Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 732

Search results for: Hybrid

522 Evaluation of a Hybrid Knowledge-Based System Using Fuzzy Approach

Authors: Kamalendu Pal

Abstract:

This paper describes the main features of a knowledge-based system evaluation method. System evaluation is placed in the context of a hybrid legal decision-support system, Advisory Support for Home Settlement in Divorce (ASHSD). Legal knowledge for ASHSD is represented in two forms, as rules and previously decided cases. Besides distinguishing the two different forms of knowledge representation, the paper outlines the actual use of these forms in a computational framework that is designed to generate a plausible solution for a given case, by using rule-based reasoning (RBR) and case-based reasoning (CBR) in an integrated environment. The nature of suitability assessment of a solution has been considered as a multiple criteria decision-making process in ASHAD evaluation. The evaluation was performed by a combination of discussions and questionnaires with different user groups. The answers to questionnaires used in this evaluations method have been measured as a fuzzy linguistic term. The finding suggests that fuzzy linguistic evaluation is practical and meaningful in knowledge-based system development purpose. 

Keywords: Case-based Reasoning, rule-based reasoning, system evaluation, decision-support system, fuzzy linguistic term

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521 Optimum Design of Steel Space Frames by Hybrid Teaching-Learning Based Optimization and Harmony Search Algorithms

Authors: Alper Akın, İbrahim Aydoğdu

Abstract:

This study presents a hybrid metaheuristic algorithm to obtain optimum designs for steel space buildings. The optimum design problem of three-dimensional steel frames is mathematically formulated according to provisions of LRFD-AISC (Load and Resistance factor design of American Institute of Steel Construction). Design constraints such as the strength requirements of structural members, the displacement limitations, the inter-story drift and the other structural constraints are derived from LRFD-AISC specification. In this study, a hybrid algorithm by using teachinglearning based optimization (TLBO) and harmony search (HS) algorithms is employed to solve the stated optimum design problem. These algorithms are two of the recent additions to metaheuristic techniques of numerical optimization and have been an efficient tool for solving discrete programming problems. Using these two algorithms in collaboration creates a more powerful tool and mitigates each other’s weaknesses. To demonstrate the powerful performance of presented hybrid algorithm, the optimum design of a large scale steel building is presented and the results are compared to the previously obtained results available in the literature.

Keywords: harmony search algorithm, optimum structural design, hybrid techniques, teaching-learning based optimization, minimum weight, steel space frame

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520 Hybrid MIMO-OFDM Detection Scheme for High Performance

Authors: Hyoung-Kyu Song, Dong-Hyun Ha, Chang-Bin Ha, Young-Min Ko

Abstract:

In recent years, a multi-antenna system is actively used to improve the performance of the communication. A MIMO-OFDM system can provide multiplexing gain or diversity gain. These gains are obtained in proportion to the increase of the number of antennas. In order to provide the optimal gain of the MIMO-OFDM system, various transmission and reception schemes are presented. This paper aims to propose a hybrid scheme that base station provides both diversity gain and multiplexing gain at the same time.

Keywords: Hybrid, mimo, DFE, diversity gain, multiplexing gain

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519 Fire Resistance of High Alumina Cement and Slag Based Ultra High Performance Fibre-Reinforced Cementitious Composites

Authors: A. Q. Sobia, M. S. Hamidah, I. Azmi, S. F. A. Rafeeqi

Abstract:

Fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) strengthened reinforced concrete (RC) structures are susceptible to intense deterioration when exposed to elevated temperatures, particularly in the incident of fire. FRP has the tendency to lose bond with the substrate due to the low glass transition temperature of epoxy; the key component of FRP matrix.  In the past few decades, various types of high performance cementitious composites (HPCC) were explored for the protection of RC structural members against elevated temperature. However, there is an inadequate information on the influence of elevated temperature on the ultra high performance fibre-reinforced cementitious composites (UHPFRCC) containing ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS) as a replacement of high alumina cement (HAC) in conjunction with hybrid fibres (basalt and polypropylene fibres), which could be a prospective fire resisting material for the structural components. The influence of elevated temperatures on the compressive as well as flexural strength of UHPFRCC, made of HAC-GGBS and hybrid fibres, were examined in this study. Besides control sample (without fibres), three other samples, containing 0.5%, 1% and 1.5% of basalt fibres by total weight of mix and 1 kg/m3 of polypropylene fibres, were prepared and tested. Another mix was also prepared with only 1 kg/m3 of polypropylene fibres. Each of the samples were retained at ambient temperature as well as exposed to 400, 700 and 1000 °C followed by testing after 28 and 56 days of conventional curing. Investigation of results disclosed that the use of hybrid fibres significantly helped to improve the ambient temperature compressive and flexural strength of UHPFRCC, which was found to be 80 and 14.3 MPa respectively. However, the optimum residual compressive strength was marked by UHPFRCC-CP (with polypropylene fibres only), equally after both curing days (28 and 56 days), i.e. 41%. In addition, the utmost residual flexural strength, after 28 and 56 days of curing, was marked by UHPFRCC– CP and UHPFRCC– CB2 (1 kg/m3 of PP fibres + 1% of basalt fibres) i.e. 39% and 48.5% respectively.

Keywords: high-alumina cement, ground granulated blast furnace slag, Fibre reinforced polymer materials, hybrid fibres

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518 Study of Tribological Behaviour of Al6061/Silicon Carbide/Graphite Hybrid Metal Matrix Composite Using Taguchi's Techniques

Authors: Mohamed Zakaulla, A. R. Anwar Khan

Abstract:

Al6061 alloy base matrix, reinforced with particles of silicon carbide (10 wt %) and Graphite powder (1wt%), known as hybrid composites have been fabricated by liquid metallurgy route (stir casting technique) and optimized at different parameters like applied load, sliding speed and sliding distance by taguchi method. A plan of experiment generated through taguchi technique was used to perform experiments based on L27 orthogonal array. The developed ANOVA and regression equations are used to find the optimum coefficient of friction and wear under the influence of applied load, sliding speed and sliding distance. On the basis of “smaller the best” the dry sliding wear resistance was analysed and finally confirmation tests were carried out to verify the experimental results.

Keywords: orthogonal array, analysis of variance, dry sliding wear, Taguchi technique, Hybrid composite

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517 Development and Characterization of Bio-Tribological, Nano-Multilayer Coatings for Medical Tools Application

Authors: L. Major, J. M. Lackner, M. Dyner, B. Major

Abstract:

Development of new generation bio-tribological, multilayer coatings opens an avenue for fabrication of future hightech functional surfaces. In the presented work, nano-composite, Cr/CrN+[Cr/ a-C:H implanted by metallic nanocrystals] multilayer coatings have been developed for surface protection of medical tools. Thin films were fabricated by a hybrid Pulsed Laser Deposition technique. Complex microstructure analysis of nanomultilayer coatings, subjected to mechanical and biological tests, were performed by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Microstructure characterization revealed the layered arrangement of Cr23C6 nanoparticles in multilayer structure. Influence of deposition conditions on bio-tribological properties of the coatings was studied. The bio-tests were used as a screening tool for the analyzed nanomultilayer coatings before they could be deposited on medical tools. Bio-medical tests were done using fibroblasts. The mechanical properties of the coatings were investigated by means of a ball-ondisc mechanical test. The micro hardness was done using Berkovich indenter. The scratch adhesion test was done using Rockwell indenter. From the bio-tribological point of view, the optimal properties had the C106_1 material.

Keywords: Tribology, hybrid PLD, cell-material interaction, Bio-tribological coatings

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516 Characterization Study of Aluminium 6061 Hybrid Composite

Authors: P. R. Prabhu, S. S. Sharma, U. Achutha Kini, K. Jagannath, Gowri Shankar M. C.

Abstract:

Aluminium matrix composites with alumina reinforcements give superior mechanical & physical properties. Their applications in several fields like automobile, aerospace, defense, sports, electronics, bio-medical and other industrial purposes are becoming essential for the last several decades. In the present work, fabrication of hybrid composite was done by Stir casting technique using Al 6061 as a matrix with alumina and silicon carbide (SiC) as reinforcement materials. The weight percentage of alumina is varied from 2 to 4% and the silicon carbide weight percentage is maintained constant at 2%. Hardness and wear tests are performed in the as cast and heat treated conditions. Age hardening treatment was performed on the specimen with solutionizing at 550°C, aging at two temperatures (150 and 200°C) for different time durations. Hardness distribution curves are drawn and peak hardness values are recorded. Hardness increase was very sensitive with respect to the decrease in aging temperature. There was an improvement in wear resistance of the peak aged material when aged at lower temperature. Also increase in weight percent of alumina, increases wear resistance at lower temperature but opposite behavior was seen when aged at higher temperature.

