Search results for: Sine Cosine algorithm.
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3479

Search results for: Sine Cosine algorithm.

3479 A Hybrid Multi-Objective Firefly-Sine Cosine Algorithm for Multi-Objective Optimization Problem

Authors: Gaohuizi Guo, Ning Zhang

Abstract:

Firefly algorithm (FA) and Sine Cosine algorithm (SCA) are two very popular and advanced metaheuristic algorithms. However, these algorithms applied to multi-objective optimization problems have some shortcomings, respectively, such as premature convergence and limited exploration capability. Combining the privileges of FA and SCA while avoiding their deficiencies may improve the accuracy and efficiency of the algorithm. This paper proposes a hybridization of FA and SCA algorithms, named multi-objective firefly-sine cosine algorithm (MFA-SCA), to develop a more efficient meta-heuristic algorithm than FA and SCA.

Keywords: Firefly algorithm, hybrid algorithm, multi-objective optimization, Sine Cosine algorithm.

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3478 L1-Convergence of Modified Trigonometric Sums

Authors: Sandeep Kaur Chouhan, Jatinderdeep Kaur, S. S. Bhatia

Abstract:

The existence of sine and cosine series as a Fourier series, their L1-convergence seems to be one of the difficult question in theory of convergence of trigonometric series in L1-metric norm. In the literature so far available, various authors have studied the L1-convergence of cosine and sine trigonometric series with special coefficients. In this paper, we present a modified cosine and sine sums and criterion for L1-convergence of these modified sums is obtained. Also, a necessary and sufficient condition for the L1-convergence of the cosine and sine series is deduced as corollaries.

Keywords: Conjugate Dirichlet kernel, Dirichlet kernel, L1-convergence, modified sums.

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3477 Coefficients of Some Double Trigonometric Cosine and Sine Series

Authors: Jatinderdeep Kaur

Abstract:

In this paper, the results of Kano from one dimensional cosine and sine series are extended to two dimensional cosine and sine series. To extend these results, some classes of coefficient sequences such as class of semi convexity and class R are extended from one dimension to two dimensions. Further, the function f(x, y) is two dimensional Fourier Cosine and Sine series or equivalently it represents an integrable function or not, has been studied. Moreover, some results are obtained which are generalization of Moricz’s results.

Keywords: Conjugate Dirichlet kernel, conjugate Fejer kernel, Fourier series, Semi-convexity.

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3476 Using Genetic Algorithm to Improve Information Retrieval Systems

Authors: Ahmed A. A. Radwan, Bahgat A. Abdel Latef, Abdel Mgeid A. Ali, Osman A. Sadek

Abstract:

This study investigates the use of genetic algorithms in information retrieval. The method is shown to be applicable to three well-known documents collections, where more relevant documents are presented to users in the genetic modification. In this paper we present a new fitness function for approximate information retrieval which is very fast and very flexible, than cosine similarity fitness function.

Keywords: Cosine similarity, Fitness function, Genetic Algorithm, Information Retrieval, Query learning.

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3475 2.5D Face Recognition Using Gabor Discrete Cosine Transform

Authors: Ali Cheraghian, Farshid Hajati, Soheila Gheisari, Yongsheng Gao

Abstract:

In this paper, we present a novel 2.5D face recognition method based on Gabor Discrete Cosine Transform (GDCT). In the proposed method, the Gabor filter is applied to extract feature vectors from the texture and the depth information. Then, Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) is used for dimensionality and redundancy reduction to improve computational efficiency. The system is combined texture and depth information in the decision level, which presents higher performance compared to methods, which use texture and depth information, separately. The proposed algorithm is examined on publically available Bosphorus database including models with pose variation. The experimental results show that the proposed method has a higher performance compared to the benchmark.

Keywords: Gabor filter, discrete cosine transform, 2.5D face recognition, pose.

