Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 108

Search results for: Globalization

108 Globalization - Opportunity or Threat to the Rural Areas in Poland

Authors: Marian Woźniak, Alicja Sobkowiak

Abstract:

The world is entering a new path of development which is becoming the driving force of globalization. It is seen as an irreversible process of the present reality and has a significant impact on the transformation of economic, social and cultural rights. This also applies to changes in the rural environment which while emphasizing the global development should also maintain its identity and locality, and a rural community should do more to recognize the globalization of an opportunity than a threat to the Polish countryside. The paper discusses theoretical problems of rural development and the importance of diversification in rural areas and preserving the countryside life and there werepresente the opinions of residents of the Polish countryside on the impact of globalization on the development.

Keywords: globalization, rural areas

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107 Political and Economic Transition of People with Disabilities Related to Globalization

Authors: Jihye Jeon

Abstract:

This paper analyzes the political and economic issues that people with disabilities face related to globalization; how people with disabilities have been adapting globalization and surviving under worldwide competition system. It explains that economic globalization exacerbates inequality and deprivation of people with disabilities. The rising tide of neo-liberal welfare policies emphasized efficiency, downsized social expenditure for people with disabilities, excluded people with disabilities against labor market, and shifted them from welfare system to nothing. However, there have been people with disabilities' political responses to globalization, which are characterized by a global network of people with disabilities as well as participation to global governance. Their resistance can be seen as an attempt to tackle the problems that economic globalization has produced. It is necessary paradigm shift of disability policy from dependency represented by disability benefits to independency represented by labor market policies for people with disabilities.

Keywords: Economic Globalization, People with Disability, Deprivation, Welfare Cut, Disability Right Movement, Resistance.

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106 Good Urban Planning and Management: New Aspects and Methodologies

Authors: Fattaneh Daneshmand Malayeri

Abstract:

In this paper, in addition to introducing good urban planning and its effects on globalization, some new methodologies in urban management and another urban aspects has been presented. Some new concerns in increasing of urban population , metropolitans and its relations on big problems has been focused in this paper. It is very important matter that future urban planning with based on globalization will be with full of basically changes in its management and perspectives.

Keywords: Urban planning, urban management, good governance, globalization, metropolitan, strategic planning

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105 Complexity Leadership and Knowledge Management in Higher Education

Authors: Prabhakar Venugopal Gantasala

Abstract:

Complex environments triggered by globalization have necessitated new paradigms of leadership – Complexity Leadership that encompass multiple roles that leaders need to take upon. Success of Higher Education institutions depends on how well leaders can provide adaptive, administrative and enabling leadership. Complexity Leadership seems all the more relevant for institutions that are knowledge-driven and thrive on Knowledge creation, Knowledge storage and retrieval, Knowledge Sharing and Knowledge applications. Discussed in this paper are the elements of Globalization and the opportunities and challenges that are brought forth by globalization. The Complexity leadership paradigm in a knowledge-based economy and the need for such a paradigm shift for higher education institutions is presented. Further, the paper also discusses the support the leader requires in a knowledge-driven economy through knowledge management initiatives.

Keywords: Globalization, Complexity Leadership, Knowledge Management.

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104 Grading Fourteen Zones of Isfahan in Terms of the Impact of Globalization on the Urban Fabric of the City, Using the TOPSIS Model

Authors: A. Zahedi Yeganeh, A. Khademolhosseini, R. Mokhtari Malekabadi

Abstract:

Undoubtedly one of the most far-reaching and controversial topics considered in the past few decades, has been globalization. Globalization lies in the essence of the modern culture. It is a complex and rapidly expanding network of links and mutual interdependence that is an aspect of modern life; though some argue that this link existed since the beginning of human history. If we consider globalization as a dynamic social process in which the geographical constraints governing the political, economic, social and cultural relationships have been undermined, it might not be possible to simply describe its impact on the urban fabric. But since in this phenomenon the increase in communications of societies (while preserving the main cultural - regional characteristics) with one another and the increase in the possibility of influencing other societies are discussed, the need for more studies will be felt. The main objective of this study is to grade based on some globalization factors on urban fabric applying the TOPSIS model. The research method is descriptive - analytical and survey. For data analysis, the TOPSIS model and SPSS software were used and the results of GIS software with fourteen cities are shown on the map. The results show that the process of being influenced by the globalization of the urban fabric of fourteen zones of Isfahan was not similar and there have been large differences in this respect between city zones; the most affected areas are zones 5, 6 and 9 of the municipality and the least impact has been on the zones 4 and 3 and 2.

