Search results for: Detached leaf inoculation
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 205

Search results for: Detached leaf inoculation

205 Assessment of Downy mildew Resistance (Peronospora farinosa) in a Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) Germplasm

Authors: Manal Mhada, BrahimEzzahiri, Ouafae Benlhabib

Abstract:

Seventy-nine accessions, including two local wild species (Chenopodium album and C. murale) and several cultivated quinoa lines developed through recurrent selection in Morocco were screened for their resistance against Peronospora farinose, the causal agent of downy mildew disease. The method of artificial inoculation on detached healthy leaves taken from the middle stage of the plant was used. Screened accessions showed different levels of quantitative resistance to downy mildew as they were scored through the calculation of their area under disease progress curve and their two resistance components, the incubation period and the latent period. Significant differences were found between accessions regarding the three criteria (Incubation Period, Latent Period and Area Under Diseases Progress Curve). Accessions M2a and S938/1 were ranked resistant as they showed the longest Incubation Period (7 days) and Latent Period (12 days) and the lowest area under diseases progress curve (4). Therefore, M24 is the most susceptible accession as it has presented the highest area under diseases progress curve (34.5) and the shortest Incubation Period (1 day) and Latent Period (3 days). In parallel to this evaluation approach, the accession resistance was confirmed under the field conditions through natural infection by using the tree-leaf method. The high correlation found between detached leaf inoculation method and field screening under natural infection allows us to use this laboratory technique with sureness in further selection works.

Keywords: Detached leaf inoculation, Downy mildew, Field screening, Quinoa.

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204 The Effect of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) on Germination, Seedling Growth and Yield of Maize

Authors: A. Gholami, S. Shahsavani, S. Nezarat

Abstract:

The effect of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) on seed germination, seedling growth and yield of field grown maize were evaluated in three experiments. In these experiments six bacterial strains include P.putida strain R-168, P.fluorescens strain R-93, P.fluorescens DSM 50090, P.putida DSM291, A.lipoferum DSM 1691, A.brasilense DSM 1690 were used. Results of first study showed seed Inoculation significantly enhanced seed germination and seedling vigour of maize. In second experiment, leaf and shoot dry weight and also leaf surface area significantly were increased by bacterial inoculation in both sterile and non-sterile soil. The results showed that inoculation with bacterial treatments had a more stimulating effect on growth and development of plants in nonsterile than sterile soil. In the third experiment, Inoculation of maize seeds with all bacterial strains significantly increased plant height, 100 seed weight, number of seed per ear and leaf area .The results also showed significant increase in ear and shoot dry weight of maize.

Keywords: Azospirillum, biofertilizer, Maize, PGPR, Pseudomonas.

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203 Biological Control of Tomato Wilt Fungi Using Leaf Extracts of Bitter Leaf (Vernonia amygdalina)

Authors: Terna T. Paul, Agbara D. Onwoke

Abstract:

The antifungal potential of ethanolic leaf extracts of Vernonia amygdalina in the biological control of some common tomato wilt fungi was investigated. The experiment was set up in Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with eight treatments and three replicates. 5 mm diameter agar discs of 7 days old cultures of Fusarium oxysporum and Sclerotium rolfsii were obtained using a sterile 5 mm diameter cork borer and cultured on Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) inoculated with 5 ml of various concentrations of V. amygdalina ethanolic leaf extracts in petri dishes, and incubated for 10 days at 28 0C. The highest radial growth inhibitions of F. oxysporum (34.98%) and S. rolfsii (31.05%) were recorded 48 hours post-inoculation, both at 75% extract concentration. The leaf extracts of V. amygdalina used in the study exhibited significant inhibition of radial growth of the test organisms (P ≤ 0.05) and could be applied in the biological control of fungal wilt pathogens of tomato as a means of enhancing tomato yield and productivity.

Keywords: Biological control, fungi, leaf extracts, tomato wilt, V. amygdalina.

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202 Magnesium Foliar Application and Phosphorien Soil Inoculation Positively Affect Pisum sativum L. Plants Grown on Sandy Calcareous Soil

Authors: Saad M. Howladar, Ashraf Sh. Osman, Mostafa M. Rady, Hassan S. Al-Zahrani

Abstract:

The effects of soil inoculation with phosphorien-containing phosphate-dissolving bacteria (PDB) and/or magnesium (Mg) foliar application at the rates of 0, 0.5 and 1mM on growth, green pod and seed yields, and chemical constituents of Pisum sativum L. grown on a sandy calcareous soil were investigated. Results indicated that PDB and/or Mg significantly increased shoot length, number of branches plant–1, total leaf area plant–1 and canopy dry weight plant–1, leaf contents of pigments, soluble sugars, free proline, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, and calcium, and Ca/Na ratio, while leaf Na content was reduced. PDB and/or Mg also increased green pod and seed yields. We concluded that PDB and Mg have pronounced positive effects on Pisum sativum L. plants grown on sandy calcareous soil. PDB and Mg, therefore, have the potential to be applied for various crops to overcome the adverse effects of the newly-reclaimed sandy calcareous soils.

Keywords: Bio-P-fertilizer, Mg foliar application, Newly-reclaimed soils, Pisum sativum L.

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201 Effects of Dual Inoculation of Azotobacter and Mycorrhiza with Nitrogen and Phosphorus Fertilizer Rates on Grain Yield and Some of Characteristics of Spring Safflower

Authors: M.Mirzakhani, M.R.Ardakani , A.Aeene Band , A.H. Shirani Rad, F.Rejali

Abstract:

In order to evaluate the Effects of dual inoculation of Azotobacter and Mycorrhiza with Nitrogen and Phosphorus levels on yield and yield components of spring safflower, this study was carried out in field of Farahan university in Markazi province in 2007. A factorial in a randomized complete block design with three replications was used inoculation of Azotobacter (with inoculation and without inoculation) and Mycorrhiza (with inoculation and without inoculation ) with Nitrogen and Phosphorus levels [F0= N0+ P0 (kg.ha-1), F1= N50+ P25(kg.ha-1), F2= N100+ P50(kg.ha-1) and F3= N150+ P75 (kg.ha-1)] on spring safflower (cultivar IL-111). In this study characteristics such as: Harvest index, Hectolitre weight, Root dry weight, Seed yield, Mycorrhizal Colonization Root, Number of days to maturity were assessed. Results indicated that treatment (A0M1F3) with grain yield (1556 kg.ha-1) and treatment (A0M1F0) with grain yield (918 kg.ha-1) were significantly superior to the other treatments and according to calculated, inoculation seeds in plantig date with Azotobacter and Mycorrhiza to cause increase grain yield about 5/38 percentage. we can by inoculation safflower seeds with Azotobacter and Mycorrhiza too easily at the time sowing date. The purpose of this research, study and evaluation the role of biological fixation N and P, to provide for feeds plants.

Keywords: Spring safflower, grain yield, inoculation, Azotobacter and Mycorrhiza.

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200 A Comparative Study of Standard, Casted and Riveted Eye Design of a Mono Leaf Spring Using CAE Tools

Authors: Gian Bhushan, Vinkel Arora, M.L. Aggarwal

Abstract:

The objective of the present study is to determine better eye end design of a mono leaf spring used in light motor vehicle. A conventional 65Si7 spring steel leaf spring model with standard eye, casted and riveted eye end are considered. The CAD model of the leaf springs is prepared in CATIA and analyzed using ANSYS. The standard eye, casted and riveted eye leaf springs are subjected to similar loading conditions. The CAE analysis of the leaf spring is performed for various parameters like deflection and Von- