semantic gap, levels of feature extraction for more specific and detailed feature extraction according to classes defined by prior level, and merging of two types of queries i.e. text and QBE (Query by Example) for more accurate yet detailed results.

Keywords: Multimedia Database Architecture, Semantics, Feature Extraction, Ontology.

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1620 Context-Aware Querying in Multimedia Databases – A Futuristic Approach

Authors: Nadeem Iftikhar, Zouhaib Zafar, Shaukat Ali

Abstract:

Efficient retrieval of multimedia objects has gained enormous focus in recent years. A number of techniques have been suggested for retrieval of textual information; however, relatively little has been suggested for efficient retrieval of multimedia objects. In this paper we have proposed a generic architecture for contextaware retrieval of multimedia objects. The proposed framework combines the well-known approaches of text-based retrieval and context-aware retrieval to formulate architecture for accurate retrieval of multimedia data.

Keywords: Context-aware retrieval, information retrieval, multimedia databases, multimedia data.

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1619 Specification of Attributes of a Multimedia Presentation for Presentation Manager

Authors: Veli Hakkoymaz, Alpaslan Altunköprü

Abstract:

A multimedia presentation system refers to the integration of a multimedia database with a presentation manager which has the functionality of content selection, organization and playout of multimedia presentations. It requires high performance of involved system components. Starting from multimedia information capture until the presentation delivery, high performance tools are required for accessing, manipulating, storing and retrieving these segments, for transferring and delivering them in a presentation terminal according to a playout order. The organization of presentations is a complex task in that the display order of presentation contents (in time and space) must be specified. A multimedia presentation contains audio, video, images and text media types. The critical decisions for presentation construction include what the contents are, how the contents are organized, and once the decision is made on the organization of the contents of the presentation, it must be conveyed to the end user in the correct organizational order and in a timely fashion. This paper introduces a framework for specification of multimedia presentations and describes the design of sample presentations using this framework from a multimedia database.

Keywords: Multimedia presentation, temporal specification, SMIL, spatial specification.

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1618 SIP-Based QoS Management Architecture for IP Multimedia Subsystems over IP Access Networks

Authors: Umber Iqbal, Shaleeza Sohail, Muhammad Younas Javed

Abstract:

True integration of multimedia services over wired or wireless networks increase the productivity and effectiveness in today-s networks. IP Multimedia Subsystems are Next Generation Network architecture to provide the multimedia services over fixed or mobile networks. This paper proposes an extended SIP-based QoS Management architecture for IMS services over underlying IP access networks. To guarantee the end-to-end QoS for IMS services in interconnection backbone, SIP based proxy Modules are introduced to support the QoS provisioning and to reduce the handoff disruption time over IP access networks. In our approach these SIP Modules implement the combination of Diffserv and MPLS QoS mechanisms to assure the guaranteed QoS for real-time multimedia services. To guarantee QoS over access networks, SIP Modules make QoS resource reservations in advance to provide best QoS to IMS users over heterogeneous networks. To obtain more reliable multimedia services, our approach allows the use of SCTP protocol over SIP instead of UDP due to its multi-streaming feature. This architecture enables QoS provisioning for IMS roaming users to differentiate IMS network from other common IP networks for transmission of realtime multimedia services. To validate our approach simulation models are developed on short scale basis. The results show that our approach yields comparable performance for efficient delivery of IMS services over heterogeneous IP access networks.

Keywords: SIP-Based QoS Management Architecture, IPMultimedia Subsystems, IP Access Networks

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1617 An Example of Open Robot Controller Architecture - For Power Distribution Line Maintenance Robot System -

Authors: Yingxin He, Kyouichi Tatsuno

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose an architecture for easily constructing a robot controller. The architecture is a multi-agent system which has eight agents: the Man-machine interface, Task planner, Task teaching editor, Motion planner, Arm controller, Vehicle controller, Vision system and CG display. The controller has three databases: the Task knowledge database, the Robot database and the Environment database. Based on this controller architecture, we are constructing an experimental power distribution line maintenance robot system and are doing the experiment for the maintenance tasks, for example, “Bolt insertion task".

Keywords: Robot controller, Software library, Maintenance robot, Robot language, Agent system.