Keywords: hybrid composite, hardness test, wear test, pin on disc wear testing machine, heat treatment

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515 Wind Diesel Hybrid System without Battery Energy Storage Using Imperialist Competitive Algorithm

Authors: H. Rezvani, A. Hekmati

Abstract:

Nowadays, the use of renewable energy sources has been increasingly great because of the cost increase and public demand for clean energy sources. One of the fastest growing sources is wind energy. In this paper, Wind Diesel Hybrid System (WDHS) comprising a Diesel Generator (DG), a Wind Turbine Generator (WTG), the Consumer Load, a Battery-based Energy Storage System (BESS), and a Dump Load (DL) is used. Voltage is controlled by Diesel Generator; the frequency is controlled by BESS and DL. The BESS elimination is an efficient way to reduce maintenance cost and increase the dynamic response. Simulation results with graphs for the frequency of Power System, active power, and the battery power are presented for load changes. The controlling parameters are optimized by using Imperialist Competitive Algorithm (ICA). The simulation results for the BESS/no BESS cases are compared. Results show that in no BESS case, the frequency control is more optimal than the BESS case by using ICA. 

Keywords: Renewable Energy, energy storage, imperialist competitive algorithm, wind diesel system, Induction Generator

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514 How Does Improving the Existing DSL Infrastructure Influence the Expansion of Fiber Technology?

Authors: P. Winzer, E. Massarczyk

Abstract:

Experts, enterprises and operators expect that the bandwidth request will increase up to rates of 100 to 1,000 Mbps within several years. Therefore the most important question is which technology shall satisfy the future consumer broadband demands. Currently the consensus is, that the fiber technology has the best technical characteristics to achieve such the high bandwidth rates. But fiber technology is so far very cost-intensive and resource consuming. To avoid these investments, operators are concentrating to upgrade the existing copper and hybrid fiber coax infrastructures. This work presents a comparison of the copper and fiber technologies including an overview about the current German broadband market. Both technologies are reviewed in the terms of demand, willingness to pay and economic efficiency in connection with the technical characteristics.

Keywords: broadband customer demand, fiber development, g.fast, vectoring, willingness to payfor broadband services

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513 Networking the Biggest Challenge in Hybrid Cloud Deployment

Authors: Aishwarya Shekhar, Devesh Kumar Srivastava

Abstract:

Cloud computing has emerged as a promising direction for cost efficient and reliable service delivery across data communication networks. The dynamic location of service facilities and the virtualization of hardware and software elements are stressing the communication networks and protocols, especially when data centres are interconnected through the internet. Although the computing aspects of cloud technologies have been largely investigated, lower attention has been devoted to the networking services without involving IT operating overhead. Cloud computing has enabled elastic and transparent access to infrastructure services without involving IT operating overhead. Virtualization has been a key enabler for cloud computing. While resource virtualization and service abstraction have been widely investigated, networking in cloud remains a difficult puzzle. Even though network has significant role in facilitating hybrid cloud scenarios, it hasn't received much attention in research community until recently. We propose Network as a Service (NaaS), which forms the basis of unifying public and private clouds. In this paper, we identify various challenges in adoption of hybrid cloud. We discuss the design and implementation of a cloud platform.

Keywords: Networking, Cloud Computing, Infrastructure, open stack, naas, hybrid cloud

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512 A Comparative Study of Malware Detection Techniques Using Machine Learning Methods

Authors: Cristina Vatamanu, Doina Cosovan, Dragoş Gavriluţ, Henri Luchian

Abstract:

In the past few years, the amount of malicious software increased exponentially and, therefore, machine learning algorithms became instrumental in identifying clean and malware files through (semi)-automated classification. When working with very large datasets, the major challenge is to reach both a very high malware detection rate and a very low false positive rate. Another challenge is to minimize the time needed for the machine learning algorithm to do so. This paper presents a comparative study between different machine learning techniques such as linear classifiers, ensembles, decision trees or various hybrids thereof. The training dataset consists of approximately 2 million clean files and 200.000 infected files, which is a realistic quantitative mixture. The paper investigates the above mentioned methods with respect to both their performance (detection rate and false positive rate) and their practicability.