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3474 Approximate Range-Sum Queries over Data Cubes Using Cosine Transform

Authors: Wen-Chi Hou, Cheng Luo, Zhewei Jiang, Feng Yan

Abstract:

In this research, we propose to use the discrete cosine transform to approximate the cumulative distributions of data cube cells- values. The cosine transform is known to have a good energy compaction property and thus can approximate data distribution functions easily with small number of coefficients. The derived estimator is accurate and easy to update. We perform experiments to compare its performance with a well-known technique - the (Haar) wavelet. The experimental results show that the cosine transform performs much better than the wavelet in estimation accuracy, speed, space efficiency, and update easiness.

Keywords: DCT, Data Cube

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3473 Numerical Inverse Laplace Transform Using Chebyshev Polynomial

Authors: Vinod Mishra, Dimple Rani

Abstract:

In this paper, numerical approximate Laplace transform inversion algorithm based on Chebyshev polynomial of second kind is developed using odd cosine series. The technique has been tested for three different functions to work efficiently. The illustrations show that the new developed numerical inverse Laplace transform is very much close to the classical analytic inverse Laplace transform.

Keywords: Chebyshev polynomial, Numerical inverse Laplace transform, Odd cosine series.

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3472 Design of an M-Channel Cosine Modulated Filter Bank by New Cosh Window Based FIR Filters

Authors: Jyotsna Ogale, Alok Jain

Abstract:

In this paper newly reported Cosh window function is used in the design of prototype filter for M-channel Near Perfect Reconstruction (NPR) Cosine Modulated Filter Bank (CMFB). Local search optimization algorithm is used for minimization of distortion parameters by optimizing the filter coefficients of prototype filter. Design examples are presented and comparison has been made with Kaiser window based filterbank design of recently reported work. The result shows that the proposed design approach provides lower distortion parameters and improved far-end suppression than the Kaiser window based design of recent reported work.

Keywords: Window function, Cosine modulated filterbank, Local search optimization.

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3471 M-band Wavelet and Cosine Transform Based Watermark Algorithm Using Randomization and Principal Component Analysis

Authors: Tong Liu, Xuan Xu, Xiaodi Wang

Abstract:

Computational techniques derived from digital image processing are playing a significant role in the security and digital copyrights of multimedia and visual arts. This technology has the effect within the domain of computers. This research presents discrete M-band wavelet transform (MWT) and cosine transform (DCT) based watermarking algorithm by incorporating the principal component analysis (PCA). The proposed algorithm is expected to achieve higher perceptual transparency. Specifically, the developed watermarking scheme can successfully resist common signal processing, such as geometric distortions, and Gaussian noise. In addition, the proposed algorithm can be parameterized, thus resulting in more security. To meet these requirements, the image is transformed by a combination of MWT & DCT. In order to improve the security further, we randomize the watermark image to create three code books. During the watermark embedding, PCA is applied to the coefficients in approximation sub-band. Finally, first few component bands represent an excellent domain for inserting the watermark.

Keywords: discrete M-band wavelet transform , discrete M-band wavelet transform, randomized watermark, principal component analysis

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3470 A Multipurpose Audio Watermarking Algorithm Based on Vector Quantization in DCT Domain

Authors: Jixin Liu, Zheming Lu

Abstract:

In this paper, a novel multipurpose audio watermarking algorithm is proposed based on Vector Quantization (VQ) in Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) domain using the codeword labeling and index-bit constrained method. By using this algorithm, it can fulfill the requirements of both the copyright protection and content integrity authentication at the same time for the multimedia artworks. The robust watermark is embedded in the middle frequency coefficients of the DCT transform during the labeled codeword vector quantization procedure. The fragile watermark is embedded into the indices of the high frequency coefficients of the DCT transform by using the constrained index vector quantization method for the purpose of integrity authentication of the original audio signals. Both the robust and the fragile watermarks can be extracted without the original audio signals, and the simulation results show that our algorithm is effective with regard to the transparency, robustness and the authentication requirements

Keywords: Copyright Protection, Discrete Cosine Transform, Integrity Authentication, Multipurpose Audio Watermarking, Vector Quantization.