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1616 Educational use of Interactive Multimedia based on Museum Collection

Authors: Ji-Hye Lee, Jongdeok Kim

Abstract:

This research investigates the use of digital technology namely interactive multimedia in effective art education provided by museum. Several multimedia experience examples created for art education are study case subjected to assistance audiences- learning within the context of existing theory in the field of interactive multimedia.

Keywords: E-learning, Fine Arts, Interactivity, Multimedia

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1615 The Video Database for Teaching and Learning in Football Refereeing

Authors: M. Armenteros, A. Domínguez, M. Fernández, A. J. Benítez

Abstract:

The following paper describes the video database tool used by the Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) as part of the research project developed in collaboration with the Carlos III University of Madrid. The database project began in 2012, with the aim of creating an educational tool for the training of instructors, referees and assistant referees, and it has been used in all FUTURO III courses since 2013. The platform now contains 3,135 video clips of different match situations from FIFA competitions. It has 1,835 users (FIFA instructors, referees and assistant referees). In this work, the main features of the database are described, such as the use of a search tool and the creation of multimedia presentations and video quizzes. The database has been developed in MySQL, ActionScript, Ruby on Rails and HTML. This tool has been rated by users as "very good" in all courses, which prompt us to introduce it as an ideal tool for any other sport that requires the use of video analysis.

Keywords: Video database, FIFA, refereeing, e-learning.

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1614 Extension and Evaluation of Interface “2D-RIB“ for Impression-Based Retrieval

Authors: S. Kikuchi, Y. Hashimoto, T. Takayama, T. Ikeda, Y. Murata

Abstract:

Recently, lots of researchers are attracted to retrieving multimedia database by using some impression words and their values. Ikezoe-s research is one of the representatives and uses eight pairs of opposite impression words. We had modified its retrieval interface and proposed '2D-RIB'. In '2D-RIB', after a retrieval person selects a single basic music, the system visually shows some other music around the basic one along relative position. He/she can select one of them fitting to his/her intention, as a retrieval result. The purpose of this paper is to improve his/her satisfaction level to the retrieval result in 2D-RIB. One of our extensions is to define and introduce the following two measures: 'melody goodness' and 'general acceptance'. We implement them in different five combinations. According to an evaluation experiment, both of these two measures can contribute to the improvement. Another extension is three types of customization. We have implemented them and clarified which customization is effective.

Keywords: Multimedia database, impression-based retrieval, interface, satisfaction level.

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1613 Extended “2D-RIB“ for Impression-Based Satisfactory Retrieval and its Evaluation

Authors: T. Takayama, S. Kikuchi, Y. Hashimoto, T. Ikeda, Y. Murata

Abstract:

Recently, lots of researchers are attracted to retrieving multimedia database by using some impression words and their values. Ikezoe-s research is one of the representatives and uses eight pairs of opposite impression words. We had modified its retrieval interface and proposed '2D-RIB' in the previous work. The aim of the present paper is to improve his/her satisfaction level to the retrieval result in the 2D-RIB. Our method is to extend the 2D-RIB. One of our extensions is to define and introduce the following two measures: 'melody goodness' and 'general acceptance'. Another extension is three types of customization menus. The result of evaluation using a pilot system is as follows. Both of these two measures 'melody goodness' and -general acceptance- can contribute to the improvement. Moreover, it is effective if we introduce the customization menu which enables a retrieval person to reduce the strictness level of retrieval condition in an impression pair based on his/her need.

Keywords: Multimedia database, impression-based retrieval, interface, satisfaction level.

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1612 Balancing Strategies for Parallel Content-based Data Retrieval Algorithms in a k-tree Structured Database

Authors: Radu Dobrescu, Matei Dobrescu, Daniela Hossu

Abstract:

The paper proposes a unified model for multimedia data retrieval which includes data representatives, content representatives, index structure, and search algorithms. The multimedia data are defined as k-dimensional signals indexed in a multidimensional k-tree structure. The benefits of using the k-tree unified model were demonstrated by running the data retrieval application on a six networked nodes test bed cluster. The tests were performed with two retrieval algorithms, one that allows parallel searching using a single feature, the second that performs a weighted cascade search for multiple features querying. The experiments show a significant reduction of retrieval time while maintaining the quality of results.