Keywords: Hybrid methods, Feature selection, Perceptron, Decision Tree, ensembles, false positives, Detection rate, One Side Class

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511 Design and Performance Evaluation of Hybrid Corrugated-GFRP Infill Panels

Authors: Wooyoung Jung, HoYoung Son

Abstract:

This study presented to reduce earthquake damage and emergency rehabilitation of critical structures such as schools, hightech factories, and hospitals due to strong ground motions associated with climate changes. Regarding recent trend, a strong earthquake causes serious damage to critical structures and then the critical structure might be influenced by sequence aftershocks (or tsunami) due to fault plane adjustments. Therefore, in order to improve seismic performance of critical structures, retrofitted or strengthening study of the structures under aftershocks sequence after emergency rehabilitation of the structures subjected to strong earthquakes is widely carried out. Consequently, this study used composite material for emergency rehabilitation of the structure rather than concrete and steel materials because of high strength and stiffness, lightweight, rapid manufacturing, and dynamic performance. Also, this study was to develop or improve the seismic performance or seismic retrofit of critical structures subjected to strong ground motions and earthquake aftershocks, by utilizing GFRP-Corrugated Infill Panels (GCIP).

Keywords: Seismic Retrofitting, Composite Material, aftershock, GFRP, infill panel

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510 New Security Approach of Confidential Resources in Hybrid Clouds

Authors: Haythem Yahyaoui, Samir Moalla, Mounir Bouden, Skander Ghorbel

Abstract:

Nowadays, cloud environments are becoming a need for companies, this new technology gives the opportunities to access to the data anywhere and anytime. It also provides an optimized and secured access to the resources and gives more security for the data which is stored in the platform. However, some companies do not trust Cloud providers, they think that providers can access and modify some confidential data such as bank accounts. Many works have been done in this context, they conclude that encryption methods realized by providers ensure the confidentiality, but, they forgot that Cloud providers can decrypt the confidential resources. The best solution here is to apply some operations on the data before sending them to the provider Cloud in the objective to make them unreadable. The principal idea is to allow user how it can protect his data with his own methods. In this paper, we are going to demonstrate our approach and prove that is more efficient in term of execution time than some existing methods. This work aims at enhancing the quality of service of providers and ensuring the trust of the customers. 

Keywords: Cryptography, Confidentiality, Security Issues, trust issues

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509 Thermal Regeneration of CO2 Spent Palm Shell-Polyetheretherketone Activated Carbon Sorbents

Authors: Usman D. Hamza, Noor S. Nasri, Mohammed Jibril, Husna Mohd Zain

Abstract:

Activated carbons (M4P0, M4P2, and M5P2) used in this research were produced from palm shell and polyetherether ketone (PEEK) via carbonization, impregnation and microwave activation. The adsorption/desorption process was carried out using static volumetric adsorption. Regeneration is important in the overall economy of the process and waste minimization. This work focuses on the thermal regeneration of the CO2 exhausted microwave activated carbons. The regeneration strategy adopted was thermal with nitrogen purge desorption with N2 feed flow rate of 20 ml/min for 1 h at atmospheric pressure followed by drying at 150oC.Seven successive adsorption/regeneration processes were carried out on the material. It was found that after seven adsorption regeneration cycles; the regeneration efficiency (RE) for CO2 activated carbon from palm shell only (M4P0) was more than 90% while that of hybrid palm shell-PEEK (M4P2, M5P2) was above 95%. The cyclic adsorption and regeneration shows the stability of the adsorbent materials.

