Groundwater Potential Zone Identification in Unconsolidated Aquifer Using Geophysical Techniques around Tarbela Ghazi, District Haripur, Pakistan
Electrical resistivity investigation was conducted in vicinity of Tarbela Ghazi, in order to study the subsurface layer with a view of determining the depth to the aquifer and thickness of groundwater potential zones. Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) using Schlumberger array was carried out at 16 VES stations. Well logging data at four tube wells have been used to mark the super saturated zones with great discharge rate. The present paper shows a geoelectrical identification of the lithology and an estimate of the relationship between the resistivity and Dar Zarrouk parameters (transverse unit resistance and longitudinal unit conductance). The VES results revealed both homogeneous and heterogeneous nature of the subsurface strata. Aquifer is unconfined to confine in nature, and at few locations though perched aquifer has been identified, groundwater potential zones are developed in unconsolidated deposits layers and more than seven geo-electric layers are observed at some VES locations. Saturated zones thickness ranges from 5 m to 150 m, whereas at few area aquifer is beyond 150 m thick. The average anisotropy, transvers resistance and longitudinal conductance values are 0.86 %, 35750.9821 Ω.m2, 0.729 Siemens, respectively. The transverse unit resistance values fluctuate all over the aquifer system, whereas below at particular depth high values are observed, that significantly associated with the high transmissivity zones. The groundwater quality in all analyzed samples is below permissible limit according to World Health Standard (WHO).
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1317326Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 714
 Ammar, A. I. Estimating the groundwater storage from the electrical resistivity measurements in Wadi El-Natrun Area, Western Desert, Egypt. J. Am. Sci. 2010, 6 (10), 1-10.
 Bundschuh, J. Hydrochemical and hydrogeological studies of groundwater in Peshawar Valley, Pakistan. Geological Bulletin, University of Peshawar, 1992, 25, 23–37.
 Freeze, R. A., & Cherry, J. A. Groundwater, 1979 (p. 604). New Jersey: Prentice Hall Publications.
 Government of Pakistan. Census report, Haripur District, Khyber Pakhtoonkhwa, 2017.
 Huntley, D. Relations between permeability and electrical resistivity in granular aquifers. Ground water, 1986, 24, 466-474.
 Kelly, W. E. Geoelectrical sounding for estimating aquifer hydraulic conductivity. Ground water, 1977, 15, 420-424.
 Kumar, M. S.; Gnanasundar, D.; Elango, L. Geophysical studies to determine hydraulic characteristics of an alluvial aquifer. Journal of Environmental Hydrol. 2001, 09 (15), 1-7.
 Louis, I. F.; Karantonis, G.A.; Voulgaris, N. S.; Louis, F.I. The contribution of geophysical methods in the determination of aquifer parameters: the case of Mornos River delta, Greece. Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment, 2004, 8(4), 41–49.
 Mazac, O.; Kelly, W. E.; Landa, I.A. hydrogeophysical model for relations between electrical and hydraulic properties of aquifers. J. Hydrol. 1985, 79,1-19.
 Nasreen, S. Monitoring of surface water groundwater air and soil in Peshawar basin against time the 3rd dimension. A Thesis-Excellence in Geology, Uni. of Peshawar, 2006.
 Niwas, S.; Singhal, D.C. Estimation of aquifer transmissivity from Dar Zarrouk parameters in porous media. Hydrol. 1981, 50, 393-399.
 R. Maillet, “The Fundamental Equations of Electrical Prospecting,” Geophysics, Vol. 12, No. 4, 1947, pp. 529- 556. doi:10.1190/1.1437342
 Srivastava, P.K.; Bhattacharya, A.K. Groundwater assessment through an integrated approach using remote sensing, GIS and resistivity techniques: a case study from a hard rock terrain. Int. J. Remote Sens. 2006, 27(20), 4599–4620.
 Tariq, S. Environmental geochemistry of surface and sub surface water and soil in Peshawar basin of NWFP Pakistan. Unpublished PhD thesis, University of Peshawar, 2001.
 Yeats, R. S. and Lawrence, R. D. Tectonics of the Himalayan thrust belt in northern Pakistan. In: Haq, B.U. and Milliman, J. D., (eds.) Marine Geology and oceanography of Arabian Sea and coastal Pakistan. Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. NewYork, 1984, 177-200.
 Zohdy, A. A. R.; Eaton, G. P.; Mabey, D. R. Application of surface geophysics to ground-water investigations. U.S. Geological Survey. Techniques of water-Resources Investigation, 1974, Book 2, Chap.D1, pp. 5.