Keywords: balancing strategies, multimedia databases, parallelprocessing, retrieval algorithms

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1611 Designing a Motivated Tangible Multimedia System for Preschoolers

Authors: Kien Tsong Chau, Zarina Samsudin, Wan Ahmad Jaafar Wan Yahaya

Abstract:

The paper examined the capability of a prototype of a tangible multimedia system that was augmented with tangible objects in motivating young preschoolers in learning. Preschoolers’ learning behaviour is highly captivated and motivated by external physical stimuli. Hence, conventional multimedia which solely dependent on digital visual and auditory formats for knowledge delivery could potentially place them in inappropriate state of circumstances that are frustrating, boring, or worse, impede overall learning motivations. This paper begins by discussion with the objectives of the research, followed by research questions, hypotheses, ARCS model of motivation adopted in the process of macro-design, and the research instrumentation, Persuasive Multimedia Motivational Scale was deployed for measuring the level of motivation of subjects towards the experimental tangible multimedia. At the close, a succinct description of the findings of a relevant research is provided. In the research, a total of 248 preschoolers recruited from seven Malaysian kindergartens were examined. Analyses revealed that the tangible multimedia system improved preschoolers’ learning motivation significantly more than conventional multimedia. Overall, the findings led to the conclusion that the tangible multimedia system is a motivation conducive multimedia for preschoolers.

Keywords: Tangible multimedia, preschooler, motivation, multimedia.

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1610 Using Automated Database Reverse Engineering for Database Integration

Authors: M. R. Abbasifard, M. Rahgozar, A. Bayati, P. Pournemati

Abstract:

One important problem in today organizations is the existence of non-integrated information systems, inconsistency and lack of suitable correlations between legacy and modern systems. One main solution is to transfer the local databases into a global one. In this regards we need to extract the data structures from the legacy systems and integrate them with the new technology systems. In legacy systems, huge amounts of a data are stored in legacy databases. They require particular attention since they need more efforts to be normalized, reformatted and moved to the modern database environments. Designing the new integrated (global) database architecture and applying the reverse engineering requires data normalization. This paper proposes the use of database reverse engineering in order to integrate legacy and modern databases in organizations. The suggested approach consists of methods and techniques for generating data transformation rules needed for the data structure normalization.

Keywords: Reverse Engineering, Database Integration, System Integration, Data Structure Normalization

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1609 Coloured Petri Nets Model for Web Architectures of Web and Database Servers

Authors: Nidhi Gaur, Padmaja Joshi, Vijay Jain, Rajeev Srivastava

Abstract:

Web application architecture is important to achieve the desired performance for the application. Performance analysis studies are conducted to evaluate existing or planned systems. Web applications are used by hundreds of thousands of users simultaneously, which sometimes increases the risk of server failure in real time operations. We use Coloured Petri Net (CPN), a very powerful tool for modelling dynamic behaviour of a web application system. CPNs extend the vocabulary of ordinary Petri nets and add features that make them suitable for modelling large systems. The major focus of this work is on server side of web applications. The presented work focuses on modelling restructuring aspects, with major focus on concurrency and architecture, using CPN. It also focuses on bringing out the appropriate architecture for web and database servers given the number of concurrent users.

Keywords: Coloured petri nets, concurrent users, performance modelling, web application architecture.

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1608 Natural Language Database Interface for Selection of Data Using Grammar and Parsing

Authors: N. D. Karande, G. A. Patil

Abstract:

Databases have become ubiquitous. Almost all IT applications are storing into and retrieving information from databases. Retrieving information from the database requires knowledge of technical languages such as Structured Query Language (SQL). However majority of the users who interact with the databases do not have a technical background and are intimidated by the idea of using languages such as SQL. This has led to the development of a few Natural Language Database Interfaces (NLDBIs). A NLDBI allows the user to query the database in a natural language. This paper highlights on architecture of new NLDBI system, its implementation and discusses on results obtained. In most of the typical NLDBI systems the natural language statement is converted into an internal representation based on the syntactic and semantic knowledge of the natural language. This representation is then converted into queries using a representation converter. A natural language query is translated to an equivalent SQL query after processing through various stages. The work has been experimented on primitive database queries with certain constraints.