Keywords: Thermal, Regeneration, activated carbon, palm shell-PEEK

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508 Hybrid Control Mode Based On Multi-Sensor Information by Fuzzy Approach for Navigation Task of Autonomous Mobile Robot

Authors: Jonqlan Lin, C. Y. Tasi, K. H. Lin

Abstract:

This paper addresses the issue of the autonomous mobile robot (AMR) navigation task based on the hybrid control modes. The novel hybrid control mode, based on multi-sensors information by using the fuzzy approach, has been presented in this research. The system operates in real time, is robust, enables the robot to operate with imprecise knowledge, and takes into account the physical limitations of the environment in which the robot moves, obtaining satisfactory responses for a large number of different situations. An experiment is simulated and carried out with a pioneer mobile robot. From the experimental results, the effectiveness and usefulness of the proposed AMR obstacle avoidance and navigation scheme are confirmed. The experimental results show the feasibility, and the control system has improved the navigation accuracy. The implementation of the controller is robust, has a low execution time, and allows an easy design and tuning of the fuzzy knowledge base.

Keywords: MEMS, obstacle avoidance, autonomous mobile robot, hybrid control mode, navigation control

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507 Intelligent Path Tracking Hybrid Fuzzy Controller for a Unicycle-Type Differential Drive Robot

Authors: Abdullah M. Almeshal, Mohammad R. Alenezi, Muhammad Moaz

Abstract:

In this paper, we discuss the performance of applying hybrid spiral dynamic bacterial chemotaxis (HSDBC) optimisation algorithm on an intelligent controller for a differential drive robot. A unicycle class of differential drive robot is utilised to serve as a basis application to evaluate the performance of the HSDBC algorithm. A hybrid fuzzy logic controller is developed and implemented for the unicycle robot to follow a predefined trajectory. Trajectories of various frictional profiles and levels were simulated to evaluate the performance of the robot at different operating conditions. Controller gains and scaling factors were optimised using HSDBC and the performance is evaluated in comparison to previously adopted optimisation algorithms. The HSDBC has proven its feasibility in achieving a faster convergence toward the optimal gains and resulted in a superior performance.

Keywords: Optimization, differential drive robot, hybrid fuzzy controller, path tracking, unicycle robot

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506 New Hybrid Method to Model Extreme Rainfalls

Authors: A. Amar, Y. Laaroussi, Z. Guennoun

Abstract:

Modeling and forecasting dynamics of rainfall occurrences constitute one of the major topics, which have been largely treated by statisticians, hydrologists, climatologists and many other groups of scientists. In the same issue, we propose, in the present paper, a new hybrid method, which combines Extreme Values and fractal theories. We illustrate the use of our methodology for transformed Emberger Index series, constructed basing on data recorded in Oujda (Morocco). The index is treated at first by Peaks Over Threshold (POT) approach, to identify excess observations over an optimal threshold u. In the second step, we consider the resulting excess as a fractal object included in one dimensional space of time. We identify fractal dimension by the box counting. We discuss the prospect descriptions of rainfall data sets under Generalized Pareto Distribution, assured by Extreme Values Theory (EVT). We show that, despite of the appropriateness of return periods given by POT approach, the introduction of fractal dimension provides accurate interpretation results, which can ameliorate apprehension of rainfall occurrences.

Keywords: extreme values theory, fractals dimensions, rainfall occurrences, Peaks Over Threshold

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505 Ab initio Study of Co2ZrGe and Co2NbB Full Heusler Compounds

Authors: Abada Ahmed, Hiadsi Said, Ouahrani Tarik, Amrani Bouhalouane, Amara Kadda

Abstract:

Using the first-principles full-potential linearized augmented plane wave plus local orbital (FP-LAPW+lo) method based on density functional theory (DFT), we have investigated the electronic structure and magnetism of full Heusler alloys Co2ZrGe and Co2NbB. These compounds are predicted to be half-metallic ferromagnets (HMFs) with a total magnetic moment of 2.000 B per formula unit, well consistent with the Slater-Pauling rule. Calculations show that both the alloys have an indirect band gaps, in the minority-spin channel of density of states (DOS), with values of 0.58 eV and 0.47 eV for Co2ZrGe and Co2NbB, respectively. Analysis of the DOS and magnetic moments indicates that their magnetism is mainly related to the d-d hybridization between the Co and Zr (or Nb) atoms. The half-metallicity is found to be relatively robust against volume changes. In addition, an atom inside molecule AIM formalism and an electron localization function ELF were also adopted to study the bonding properties of these compounds, building a bridge between their electronic and bonding behavior. As they have a good crystallographic compatibility with the lattice of semiconductors used industrially and negative calculated cohesive energies with considerable absolute values these two alloys could be promising magnetic materials in the spintronic field.