Keywords: Grading, Globalization, Urban fabric, 14 zones of Isfahan, TOPSIS model.

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103 Similar Cultural Factors Compensate for Communication Problems in Japan's Software Globalization Business

Authors: Phong Tran

Abstract:

A research effort to find the reality of the business of Japan-s software globalization of enterprise-level business software systems has found that while the number of Japan-made enterpriselevel software systems is comparable with those of the other G7 countries, the business is limited to the East and Southeast Asian markets. This indicates that this business has a problem in the European and USA markets. Based on the knowledge that the research has established, the research concludes that the communication problems arise from the lack of individualists' communication styles and foreign language skills in Japan's software globalization is compensated by similarities in certain Japanese cultural factors and Japan's cultural power in the East and Southeast Asian markets and that this business does not have this compensation factor in the European and American markets due to dissimilarities and no cultural power.

Keywords: Cultural factors, global business, Japan, software globalization.

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102 Studying Implication of Globalization on Engineering Education

Authors: S. Sharafi, G. Bassak Harouni, S. Torfi, H. Makenalizadeh, A. Sayahi

Abstract:

The primary purpose of this article is an attempt to find the implication of globalization on education. Globalization has an important role as a process in the economical, political, cultural and technological dimensions in the life of the contemporary human being and has been affected by it. Education has its effects in this procedure and while influencing it through educating global citizens having universal human features and characteristics, has been influenced by this phenomenon too. Nowadays, the role of education is not just to develop in the students the knowledge and skills necessary for the new kinds of jobs. If education wants to help students be prepared of the new global society, it has to make them engaged productive and critical citizens for the global era, so that they can reflect about their roles as key actors in a dynamic often uneven, matrix of economic and cultural exchanges. If education wants to reinforce and raise the national identity, the value system and the children and teenagers, it should make them ready for living in the global era of this century. The used method in this research is documentary and analyzing the documents. Studies in this field show globalization has influences on the processes of the production, distribution and consuming of knowledge. The happening of this event in the information era has not only provide the necessary opportunities for the exchanges of education worldwide but also has privileges for the developing countries which enables them to strengthen educational bases of their society and have an important step toward their future.

Keywords: Globalization, Education, global erea

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101 Does Labour Supply Respond to Globalisation? Malaysia Evidence from Micro Data

Authors: Poo Bee Tin, Rahmah Ismail, Norasmah Othman

Abstract:

Globalisation is a phenomenon that cannot be avoided. As globalisation allowed free flow of inputs including labour, it may affect job opportunities for the locals. Therefore, investigate the determinants of labour supply is essential in understanding the structure of labour market in the new era of globalization. The objective of this article is to examine labour supply by taking into account the globalisation effect. The study covers 3885 households in Peninsular Malaysia who are chosen using stratified random sampling. The labour supply model will be the basis for the analysis. The basic labour supply determinants are own wage and non-labour income. However, the extended labour supply model incorporates other variables like spouse wage,number of children and individuals characteristics like education level and age. Besides, the globalization indicator will also be incorporated as another independent variable.

Keywords: globalization, head of households, labour supply, wage

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100 The Impact of Globalization on the Development of Israel Advanced Changes

Authors: Erez Cohen

Abstract:

The study examines the socioeconomic impact of development of an advanced industry in Israel. The research method is based on data collected from the Israel Central Bureau of Statistics and from the National Insurance Institute (NII) databases, which provided information that allows to examine the Economic and Social Changes during the 1990s. The study examined the socioeconomic effects of the development of advanced industry in Israel. The research findings indicate that as a result of globalization processes, the weight of traditional industry began to diminish as a result of factory closures and the laying off of workers. These circumstances led to growing unemployment among the weaker groups in Israeli society, detracting from their income and thus increasing inequality among different socioeconomic groups in Israel and enhancement of social disparities.