Keywords: Natural language database interface, representation converter, syntactic and semantic knowledge

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1607 The Multimedia Interactive Theatre by Virtual Means Regarding Computational Intelligence in Space Design as HCI and Samples from Turkey

Authors: Pelin Yildiz

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to emphasize the opportunities in space design under the aspect of HCI as performance areas. HCI is a multidisciplinary approach that could be identified in many different areas. The aesthetical reflections of HCI by virtual reality in space design are the high-tech solutions of the new innovations as computational facilities by artistic features. The method of this paper is to identify the subject in 3 main parts. In the first part a general approach and definition of interactivity on the basis of space design; in the second part the concept of multimedia interactive theater by some chosen samples from the world and interactive design aspects; in the third part the samples from Turkey will be identified by stage designing principles. In the results it could be declared that the multimedia database is the virtual approach of theatre stage designing regarding interactive means by computational facilities according to aesthetical aspects. HCI is mostly identified in theatre stages as computational intelligence under the affect of interactivity.

Keywords: Computational intelligence, interactive space, multimedia theatre, virtual reality.

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1606 Testing Database of Information System using Conceptual Modeling

Authors: Bogdan Walek, Cyril Klimes

Abstract:

This paper focuses on testing database of existing information system. At the beginning we describe the basic problems of implemented databases, such as data redundancy, poor design of database logical structure or inappropriate data types in columns of database tables. These problems are often the result of incorrect understanding of the primary requirements for a database of an information system. Then we propose an algorithm to compare the conceptual model created from vague requirements for a database with a conceptual model reconstructed from implemented database. An algorithm also suggests steps leading to optimization of implemented database. The proposed algorithm is verified by an implemented prototype. The paper also describes a fuzzy system which works with the vague requirements for a database of an information system, procedure for creating conceptual from vague requirements and an algorithm for reconstructing a conceptual model from implemented database.

Keywords: testing, database, relational database, information system, conceptual model, fuzzy, uncertain information, database testing, reconstruction, requirements, optimization

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1605 Hippocratic Database: A Privacy-Aware Database

Authors: Norjihan Abdul Ghani, Zailani Mohd Sidek

Abstract:

Nowadays, organizations and business has several motivating factors to protect an individual-s privacy. Confidentiality refers to type of sharing information to third parties. This is always referring to private information, especially for personal information that usually needs to keep as a private. Because of the important of privacy concerns today, we need to design a database system that suits with privacy. Agrawal et. al. has introduced Hippocratic Database also we refer here as a privacy-aware database. This paper will explain how HD can be a future trend for web-based application to enhance their privacy level of trustworthiness among internet users.

Keywords: Hippocratic database, privacy, privacy-aware.

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1604 A Formal Implementation of Database Security

Authors: Yun Bai

Abstract:

This paper is to investigate the impplementation of security mechanism in object oriented database system. Formal methods plays an essential role in computer security due to its powerful expressiveness and concise syntax and semantics. In this paper, both issues of specification and implementation in database security environment will be considered; and the database security is achieved through the development of an efficient implementation of the specification without compromising its originality and expressiveness.

Keywords: database security, authorization policy, logic basedspecification

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1603 Using Multimedia in Computer Based Learning (CBL) A Case Study: Teaching Science to Student

Authors: Maryam Honarmand

Abstract:

Regarding to the fast growth of computer, internet, and virtual learning in our country (Iran) and need computer-based learning systems and multimedia tools as an essential part of such education, designing and implementing such systems would help teach different field such as science. This paper describes the basic principle of multimedia. At the end, with a description of learning science to the infant students, the method of this system will be explained.

Keywords: Multimedia tools, computer based learning, science, student.

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1602 A Graph-Based Approach for Placement of No-Replicated Databases in Grid

Authors: Cherif Haddad, Faouzi Ben Charrada

Abstract:

On a such wide-area environment as a Grid, data placement is an important aspect of distributed database systems. In this paper, we address the problem of initial placement of database no-replicated fragments in Grid architecture. We propose a graph based approach that considers resource restrictions. The goal is to optimize the use of computing, storage and communication resources. The proposed approach is developed in two phases: in the first phase, we perform fragment grouping using knowledge about fragments dependency and, in the second phase, we determine an efficient placement of the fragment groups on the Grid. We also show, via experimental analysis that our approach gives solutions that are close to being optimal for different databases and Grid configurations.