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3469 A Novel VLSI Architecture for Image Compression Model Using Low power Discrete Cosine Transform

Authors: Vijaya Prakash.A.M, K.S.Gurumurthy

Abstract:

In Image processing the Image compression can improve the performance of the digital systems by reducing the cost and time in image storage and transmission without significant reduction of the Image quality. This paper describes hardware architecture of low complexity Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) architecture for image compression[6]. In this DCT architecture, common computations are identified and shared to remove redundant computations in DCT matrix operation. Vector processing is a method used for implementation of DCT. This reduction in computational complexity of 2D DCT reduces power consumption. The 2D DCT is performed on 8x8 matrix using two 1-Dimensional Discrete cosine transform blocks and a transposition memory [7]. Inverse discrete cosine transform (IDCT) is performed to obtain the image matrix and reconstruct the original image. The proposed image compression algorithm is comprehended using MATLAB code. The VLSI design of the architecture is implemented Using Verilog HDL. The proposed hardware architecture for image compression employing DCT was synthesized using RTL complier and it was mapped using 180nm standard cells. . The Simulation is done using Modelsim. The simulation results from MATLAB and Verilog HDL are compared. Detailed analysis for power and area was done using RTL compiler from CADENCE. Power consumption of DCT core is reduced to 1.027mW with minimum area[1].

Keywords: Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT), Inverse DiscreteCosine Transform (IDCT), Joint Photographic Expert Group (JPEG), Low Power Design, Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) .

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3468 Quick Sequential Search Algorithm Used to Decode High-Frequency Matrices

Authors: Mohammed M. Siddeq, Mohammed H. Rasheed, Omar M. Salih, Marcos A. Rodrigues

Abstract:

This research proposes a data encoding and decoding method based on the Matrix Minimization algorithm. This algorithm is applied to high-frequency coefficients for compression/encoding. The algorithm starts by converting every three coefficients to a single value; this is accomplished based on three different keys. The decoding/decompression uses a search method called QSS (Quick Sequential Search) Decoding Algorithm presented in this research based on the sequential search to recover the exact coefficients. In the next step, the decoded data are saved in an auxiliary array. The basic idea behind the auxiliary array is to save all possible decoded coefficients; this is because another algorithm, such as conventional sequential search, could retrieve encoded/compressed data independently from the proposed algorithm. The experimental results showed that our proposed decoding algorithm retrieves original data faster than conventional sequential search algorithms.

Keywords: Matrix Minimization Algorithm, Decoding Sequential Search Algorithm, image compression, Discrete Cosine Transform, Discrete Wavelet Transform.

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3467 A Straightforward Approach for Determining the Weights of Decision Makers Based on Angle Cosine and Projection Method

Authors: Qiang Yang, Ping-An Du

Abstract:

Group decision making with multiple attribute has attracted intensive concern in the decision analysis area. This paper assumes that the contributions of all the decision makers (DMs) are not equal to the decision process based on different knowledge and experience in group setting. The aim of this paper is to develop a novel approach to determine weights of DMs in the group decision making problems. In this paper, the weights of DMs are determined in the group decision environment via angle cosine and projection method. First of all, the average decision of all individual decisions is defined as the ideal decision. After that, we define the weight of each decision maker (DM) by aggregating the angle cosine and projection between individual decision and ideal decision with associated direction indicator μ. By using the weights of DMs, all individual decisions are aggregated into a collective decision. Further, the preference order of alternatives is ranked in accordance with the overall row value of collective decision. Finally, an example in a chemical company is provided to illustrate the developed approach.

Keywords: Angel cosine, ideal decision, projection method, weights of decision makers.

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3466 A Computationally Efficient Design for Prototype Filters of an M-Channel Cosine Modulated Filter Bank

Authors: Neela. R. Rayavarapu, Neelam Rup Prakash

Abstract:

The paper discusses a computationally efficient method for the design of prototype filters required for the implementation of an M-band cosine modulated filter bank. The prototype filter is formulated as an optimum interpolated FIR filter. The optimum interpolation factor requiring minimum number of multipliers is used. The model filter as well as the image suppressor will be designed using the Kaiser window. The method will seek to optimize a single parameter namely cutoff frequency to minimize the distortion in the overlapping passband.