Keywords: Globalization, Israeli advanced industry, public policy, socio-economic indicators.

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99 Unveiling the Indonesian Identity through Proverbial Expressions: The Relation of Meaning between Authority and Globalization

Authors: Prima Gusti Yanti, Fairul Zabadi

Abstract:

The purpose of the study is to find out relation of moral massage between the authority and globalization in proverb. Proverb is one of the many forms of cultural identity of the Indonesian/Malay people filled with moral values. The values contained within those proverbs are beneficial not only to the society, but also to those who held power amidst on this era of globalization. The method being used is qualitative research through content analysis which is done by describing and uncovering the forms and meanings of proverbs used within Indonesia Minangkabau society. Sources for this study’s data were extracted from a Minangkabau native speaker in the sub district of Tanah Abang, Jakarta. Said sources were retrieved through a series of interviews with the Minangkabau native speaker, whose speech is still adorned with idiomatic expressions. The research findings show that there are 30 existed proverbs or idiomatic expressions in the Minangkabau language often used by its indigenous people. The thirty data contain moral values which are closely interwoven with the matter of power and globalization. Analytical results show that the fourteen moral values contained within proverbs reflect a firm connection between rule and power in globalization; such as: responsible, brave, togetherness and consensus, tolerance, politeness, thorough and meticulous, honest and keeping promise, ingenious and learning, care, self-correction, be fair, alert, arbitrary, self-awareness. Structurally, proverbs possess an unchangeably formal construction; symbolically, proverbs possess meanings that are clearly decided through ethnographic communicative factors along with situational and cultural contexts. Values contained within proverbs may be used as a guide in social management, be it between fellow men, between men and nature, or even between men and their Creator. Therefore, the meanings and values contained within the morals of proverbs could also be utilized as a counsel for those who rule and in charge of power in order to stem the tides of globalization that had already spread into sectoral, territorial and educational continuums.

Keywords: Continuum, globalization, identity, proverb, rule-power.

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98 The Tendencies of Development of the Management in the Education System of the Republic of Kazakhstan

Authors: Altynai Zhaitapova, Aizhan Satyvaldiyeva

Abstract:

In this article the authors investigate the main tendencies of development of the management in the education system of the Republic of Kazakhstan: problems, solutions and development of the education system of Kazakhstan in the realities of globalization.

Keywords: Change management, education, globalization, innovations management systems, quality of education.

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97 Cultural Identity - A (Re)construction?

Authors: Joanne Muscat

Abstract:

The study explored the question of who am I? As a (re)construction of cultural identity by delving into globalization, communication, and social change in Malta during a historical moment when Malta became a European Union Member State. Three objectives guided this qualitative study. Firstly the study reviewed European Union (EU) policies that regulate broadcasting and their implementation in Member States, whilst meeting the challenges of globalization and new media technology. Secondly the research investigated the changes of the media landscape via organizational structures, programs and television (TV) content. Finally the study explored the impact of these transformations taking place in the way Maltese live as they (re)construct their cultural identity. Despite the choices available to the Maltese audience, old local traditions and new foreign customs coexist as informants continue to (re)construct their cultural identity and define who they are.

Keywords: Cultural Identity, Globalization, Transnational Media.

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96 Philosophy of Education: The Challenges of Globalization and Innovation in the Information Society

Authors: Shattyk Aliyev, Zhakypbek Altayev, Zuchra Ismagambetova, Yerkin Massanov

Abstract:

Information society is an absolutely new public formation at which the infrastructure and the social relations correspond to the socialized essence of «information genotype» mankind. Information society is a natural social environment which allows the person to open completely the information nature, to use intelligence for joint creation with other people of new information on the basis of knowledge earlier saved up by previous generations.

Keywords: Information society, Philosophy, Education, Globalization and innovation.