Keywords: Magnetic Properties, Electronic Properties, full Heusler alloys, halfmetallic ferromagnets

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504 Effects of Kenaf and Rice Husk on Water Absorption and Flexural Properties of Kenaf/CaCO3/HDPE and Rice Husk/CaCO3/HDPE Hybrid Composites

Authors: Noor Zuhaira Abd Aziz, Rahmah Mohamed, Mohd Muizz Fahimi M.

Abstract:

Rice husk and kenaf filled with calcium carbonate (CaCO3) and high density polyethylene (HDPE) composite were prepared separately using twin-screw extruder at 50rpm. Different filler loading up to 30 parts of rice husk particulate and kenaf fiber were mixed with the fixed 30% amount of CaCO3 mineral filler to produce rice husk/CaCO3/HDPE and kenaf/CaCO3/HDPE hybrid composites. In this study, the effects of natural fiber for both rice husk and kenaf in CaCO3/HDPE composite on physical, mechanical and morphology properties were investigated. Field Emission Scanning Microscope (FeSEM) was used to investigate the impact fracture surfaces of the hybrid composite. The property analyses showed that water absorption increased with the presence of kenaf and rice husk fillers. Natural fibers in composite significantly influence water absorption properties due to natural characters of fibers which contain cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin structures. The result showed that 10% of additional natural fibers into hybrid composite had caused decreased flexural strength, however additional of high natural fiber (>10%) filler loading has proved to increase its flexural strength.

Keywords: Hybrid Composites, water absorption, Mechanical properties

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503 Weight Loss Degradation of Hybrid Blends LLDPE/Starch/PVA upon Exposure to UV Light and Soil Burial

Authors: Noor Zuhaira Abd Aziz, M. Rahmah, M. Mohd Muizz Fahimi, M. Farhan

Abstract:

Poly bag and mulch films for agricultural field caused pose environmental problem due to the non-degradable plastics wastes upon disposal. Thus, a degradable poly bag was designed with hybrid sago starch (SS) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). Two Different blended compositions of SS and PVA hybrid have been compounded. Then, the hybrids blended are mixed with linear line density polyethylene (LLDPE) resin to fabricate poly bag film through conventional film blowing process. Samples of LLDPE, SS and PVA hybrid film were exposed to UV light and soil burial. The weight losses were determined during degradation process. Hybrid film by degradation of starch was found to hydrolyze and hydroxyl groups decrease on esterification upon exposure to soil burial and uv radiation. It was found out that, the hybrid film for 60% of SS composition showed greatest degradation in soil and UV radiation.

Keywords: degradation, UV radiation, PVA, LLDPE, sago starch, soil burial

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502 Scheduling Multiple Workflow Using De-De Dodging Algorithm and PBD Algorithm in Cloud: Detailed Study

Authors: B. Arun Kumar, T. Ravichandran

Abstract:

Workflow scheduling is an important part of cloud computing and based on different criteria it decides cost, execution time, and performances. A cloud workflow system is a platform service facilitating automation of distributed applications based on new cloud infrastructure. An aspect which differentiates cloud workflow system from others is market-oriented business model, an innovation which challenges conventional workflow scheduling strategies. Time and Cost optimization algorithm for scheduling Hybrid Clouds (TCHC) algorithm decides which resource should be chartered from public providers is combined with a new De-De algorithm considering that every instance of single and multiple workflows work without deadlocks. To offset this, two new concepts - De-De Dodging Algorithm and Priority Based Decisive Algorithm - combine with conventional deadlock avoidance issues by proposing one algorithm that maximizes active (not just allocated) resource use and reduces Makespan.

