Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 30745
Curriculum and Sex-specific Differences in Academic Stress Arising from Perceived Expectations

Authors: Glenn M. Calaguas


With the aim of knowing whether curriculum and sex differences exist in academic stress arising from perceived expectations, high school students were asked to respond to the Academic Expectations Stress Inventory (AESI). AESI is a nine-item inventory with two domains, namely: expectations of teachers/parents and expectations of self. Out of the 504 officially enrolled high school students in a state college, 469 responded to the inventory. Responses were analyzed using independent samples ttest. Significant differences were found between the mean scores of the respondents coming from the Science and the Vocational curriculum. The respondents from the Science curriculum consistently registered higher mean scores. Likewise, significant differences were found between the male and the female respondents. The female respondents consistently registered higher mean scores.

Keywords: high school students, academic stress, curriculum and sex differences, perceived expectations

Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1768


[1] Seaward, B. L., Managing stress: Principles and strategies for health and well-being (Fifth Edition). Jones & Bartlett Learning, Sudbury, MA, 2008.
[2] Neil, R., Stress: Taming the tyrant. TEACH Services Inc., Brushton, NY, 1994.
[3] S.E. Wilks, "Resilience amid academic stress: The moderating impact of social support among Social Work students," Advances in Social Work, Vol. 9 No. 2, pp. 106-125, 2008.
[4] A. Hussain, A. Kumar and A. Husain, "Academic stress and adjustment among high school students," Journal of the Indian Academy of Applied Psychology, Vol. 34 special issue, pp. 70-73, 2008.
[5] J.E. Agolla and H. Ongori, "An assessment of academic stress among undergraduate students: The case of University of Botswana," Educational Research and Review, Vol. 4 No. 2, pp. 63-70, 2009.
[6] Masih, P. P. & Gulrez, N. K., Age and gender differences on stress. In Husain, A. & Khan, M. I. (eds.). Recent trends in human stress management (pp.97-104). Global Mission Publishing House, New Delhi, India, 2006.
[7] B.T. Shaikh, A. Kahloon, M. Kazmi, H. Khalid, K. Nawaz, K.A. Khan and S. Khan, "Students, stress and coping strategies: A case of Pakistani Medical School," Education for Health, Vo. 17 No. 3, pp. 346-353, 2004.
[8] T. Sulaiman, A. Hassan, V.M Sapian and S.K. Abdullah, "The level of stress among students in urban and rural secondary schools in Malaysia," European Journal of Social Sciences, Vol. 10 No. 2, pp. 179- 184, 2009.
[9] Y.M. Li and L.L. Yen, "Daily stress and its correlates among high school students in Hualien City," Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Sciences, Vol. 14, pp. 234-241, 1998.
[10] R.P. Ang and V.S. Huan, "Relationship between academic stress and suicidal ideation: Testing for depression as a mediator using multiple regression," Child Psychiatry and Human Development, Vol. 37, pp. 133-143, 2006. DOI 10.1007/s10578-006-0023-8
[11] F.M. de Leon Jr., "Hiyang: A Filipino approach to healing," Humanities Diliman, Vol. 4 No.1, pp. 187-191, 2007.
[12] R.P. Ang and V.S. Huan, "Academic Expectations Stress Inventory (AESI): Development, factor analysis, reliability, and validity, " Educational and Psychological Measurement," Vol. 66 No. 3, pp. 522- 539, 2006. doi: 10.1177/0013164405282461
[13] Hyman, M. R. and Sierra, J. J., Marketing research kit for dummies. Wiley Publishing Inc, Hoboken, NJ, 2010.
[14] P.R. Malik and S. Balda, "High IQ adolescents under stress: Do they perform poor in academics," Anthropologist, Vol. 8 No. 2, pp. 61-62, 2006.
[15] L.A. Gentry, J.J. Chung, N. Aung, S. Keller, K.M. Heinrich and J.E. Maddock, "Gender differences in stress and coping among adults living in Hawai`i," Californian Journal of Health Promotion, Vol. 5 No. 2, pp. 89-102, 2007.
[16] R. Misra and L.G. Castillo, "Academic stress among college students: Comparison of American and international students," International Journal of Stress Management, Vol. 11 No. 2, pp. 132-148, 2004. doi: 10.1037/1072-5245.11.2.132
[17] M.P. Matud, P., "Gender differences in stress and coping styles," Personality and Individual Differences, Vol. 37 No. 7, pp. 1401-1415, 2004. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2004.01.010
[18] V.S. Huan, Y.L. See, R.P. Ang and C.W. Har, "The impact of adolescents concerns on the academic stress," Educational Review, Vol. 60 No. 2, pp. 169-178, 2008.