Keywords: Grid computing, Distributed systems, Data resourcesmanagement, Database systems, Database placement.

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1601 A Modified Spiral Search Algorithm and Its Embedded System Architecture Design

Authors: Nikolaos Kroupis, Minas Dasygenis, Dimitrios Soudris, Antonios Thanailakis

Abstract:

One of the most growing areas in the embedded community is multimedia devices. Multimedia devices incorporate a number of complicated functions for their operation, like motion estimation. A multitude of different implementations have been proposed to reduce motion estimation complexity, such as spiral search. We have studied the implementations of spiral search and identified areas of improvement. We propose a modified spiral search algorithm, with lower computational complexity compared to the original spiral search. We have implemented our algorithm on an embedded ARM based architecture, with custom memory hierarchy. The resulting system yields energy consumption reduction up to 64% and performance increase up to 77%, with a small penalty of 2.3 dB, in average, of video quality compared with the original spiral search algorithm.

Keywords: Spiral Search, Motion Estimation, Embedded Systems, Low Power

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1600 A Methodology for Data Migration between Different Database Management Systems

Authors: Bogdan Walek, Cyril Klimes

Abstract:

In present days the area of data migration is very topical. Current tools for data migration in the area of relational database have several disadvantages that are presented in this paper. We propose a methodology for data migration of the database tables and their data between various types of relational database systems (RDBMS). The proposed methodology contains an expert system. The expert system contains a knowledge base that is composed of IFTHEN rules and based on the input data suggests appropriate data types of columns of database tables. The proposed tool, which contains an expert system, also includes the possibility of optimizing the data types in the target RDBMS database tables based on processed data of the source RDBMS database tables. The proposed expert system is shown on data migration of selected database of the source RDBMS to the target RDBMS.

Keywords: Expert system, fuzzy, data migration, database, relational database, data type, relational database management system.

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1599 XML Data Management in Compressed Relational Database

Authors: Hongzhi Wang, Jianzhong Li, Hong Gao

Abstract:

XML is an important standard of data exchange and representation. As a mature database system, using relational database to support XML data may bring some advantages. But storing XML in relational database has obvious redundancy that wastes disk space, bandwidth and disk I/O when querying XML data. For the efficiency of storage and query XML, it is necessary to use compressed XML data in relational database. In this paper, a compressed relational database technology supporting XML data is presented. Original relational storage structure is adaptive to XPath query process. The compression method keeps this feature. Besides traditional relational database techniques, additional query process technologies on compressed relations and for special structure for XML are presented. In this paper, technologies for XQuery process in compressed relational database are presented..

Keywords: XML, compression, query processing

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1598 Database Modelling Using WSML in the Specification of a Banking Application

Authors: Omid Sharifi, Member, ACM, Zeki Bayram, Member, ACM

Abstract:

We demonstrate through a sample application, Ebanking, that the Web Service Modelling Language Ontology component can be used as a very powerful object-oriented database design language with logic capabilities. Its conceptual syntax allows the definition of class hierarchies, and logic syntax allows the definition of constraints in the database. Relations, which are available for modelling relations of three or more concepts, can be connected to logical expressions, allowing the implicit specification of database content. Using a reasoning tool, logic queries can also be made against the database in simulation mode.

Keywords: Semantic web, ontology, E-banking, database, WSML, WSMO, E-R diagram.

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1597 Data Migration between Document-Oriented and Relational Databases

Authors: Bogdan Walek, Cyril Klimes

Abstract:

Current tools for data migration between documentoriented and relational databases have several disadvantages. We propose a new approach for data migration between documentoriented and relational databases. During data migration the relational schema of the target (relational database) is automatically created from collection of XML documents. Proposed approach is verified on data migration between document-oriented database IBM Lotus/ Notes Domino and relational database implemented in relational database management system (RDBMS) MySQL.