Keywords: makespan, Workflow Scheduling, cloud workflow, TCHC algorithm, De-De Dodging Algorithm, Priority Based Decisive Algorithm (PBD)

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501 Low Complexity Peak-to-Average Power Ratio Reduction in Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing System by Simultaneously Applying Partial Transmit Sequence and Clipping Algorithms

Authors: V. Sudha, D. Sriram Kumar

Abstract:

Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) has been used in many advanced wireless communication systems due to its high spectral efficiency and robustness to frequency selective fading channels. However, the major concern with OFDM system is the high peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) of the transmitted signal. Some of the popular techniques used for PAPR reduction in OFDM system are conventional partial transmit sequences (CPTS) and clipping. In this paper, a parallel combination/hybrid scheme of PAPR reduction using clipping and CPTS algorithms is proposed. The proposed method intelligently applies both the algorithms in order to reduce both PAPR as well as computational complexity. The proposed scheme slightly degrades bit error rate (BER) performance due to clipping operation and it can be reduced by selecting an appropriate value of the clipping ratio (CR). The simulation results show that the proposed algorithm achieves significant PAPR reduction with much reduced computational complexity.

Keywords: OFDM, PAPR, CCDF, PTS

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500 Feasibility Study and Developing Appropriate Hybrid Energy Systems in Regional Level

Authors: Ahmad Rouhani

Abstract:

Iran has several potential for using renewable energies, so use them could significantly contribute to energy supply. The purpose of this paper is to identify the potential of the country and select the appropriate DG technologies with consideration the potential and primary energy resources in the regions. In this context, hybrid energy systems proportionate with the potential of different regions will be determined based on technical, economic, and environmental aspect. In the following the proposed structure will be optimized in terms of size and cost. DG technologies used in this project include photovoltaic system, wind turbine, diesel generator and battery bank. The HOMER software is applied for choosing the appropriate structure and the optimization of system sizing. The results have been analyzed in terms of technical and economic. The performance and the cost of each project demonstrate the appropriate structure of hybrid energy system in that region.

Keywords: Renewable Energy, Iran, feasibility, hybrid energy system

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499 A Hybrid Method for Determination of Effective Poles Using Clustering Dominant Pole Algorithm

Authors: Anuj Abraham, N. Pappa, Daniel Honc, Rahul Sharma

Abstract:

In this paper, an analysis of some model order reduction techniques is presented. A new hybrid algorithm for model order reduction of linear time invariant systems is compared with the conventional techniques namely Balanced Truncation, Hankel Norm reduction and Dominant Pole Algorithm (DPA). The proposed hybrid algorithm is known as Clustering Dominant Pole Algorithm (CDPA), is able to compute the full set of dominant poles and its cluster center efficiently. The dominant poles of a transfer function are specific eigenvalues of the state space matrix of the corresponding dynamical system. The effectiveness of this novel technique is shown through the simulation results.

Keywords: Clustering, balanced truncation, dominant pole, Hankel norm, model reduction

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498 Do Persistent and Transitory Hybrid Entrepreneurs Differ?

Authors: Anmari H. Viljamaa, Elina M. Varamäki

Abstract:

In this study, we compare the profiles of transitory hybrid entrepreneurs and persistent hybrid entrepreneurs to determine how they differ. Hybrid entrepreneurs (HEs) represent a significant share of entrepreneurial activity yet little is known about them. We define HEs as individuals who are active as entrepreneurs but do no support themselves primarily by their enterprise. Persistent HEs (PHEs) are not planning to transition to fulltime entrepreneurship whereas transitory HEs (THEs) consider it probable. Our results show that THEs and PHEs are quite similar in background. THEs are more interested in increasing their turnover than PHEs, as expected, but also emphasize self-fulfillment as a motive for entrepreneurship more than PHEs. The clearest differences between THEs and PHEs are found in their views on how well their immediate circle supports full-time entrepreneurship, and their views of their own entrepreneurial abilities and the market potential of their firm. Our results support earlier arguments that hybrids should be considered separately in research on entrepreneurial entry and self-employment.

Keywords: Self-Employment, theory of planned behavior, hybrid entrepreneurship, part-time entrepreneurship

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497 Process Design and Application of Aerobic Hybrid Bioreactor in the Treatment of Municipal Wastewater

Authors: Debabrata Mazumder, Sushovan Sarkar

Abstract:

Hybrid bioreactor having both suspended-growth and attached-growth bacteria is found a novel and excellent bioreactor system for treating the municipal wastewater containing inhibitory substrates too. In this reactor a fraction of substrate is used by suspended biomass and the remaining by attached biomass resulting in the competition between the two growths for the substrate. The combination of suspended and attached growth provides the system with enhanced biomass concentration and sludge age more than those in ASP. Similar to attached growth system, the hybrid bioreactor ensures considerable efficiency for treating toxic and refractory substances in wastewater. For the process design of hybrid bioreactor a suitable mathematical model is required. Although various mathematical models were developed on hybrid bioreactor in due course of time in earlier research works, none of them was found having a specific simplified solution of the corresponding models and without having any drawback. To overcome this drawback authors already developed a simplified mathematical model for process design of a hybrid bioreactor. The present paper briefly highlights on the various aspects of process design of an aerobic hybrid bioreactor for the treatment of municipal wastewater.