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95 Formation of Civic Identity in the Process of Globalization: The Example of the U.S.A. and Kazakhstan

Authors: Elnura Assyltayeva, Zhanar Aldubasheva, Zhengisbek Tolen

Abstract:

An attempt has been made several times to identify and discuss the U.S. experience on the formation of political nation in political science. The purpose of this research paper is to identify the main aspects of the formation of civic identity in the United States and Kazakhstan, through the identification of similarities and differences that can get practical application in making decisions of national policy issues in the context of globalization, as well as to answer the questions “What should unite the citizens of Kazakhstan to the nation?" and “What should be the dominant identity: civil or ethnic (national) one?" Can Kazakhstan being multiethnic country like America, adopt its experience in the formation of a civic nation? Since it is believed that the “multi-ethnic state of the population is a characteristic feature of most modern countries in the world," it states that “inter-ethnic integration is one of the most important aspects of the problem of forming a new social community (metaetnic - Kazakh people, Kazakh nation" [1].

Keywords: nation, civic identity, nation building, globalization, interethnic relations, patriotism

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94 A Case Study: Teachers Education Program in a Global Context

Authors: In Hoi Lee, Seong Baeg Kim, Je Eung Jeon, Gwang Yong Choi, Joo Sub Lee, Ik Sang Kim

Abstract:

Recently, the interest of globalization in the field of  teacher education has increased. In the U.S., the government is trying  to enhance the quality of education through a global approach in  education. To do so, the schools in the U.S. are recruiting teachers with  global capability from countries like Korea where competent teachers  are being trained. Meanwhile, in the case of Korea, although excellent  teachers have been cultivated every year, due to a low birth rate it is  not easy to become a domestic teacher. To solve the trouble that the  two countries are facing, the study first examines the demand and  necessity of globalization in the field of teacher education between  Korea and the U.S. Second, we propose a new project, called the  ‘Global Teachers University (GTU)’ program to satisfy the demands  of both countries. Finally, we provide its implications to build the  future educational cooperation for teacher training in a global context.

Keywords: Educational cooperation, globalization, teachers education program, teacher training institutions.

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93 Central Asia and Kazakhstan: In Search of Civic Identity

Authors: Elnura Assyltayeva, Zhanar Aldubasheva, Zhengisbek Tolen, Ziyakul Assyltayeva, Aliya Alimzhanova

Abstract:

Mankind has entered into an extremely complex and controversial stage of its development: the world is simultaneously organized and chaoticized, globalized and localized, combined and split. Analysts point out that globalization as a process of strengthening economic, cultural, financial and other ties of states cause many problems. In the economic sphere, it creates the danger of growing gap between the states, in the sphere of politics it leads to the weakening of political power and influence of nation-states.

Keywords: Civic identity, globalization, identity crisis, culture identity

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92 Modern Kazakhstan in Global World After Independence

Authors: Dmitri Men, Byong-soon Chun, Soon-ok Myong

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The article deals with the problems of political and economic processes in Kazakhstan since independence in the context of globalization. It analyzes the geopolitical situation and selfpositioning processes in the world after the end of the "cold war". It examines the problems of internal economization of the Republic for 20 years of independence. The authors argue that the reforms proceeded in the economic sphere have brought ambiguous and tangible results. Despite the difficult economic and political conditions facing a world economical crisis the country has undergone fundamental and radical transformations in the whole socio-economic system

Keywords: Globalization, Kazakhstan, integration, economic processes, financial crisis, multi-vector.

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91 Current Strategic Trends – A Comparative Analysis of Hungarian Corporations

Authors: Gyula Fülöp, Bettina Hernádi

Abstract:

This paper deals with current strategic challenges related to the reshaping of the basic conditions of corporate operations. Through the experimental analysis of some domestic corporations, it presents how and to what extent Hungarian corporations are prepared for the current strategic challenges. The study examines how strategic directions and answer opportunities have changed in the following interrelated areas in the past five years: economic globalization, corporate sustainability, IT applications, labor force diversity and ethical competences. The conclusions of the empirical survey give a reliable basis on which economic organizations and enterprises can formulate their strategy.

Keywords: Economic globalization, corporate sustainability, IT applications, labor force diversity, ethical competences.