Keywords: data migration, database, document-oriented database, XML, relational schema

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1596 A Temporal Synchronization Model for Heterogeneous Data in Distributed Systems

Authors: Jorge Estudillo Ramirez, Saul E. Pomares Hernandez

Abstract:

Multimedia distributed systems deal with heterogeneous data, such as texts, images, graphics, video and audio. The specification of temporal relations among different data types and distributed sources is an open research area. This paper proposes a fully distributed synchronization model to be used in multimedia systems. One original aspect of the model is that it avoids the use of a common reference (e.g. wall clock and shared memory). To achieve this, all possible multimedia temporal relations are specified according to their causal dependencies.

Keywords: Multimedia, Distributed Systems, Partial Ordering, Temporal Synchronization

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1595 The Efficiency of Multimedia Educational Tools in Sport Gymnastics for The Students of Physical Education at Universities

Authors: G. Bago, P. Hedbávný

Abstract:

This contribution was developed from a research within the doctoral thesis. Its object was to create multimedia materials for sport gymnastics. Consequently we surveyed the influence of its practical application on the efficiency of schooling at a university. We verified the prescribed hypothesis of the efficiency of the teaching process using the method of single-factor experiment, where the entrance independent variable was the change of system of tuition and the outgoing dependent variable was the change of level of acquired motor skills. The results confirmed the positive impact of using multimedia materials on the efficiency of the teaching process. Further, with the aid of questionnaires, we evaluated how the tested subjects perceive the innovative methods in sport gymnastics. The responses showed that the students rate the application of multimedia materials very positively.

Keywords: efficiency of education, means of education, multimedia materials, sports gymnastics

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1594 A Review on Terrestrial Multimedia Communication using OFDM Technology

Authors: Shweta Shah, Upena Dalal

Abstract:

The development of wireless communication technologies has changed our living style in global level. After the international success of mobile telephony standards, the location and time independent voice connection has become a default method in daily telecommunications. As for today, highly advanced multimedia messaging plays a key role in value added service handling. Along with evolving data services, the need for more complex applications can be seen, including the mobile usage of broadcast technologies. Here performance of a system design for terrestrial multimedia content is examined with emphasis on mobile reception. This review paper has accommodated the understanding of physical layer role and the flavour of terrestrial channel effects on the terrestrial multimedia transmission using OFDM keeping DVB-H as benchmark standard.

Keywords: Digital Video Broadcast-Handhelds, Multimedia, OFDM, Physical Layer

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1593 A System to Integrate and Manipulate Protein Database Using BioPerl and XML

Authors: Zurinahni Zainol, Rosalina Abdul Salam, Rosni Abdullah, Nur'Aini, Wahidah Husain

Abstract:

The size, complexity and number of databases used for protein information have caused bioinformatics to lag behind in adapting to the need to handle this distributed information. Integrating all the information from different databases into one database is a challenging problem. Our main research is to develop a tool which can be used to access and manipulate protein information from difference databases. In our approach, we have integrated difference databases such as Swiss-prot, PDB, Interpro, and EMBL and transformed these databases in flat file format into relational form using XML and Bioperl. As a result, we showed this tool can search different sizes of protein information stored in relational database and the result can be retrieved faster compared to flat file database. A web based user interface is provided to allow user to access or search for protein information in the local database.

Keywords: Protein sequence database, relational database, integrated database.

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1592 Big Brain: A Single Database System for a Federated Data Warehouse Architecture

Authors: X. Gumara Rigol, I. Martínez de Apellaniz Anzuola, A. Garcia Serrano, A. Franzi Cros, O. Vidal Calbet, A. Al Maruf

Abstract:

Traditional federated architectures for data warehousing work well when corporations have existing regional data warehouses and there is a need to aggregate data at a global level. Schibsted Media Group has been maturing from a decentralised organisation into a more globalised one and needed to build both some of the regional data warehouses for some brands at the same time as the global one. In this paper, we present the architectural alternatives studied and why a custom federated approach was the notable recommendation to go further with the implementation. Although the data warehouses are logically federated, the implementation uses a single database system which presented many advantages like: cost reduction and improved data access to global users allowing consumers of the data to have a common data model for detailed analysis across different geographies and a flexible layer for local specific needs in the same place.

Keywords: Data integration, data warehousing, federated architecture, online analytical processing.

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