Keywords: Application, Municipal Wastewater, mathematical model, Hybrid bioreactor, process design

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496 Some Yield Parameters of Wheat Genotypes

Authors: Shatha A. Yousif, Hatem Jasim, Ali R. Abas, Dheya P. Yousef

Abstract:

To study the effect of the cross direction in bead wheat, three hybrid combinations (Babyle 113, Iratome), (Sawa, Tamose2) and (Al Hashymya, Al Iraq) were tested for plant height, spike and awn length, number of grains per spike, 1000-grain weight, number of tillers/m and grain yield. The results revealed that the direction of the crosses significantly effect on the number of grains/spike, number of tillers/m and grain yields. Grain yield was positively and significantly correlated with 1000-grain weight, number of grains per spike and tillers. Depend on the results of heritability and genetic advance it was suggested that 1000-grain weight, number of grains per spike and tillers should be given emphasis for future wheat yield improvement programs.

Keywords: correlation, Wheat, Heritability, yield traits, genetic advance

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495 Performance Evaluation of Task Scheduling Algorithm on LCQ Network

Authors: Zaki Ahmad Khan, Jamshed Siddiqui, Abdus Samad

Abstract:

The Scheduling and mapping of tasks on a set of processors is considered as a critical problem in parallel and distributed computing system. This paper deals with the problem of dynamic scheduling on a special type of multiprocessor architecture known as Linear Crossed Cube (LCQ) network. This proposed multiprocessor is a hybrid network which combines the features of both linear types of architectures as well as cube based architectures. Two standard dynamic scheduling schemes namely Minimum Distance Scheduling (MDS) and Two Round Scheduling (TRS) schemes are implemented on the LCQ network. Parallel tasks are mapped and the imbalance of load is evaluated on different set of processors in LCQ network. The simulations results are evaluated and effort is made by means of through analysis of the results to obtain the best solution for the given network in term of load imbalance left and execution time. The other performance matrices like speedup and efficiency are also evaluated with the given dynamic algorithms.

Keywords: Mapping, dynamic algorithm, load imbalance, Task scheduling

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494 IBFO_PSO: Evaluating the Performance of Bio-Inspired Integrated Bacterial Foraging Optimization Algorithm and Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm in MANET Routing

Authors: C. Rajan, K. Geetha, P. Thangaraj, C. Rasi Priya, S. Geetha

Abstract:

This paper presents the performance of Integrated Bacterial Foraging Optimization and Particle Swarm Optimization (IBFO_PSO) technique in MANET routing. The BFO is a bio-inspired algorithm, which simulates the foraging behavior of bacteria. It is effectively applied in improving the routing performance in MANET. In results, it is proved that the PSO integrated with BFO reduces routing delay, energy consumption and communication overhead.

Keywords: Ant colony optimization, Particle Swarm Optimization, Bacterial Foraging Optimization, Hybrid Routing Intelligent Algorithm, Naturally inspired algorithms

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493 Test Data Compression Using a Hybrid of Bitmask Dictionary and 2n Pattern Runlength Coding Methods

Authors: C. Kalamani, K. Paramasivam

Abstract:

In VLSI, testing plays an important role. Major problem in testing are test data volume and test power. The important solution to reduce test data volume and test time is test data compression. The Proposed technique combines the bit maskdictionary and 2n pattern run length-coding method and provides a substantial improvement in the compression efficiency without introducing any additional decompression penalty. This method has been implemented using Mat lab and HDL Language to reduce test data volume and memory requirements. This method is applied on various benchmark test sets and compared the results with other existing methods. The proposed technique can achieve a compression ratio up to 86%.

Keywords: SoC, System-On-Chip, Bit Mask dictionary, test data compression

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