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90 The Effect of Entrepreneurship on Foreign Direct Investment

Authors: Wissam B. Fahed

Abstract:

Entrepreneurship has become an important and extensively researched concept in business studies. Research on foreign direct investment (FDI) has become widespread due to the growth of FDI and its importance in globalization. Most entrepreneurship studies examined the importance and influence of entrepreneurial orientation in a micro-level context. On the other hand, studies and research concerning FDI used statistical techniques to analyze the effect, determinants, and motives of FDI on a macroeconomic level, ignoring empirical studies on other noneconomic determinants. In order to bridge the gap between the theory and empirical evidence on FDI and the theory and research on entrepreneurship, this study examines the impact of entrepreneurship on inward foreign direct investment. The relationship between entrepreneurship and foreign direct investment is investigated through regression analysis of pooled time-series and cross-sectional data. The results suggest that entrepreneurship has a significant effect on FDI.

Keywords: Entrepreneurship, foreign direct investment, globalization, economic freedom.

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89 Security, Securitization and Human Capital: The New Wave of Canadian Immigration Laws

Authors: Robert M. Russo

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This paper analyzes the linkage between migration, economic globalization and terrorism concerns. On a broad level, I analyze Canadian economic and political considerations, searching for causal relationships between political and economic actors on the one hand, and Canadian immigration law on the other. Specifically, the paper argues that there are contradictory impulses affecting state sovereignty. These impulses are are currently being played out in the field of Canadian immigration law through several proposed changes to Canada-s Immigration and Refugee Protection Act (IRPA). These changes reflect an ideological conception of sovereignty that is intrinsically connected with decision-making capacity centered on an individual. This conception of sovereign decision-making views Parliamentary debate and bureaucratic inefficiencies as both equally responsible for delaying essential decisions relating to the protection of state sovereignty, economic benefits and immigration control This paper discusses these concepts in relation to Canadian immigration policy under Canadian governments over the past twenty five years.

Keywords: Globalization, immigration law, security, anti-terrorism.

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88 Globalization and Public Policy Analysis: A Case Study of Foreign Policy of ASEAN Member States

Authors: Nattapol Pourprasert

Abstract:

This study has an objective to analyze foreign policy of member states in globalization current, aiming to answer that the foreign policy of member states have been changed or remained the same and there are any factors affecting changing of foreign policy of the member states. From the study results, it is found that the foreign policy of Thailand is a friendly foreign policy with all states. The policy of Indonesia is more opened because of a change in leader, allowing more democratic development in the country; the government has proceeded with friendly foreign policy with the states in order to bring funds into the state. The foreign policy of Malaysia is not much changed as there is no changing in the leader; the policy of Malaysia has reconciled relations with main city of Indian and Chinese residing in the country in order to bring investments into the country and to relieve tensions in the country. The foreign policy of the Philippines has proceeded with policy under the ASEAN framework and emphasized on international Islam communities. The foreign policy of Singapore has the least changed as the Singapore's policy focuses on internal trade since the state was found. As for the foreign policy of Brunei Darussalam, Brunei has a little role in the international stage; the state having closest relationship as from the view of history is Singapore as the Singaporean has invested in retailing business in Brunei. The foreign policy of Vietnam has emphasized on an omnidirectional foreign policy in order to compete with several states in global stage. The foreign policy of Myanmar has proceeded with a friendly foreign policy with all ASEAN member states, the East-west Corridor transportation line from Myanmar through Thailand and Lao to Vietnam has been developed. As for the foreign policy of Lao, In 2001, the Thai government and Lao government held a discussion which Thailand reaffirmed the position not to support the anti-Lao group. The foreign policy of Cambodia has proceeded with more openness, having good relation with China, Russia and USA as these states has invested in the state, especially the US company.

Keywords: Globalization, Public Policy Analysis, Foreign Policy, ASEAN Member States.

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87 Identification of Factors Influencing Company's Competitiveness

Authors: D. Ščeulovs, E. Gaile-Sarkane

Abstract:

Fast development of technologies, economic globalization and many other external circumstances stimulate company’s competitiveness. One of the major trends in today’s business is the shift to the exploitation of the Internet and electronic environment for entrepreneurial needs. Latest researches confirm that e-environment provides a range of possibilities and opportunities for companies, especially for micro-, small- and medium-sized companies, which have limited resources. The usage of e-tools raises the effectiveness and the profitability of an organization, as well as its competitiveness. In the electronic market, as in the classic one, there are factors, such as globalization, development of new technology, price sensitive consumers, Internet, new distribution and communication channels that influence entrepreneurship. As a result of eenvironment development, e-commerce and e-marketing grow as well.