Keywords: Cosine modulated filter bank, interpolated FIR filter, optimum interpolation factor, prototype filter.

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3465 Transient Currents in a Double Conductor Line above a Conducting Half-Space

Authors: Valentina Koliskina, Inta Volodko

Abstract:

Transient eddy current problem is solved in the present paper by the method of the Laplace transform for the case of a double conductor line located parallel to a conducting half-space. The Fourier sine and cosine integral transforms are used in order to find the Laplace transform of the solution. The inverse Laplace transform of the solution is found in closed form. The integrated electromotive force per unit length of the double conductor line is calculated in the form of an improper integral.

Keywords: Transient eddy currents, Laplace transform, double conductor line.

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3464 Rotation Invariant Face Recognition Based on Hybrid LPT/DCT Features

Authors: Rehab F. Abdel-Kader, Rabab M. Ramadan, Rawya Y. Rizk

Abstract:

The recognition of human faces, especially those with different orientations is a challenging and important problem in image analysis and classification. This paper proposes an effective scheme for rotation invariant face recognition using Log-Polar Transform and Discrete Cosine Transform combined features. The rotation invariant feature extraction for a given face image involves applying the logpolar transform to eliminate the rotation effect and to produce a row shifted log-polar image. The discrete cosine transform is then applied to eliminate the row shift effect and to generate the low-dimensional feature vector. A PSO-based feature selection algorithm is utilized to search the feature vector space for the optimal feature subset. Evolution is driven by a fitness function defined in terms of maximizing the between-class separation (scatter index). Experimental results, based on the ORL face database using testing data sets for images with different orientations; show that the proposed system outperforms other face recognition methods. The overall recognition rate for the rotated test images being 97%, demonstrating that the extracted feature vector is an effective rotation invariant feature set with minimal set of selected features.

Keywords: Discrete Cosine Transform, Face Recognition, Feature Extraction, Log Polar Transform, Particle SwarmOptimization.

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3463 Walsh-Hadamard Transform for Facial Feature Extraction in Face Recognition

Authors: M. Hassan, I. Osman, M. Yahia

Abstract:

This Paper proposes a new facial feature extraction approach, Wash-Hadamard Transform (WHT). This approach is based on correlation between local pixels of the face image. Its primary advantage is the simplicity of its computation. The paper compares the proposed approach, WHT, which was traditionally used in data compression with two other known approaches: the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and the Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) using the face database of Olivetti Research Laboratory (ORL). In spite of its simple computation, the proposed algorithm (WHT) gave very close results to those obtained by the PCA and DCT. This paper initiates the research into WHT and the family of frequency transforms and examines their suitability for feature extraction in face recognition applications.

Keywords: Face Recognition, Facial Feature Extraction, Principal Component Analysis, and Discrete Cosine Transform, Wash-Hadamard Transform.

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3462 High Performance Electrocardiogram Steganography Based on Fast Discrete Cosine Transform

Authors: Liang-Ta Cheng, Ching-Yu Yang

Abstract:

Based on fast discrete cosine transform (FDCT), the authors present a high capacity and high perceived quality method for electrocardiogram (ECG) signal. By using a simple adjusting policy to the 1-dimentional (1-D) DCT coefficients, a large volume of secret message can be effectively embedded in an ECG host signal and be successfully extracted at the intended receiver. Simulations confirmed that the resulting perceived quality is good, while the hiding capability of the proposed method significantly outperforms that of existing techniques. In addition, our proposed method has a certain degree of robustness. Since the computational complexity is low, it is feasible for our method being employed in real-time applications.

Keywords: Data hiding, ECG steganography, fast discrete cosine transform, 1-D DCT bundle, real-time applications.