Objective of the paper: To describe and identify factors influencing company’s competitiveness in e-environment.

Research methodology: The authors employ well-established quantitative and qualitative methods of research: grouping, analysis, statistics method, factor analysis in SPSS 20 environment, etc. The theoretical and methodological background of the research is formed by using scientific researches and publications, such as that from mass media and professional literature; statistical information from legal institutions as well as information collected by the authors during the surveying process. Research result: The authors detected and classified factors influencing competitiveness in e-environment. 

In this paper, the authors presented their findings based on theoretical, scientific, and field research. Authors have conducted a research on e-environment utilization among Latvian enterprises. 

Keywords: Competitiveness, e-environment, factors, factor analysis.

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86 Evolving Paradigm of Right to Development in International Human Rights Law and Its Transformation into the National Legal System: Challenges and Responses in Pakistan

Authors: Naeem Ullah Khan, Kalsoom Khan

Abstract:

No state can be progressive and prosperous in which a large number of people is deprived of their basic economic rights and freedoms. In the contemporary world of globalization, the right to development has gained a momentum force in the domain of International Development Law (IDL) and has integrated into the National Legal System (NLS) of the major developed states. The international experts on human rights argued that the right to development (RTD) is called a third-generation human right which tends to enhance the welfare and prosperity of individuals, and thus, it is a right to a process whose outcomes are human rights despite the controversy on the implications of RTD. In the Pakistan legal system, the RTD has not been expressly stated in the constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, 1973. However, there are some implied constitutional provisions which reflect the concept of RTD. The jurisprudence on RTD is still an evolving paradigm in the contextual perspective of Pakistan, and the superior court of diverse jurisdiction acts as a catalyst regarding the protection and enforcement of RTD in the interest of the public at large. However, the case law explores the positive inclination of the courts in Pakistan on RTD be incorporated as an express provision in the chapters of fundamental rights; in this scenario, the high court’s of Pakistan under Article 199 and the supreme court of Pakistan under Article 184(3) have exercised jurisdiction on the enforcement of RTD. This paper inter-alia examines the national dimensions of RTD from the standpoint of state practice in Pakistan and it analyzes the experience of judiciary in the protection and enforcement of RTD. Moreover, the paper highlights the social and cultural challenges to Pakistan in the implementation of RTD and possible solution to improve the conditions of human rights in Pakistan. This paper will also highlight the steps taken by Pakistan regarding the awareness, incorporation, and propagation of RTD at the national level.

Keywords: Globalization, Pakistan, RTD, third-generation right.

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85 Measurement of Innovation Performance

Authors: M. Chobotová, Ž. Rylková

Abstract:

Time full of changes which is associated with globalization, tougher competition, changes in the structures of markets and economic downturn, that all force companies to think about their competitive advantages. These changes can bring the company a competitive advantage and that can help improve competitive position in the market. Policy of the European Union is focused on the fast growing innovative companies which quickly respond to market demands and consequently increase its competitiveness. To meet those objectives companies need the right conditions and support of their state.

Keywords: Innovation, performance, measurements metrics, indices.

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84 State of Freelancing in IT and Future Trends

Authors: Mihai Gheorghe

Abstract:

Freelancing in IT has seen an increased popularity during the last years mainly because of the fast Internet adoption in the countries with emerging economies, correlated with the continuous seek for reduced development costs as well with the rise of online platforms which address planning, coordination and various development tasks. This paper conducts an overview of the most relevant Freelance Marketplaces available and studies the market structure, distribution of the workforce and trends in IT freelancing.

Keywords: Freelancing in IT, Freelance Marketplaces, Freelance Market Structure, Globalization, Online Staffing, Trends in Freelancing.