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3461 Fast Cosine Transform to Increase Speed-up and Efficiency of Karhunen-Loève Transform for Lossy Image Compression

Authors: Mario Mastriani, Juliana Gambini

Abstract:

In this work, we present a comparison between two techniques of image compression. In the first case, the image is divided in blocks which are collected according to zig-zag scan. In the second one, we apply the Fast Cosine Transform to the image, and then the transformed image is divided in blocks which are collected according to zig-zag scan too. Later, in both cases, the Karhunen-Loève transform is applied to mentioned blocks. On the other hand, we present three new metrics based on eigenvalues for a better comparative evaluation of the techniques. Simulations show that the combined version is the best, with minor Mean Absolute Error (MAE) and Mean Squared Error (MSE), higher Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) and better image quality. Finally, new technique was far superior to JPEG and JPEG2000.

Keywords: Fast Cosine Transform, image compression, JPEG, JPEG2000, Karhunen-Loève Transform, zig-zag scan.

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3460 A Comparison of Real Valued Transforms for Image Compression

Authors: Shivali D. Kulkarni, Ameya K. Naik, Nitin S. Nagori

Abstract:

In this paper we present simulation results for the application of a bandwidth efficient algorithm (mapping algorithm) to an image transmission system. This system considers three different real valued transforms to generate energy compact coefficients. First results are presented for gray scale and color image transmission in the absence of noise. It is seen that the system performs its best when discrete cosine transform is used. Also the performance of the system is dominated more by the size of the transform block rather than the number of coefficients transmitted or the number of bits used to represent each coefficient. Similar results are obtained in the presence of additive white Gaussian noise. The varying values of the bit error rate have very little or no impact on the performance of the algorithm. Optimum results are obtained for the system considering 8x8 transform block and by transmitting 15 coefficients from each block using 8 bits.

Keywords: Additive white Gaussian noise channel, mapping algorithm, peak signal to noise ratio, transform encoding.

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3459 Analytical Solution of Time-Harmonic Torsional Vibration of a Cylindrical Cavity in a Half-Space

Authors: M.Eskandari-Ghadi, M.Mahmoodian

Abstract:

In this article an isotropic linear elastic half-space with a cylindrical cavity of finite length is considered to be under the effect of a ring shape time-harmonic torsion force applied at an arbitrary depth on the surface of the cavity. The equation of equilibrium has been written in a cylindrical coordinate system. By means of Fourier cosine integral transform, the non-zero displacement component is obtained in the transformed domain. With the aid of the inversion theorem of the Fourier cosine integral transform, the displacement is obtained in the real domain. With the aid of boundary conditions, the involved boundary value problem for the fundamental solution is reduced to a generalized Cauchy singular integral equation. Integral representation of the stress and displacement are obtained, and it is shown that their degenerated form to the static problem coincides with existing solutions in the literature.

Keywords: Cosine transform, Half space, Isotropic, Singular integral equation, Torsion

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3458 A Cooperative Multi-Robot Control Using Ad Hoc Wireless Network

Authors: Amira Elsonbaty, Rawya Rizk, Mohamed Elksas, Mofreh Salem

Abstract:

In this paper, a Cooperative Multi-robot for Carrying Targets (CMCT) algorithm is proposed. The multi-robot team consists of three robots, one is a supervisor and the others are workers for carrying boxes in a store of 100×100 m2. Each robot has a self recharging mechanism. The CMCT minimizes robot-s worked time for carrying many boxes during day by working in parallel. That is, the supervisor detects the required variables in the same time another robots work with previous variables. It works with straightforward mechanical models by using simple cosine laws. It detects the robot-s shortest path for reaching the target position avoiding obstacles by using a proposed CMCT path planning (CMCT-PP) algorithm. It prevents the collision between robots during moving. The robots interact in an ad hoc wireless network. Simulation results show that the proposed system that consists of CMCT algorithm and its accomplished CMCT-PP algorithm achieves a high improvement in time and distance while performing the required tasks over the already existed algorithms.

Keywords: Ad hoc network, Computer vision based positioning, Dynamic collision avoidance, Multi-robot, Path planning algorithms, Self recharging.