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83 Contribution of Football Club Jerseys towards English Premier League Fans’ Loyalty in Nigeria

Authors: B. O. Diyaolu

Abstract:

The globalization of football especially among youth over the decade is uprising. Nigeria youth displaying football jerseys at every opportunity is an acceptance of football globalization. The Love for English Premier League (EPL) football jersey is very strong among Nigeria fans. Football club jerseys of the EPL are a common sports product among fans in Nigeria. This study investigates the contribution of football club jerseys towards EPL fans’ loyalty in Nigeria. Descriptive survey research design was used for the study. The population consists of EPL fans in Nigeria. Simple random sampling technique (fish bowl without replacement) was used to select two states from the six geo-political zones. Purposive sampling technique was used to pick eight viewing centres while accidental sampling technique was used to pick five vendor stands from each State. An average of 250 respondents was selected from each state. A total of 3,200 respondents participated in the research. Two research instruments were used. A self-developed structured questionnaire on Football Jersey Scale (FJS): The instrument consists of 10 items. Fans Loyalty Scale (FLS): The instrument was modified from the psychological commitment to team (PCT) scale, and consists of 20 items. The Cronbach’s Alpha reliability coefficient of 0.72 and 0.75 was obtained, respectively. The hypothesis was tested at 0.05 significant levels. Data were analysed using frequency, percentages count, pie chart and multiple regressions. The result showed that the b-value of football club jersey is 0.148 also the standard regression coefficient (Beta) is 0.089. The t = 4.759 is statistically significant at p = 0.000. This signified a relative contribution of football club jersey on EPL fans loyalty in Nigeria. Club jersey, which is the most outstanding identifier of every club, was found to significantly predict loyalty. The jersey on the body of the fan has become the site for a declaration of loyalty which becomes available for social interaction and negotiation. The Nigerian local league clubs in an attempt to keep Nigerian fans loyal must borrow a leaf from their European counterparts.

Keywords: Club jersey, English Premier League, football fans, Nigeria youth.

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82 Case Study: Linking Career Education to University Education in Japan

Authors: Kumiko Inagaki

Abstract:

Japanese society is experiencing an aging population and declining birth rate along with the popularization of higher education, spread of economic globalization, rapid progress in technical innovation, changes in employment conditions, and emergence of a knowledge-based society. Against this background, interest in career education at Japanese universities has increased in recent years. This paper describes how the government has implemented career education policies in Japan, and introduces the cases of two universities that have successfully linked career education to university education in Japan.

Keywords: Career Education, Employability, Higher Education, Japanese University, University Education.

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81 Union Membership with Import Liberalization

Authors: Stephen B. Blumenfeld, Aaron Crawford, Andres G. Victorio

Abstract:

New Zealand-s product markets experienced a surge in import competition beginning from the late 1970-s when its government began to promote a policy of more open markets. This study considers how the trade liberalization aspect of the policy may have influenced unionization and union-organizing success. For describing the trade liberalization, a model shows how the removal of import tariffs can lead to countervailing influences upon the union membership of a domestic firm. The evidence supports the prediction that union membership has been decreased rather than increased. In the context of debates concerning globalization, it can be said that the power of unions has been diminished.

Keywords: Imports, tariffs, unions, wages.

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80 IFRS for SMEs: Challenge for Emerging Countries? Case of Czech Republic and Ukraine

Authors: M. Paseková, L. Müllerová, J. Strouhal, L. Chyzhevska

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Increase in globalization of capital markets brings the higher requirements on financial information provided for investors who look for a highly comparable information. Paper deals with the advantages and limitations of applying International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) in the Czech Republic and Ukraine. As a greatest limit for full adoption of IFRS shall be acknowledged the strong connection of continental accounting to tax system and enormous high administrative burden for IFRS appliers.

Keywords: International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS), Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs), Czech Republic, Ukraine.

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79 Managing Legal, Consumers and Commerce Risks in Phishing

Authors: Dinna N. M. N., Leau Y. B., Habeeb S. A. H., Yanti A. S.

Abstract:

Phishing scheme is a new emerged security issue of E-Commerce Crime in globalization. In this paper, the legal scaffold of Malaysia, United States and United Kingdom are analyzed and followed by discussion on critical issues that rose due to phishing activities. The result revealed that inadequacy of current legal framework is the main challenge to govern this epidemic. However, lack of awareness among consumers, crisis on merchant-s responsibility and lack of intrusion reports and incentive arrangement contributes to phishing proliferating. Prevention is always better than curb. By the end of this paper, some best practices for consumers and corporations are suggested.

Keywords: Phishing, Online Fraud, Business risks, Consumers privacy, Legal Issue, Cyber law.

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