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3457 Fingerprint Compression Using Multiwavelets

Authors: Sudhakar.R, Jayaraman.S

Abstract:

Large volumes of fingerprints are collected and stored every day in a wide range of applications, including forensics, access control etc. It is evident from the database of Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) which contains more than 70 million finger prints. Compression of this database is very important because of this high Volume. The performance of existing image coding standards generally degrades at low bit-rates because of the underlying block based Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) scheme. Over the past decade, the success of wavelets in solving many different problems has contributed to its unprecedented popularity. Due to implementation constraints scalar wavelets do not posses all the properties which are needed for better performance in compression. New class of wavelets called 'Multiwavelets' which posses more than one scaling filters overcomes this problem. The objective of this paper is to develop an efficient compression scheme and to obtain better quality and higher compression ratio through multiwavelet transform and embedded coding of multiwavelet coefficients through Set Partitioning In Hierarchical Trees algorithm (SPIHT) algorithm. A comparison of the best known multiwavelets is made to the best known scalar wavelets. Both quantitative and qualitative measures of performance are examined for Fingerprints.

Keywords: Mutiwavelet, Modified SPIHT Algorithm, SPIHT, Wavelet.

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3456 A New Iterative Method for Solving Nonlinear Equations

Authors: Ibrahim Abu-Alshaikh

Abstract:

In this study, a new root-finding method for solving nonlinear equations is proposed. This method requires two starting values that do not necessarily bracketing a root. However, when the starting values are selected to be close to a root, the proposed method converges to the root quicker than the secant method. Another advantage over all iterative methods is that; the proposed method usually converges to two distinct roots when the given function has more than one root, that is, the odd iterations of this new technique converge to a root and the even iterations converge to another root. Some numerical examples, including a sine-polynomial equation, are solved by using the proposed method and compared with results obtained by the secant method; perfect agreements are found.

Keywords: Iterative method, root-finding method, sine-polynomial equations, nonlinear equations.

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3455 Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation Technique Based Design and Simulation of a Three-Phase Voltage Source Converter Systems

Authors: Farhan Beg

Abstract:

A Space Vector based Pulse Width Modulation control technique for the three-phase PWM converter is proposed in this paper. The proposed control scheme is based on a synchronous reference frame model. High performance and efficiency is obtained with regards to the DC bus voltage and the power factor considerations of the PWM rectifier thus leading to low losses. MATLAB/SIMULINK are used as a platform for the simulations and a SIMULINK model is presented in the paper. The results show that the proposed model demonstrates better performance and properties compared to the traditional SPWM method and the method improves the dynamic performance of the closed loop drastically. For the Space Vector based Pulse Width Modulation, Sine signal is the reference waveform and triangle waveform is the carrier waveform. When the value sine signal is large than triangle signal, the pulse will start produce to high. And then when the triangular signals higher than sine signal, the pulse will come to low. SPWM output will changed by changing the value of the modulation index and frequency used in this system to produce more pulse width. The more pulse width produced, the output voltage will have lower harmonics contents and the resolution increase.

Keywords: Power Factor, SVPWM, PWM rectifier, SPWM.

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3454 Codebook Generation for Vector Quantization on Orthogonal Polynomials based Transform Coding

Authors: R. Krishnamoorthi, N. Kannan

Abstract:

In this paper, a new algorithm for generating codebook is proposed for vector quantization (VQ) in image coding. The significant features of the training image vectors are extracted by using the proposed Orthogonal Polynomials based transformation. We propose to generate the codebook by partitioning these feature vectors into a binary tree. Each feature vector at a non-terminal node of the binary tree is directed to one of the two descendants by comparing a single feature associated with that node to a threshold. The binary tree codebook is used for encoding and decoding the feature vectors. In the decoding process the feature vectors are subjected to inverse transformation with the help of basis functions of the proposed Orthogonal Polynomials based transformation to get back the approximated input image training vectors. The results of the proposed coding are compared with the VQ using Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) and Pairwise Nearest Neighbor (PNN) algorithm. The new algorithm results in a considerable reduction in computation time and provides better reconstructed picture quality.

Keywords: Orthogonal Polynomials, Image Coding, Vector Quantization, TSVQ, Binary Tree Classifier

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3453 Extended Set of DCT-TPLBP and DCT-FPLBP for Face Recognition

Authors: El Mahdi Barrah, Said Safi, Abdessamad Malaoui

Abstract:

In this paper, we describe an application for face recognition. Many studies have used local descriptors to characterize a face, the performance of these local descriptors remain low by global descriptors (working on the entire image). The application of local descriptors (cutting image into blocks) must be able to store both the advantages of global and local methods in the Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) domain. This system uses neural network techniques. The letter method provides a good compromise between the two approaches in terms of simplifying of calculation and classifying performance. Finally, we compare our results with those obtained from other local and global conventional approaches.

Keywords: Face detection, face recognition, discrete cosine transform (DCT), FPLBP, TPLBP, NN.

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3452 A Novel VLSI Architecture of Hybrid Image Compression Model based on Reversible Blockade Transform

Authors: C. Hemasundara Rao, M. Madhavi Latha

Abstract:

Image compression can improve the performance of the digital systems by reducing time and cost in image storage and transmission without significant reduction of the image quality. Furthermore, the discrete cosine transform has emerged as the new state-of-the art standard for image compression. In this paper, a hybrid image compression technique based on reversible blockade transform coding is proposed. The technique, implemented over regions of interest (ROIs), is based on selection of the coefficients that belong to different transforms, depending on the coefficients is proposed. This method allows: (1) codification of multiple kernals at various degrees of interest, (2) arbitrary shaped spectrum,and (3) flexible adjustment of the compression quality of the image and the background. No standard modification for JPEG2000 decoder was required. The method was applied over different types of images. Results show a better performance for the selected regions, when image coding methods were employed for the whole set of images. We believe that this method is an excellent tool for future image compression research, mainly on images where image coding can be of interest, such as the medical imaging modalities and several multimedia applications. Finally VLSI implementation of proposed method is shown. It is also shown that the kernal of Hartley and Cosine transform gives the better performance than any other model.

Keywords: VLSI, Discrete Cosine Transform, JPEG, Hartleytransform, Radon Transform

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3451 A Proposed Hybrid Color Image Compression Based on Fractal Coding with Quadtree and Discrete Cosine Transform

Authors: Shimal Das, Dibyendu Ghoshal

Abstract:

Fractal based digital image compression is a specific technique in the field of color image. The method is best suited for irregular shape of image like snow bobs, clouds, flame of fire; tree leaves images, depending on the fact that parts of an image often resemble with other parts of the same image. This technique has drawn much attention in recent years because of very high compression ratio that can be achieved. Hybrid scheme incorporating fractal compression and speedup techniques have achieved high compression ratio compared to pure fractal compression. Fractal image compression is a lossy compression method in which selfsimilarity nature of an image is used. This technique provides high compression ratio, less encoding time and fart decoding process. In this paper, fractal compression with quad tree and DCT is proposed to compress the color image. The proposed hybrid schemes require four phases to compress the color image. First: the image is segmented and Discrete Cosine Transform is applied to each block of the segmented image. Second: the block values are scanned in a zigzag manner to prevent zero co-efficient. Third: the resulting image is partitioned as fractals by quadtree approach. Fourth: the image is compressed using Run length encoding technique.

Keywords: Fractal coding, Discrete Cosine Transform, Iterated Function System (IFS), Affine Transformation, Run length encoding.

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3450 RBF Based Face Recognition and Expression Analysis

Authors: Praseeda Lekshmi.V, Dr.M.Sasikumar

Abstract:

Facial recognition and expression analysis is rapidly becoming an area of intense interest in computer science and humancomputer interaction design communities. The most expressive way humans display emotions is through facial expressions. In this paper skin and non-skin pixels were separated. Face regions were extracted from the detected skin regions. Facial expressions are analyzed from facial images by applying Gabor wavelet transform (GWT) and Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) on face images. Radial Basis Function (RBF) Network is used to identify the person and to classify the facial expressions. Our method reliably works even with faces, which carry heavy expressions.

Keywords: Face Recognition, Radial Basis Function, Gabor Wavelet Transform, Discrete Cosine Transform

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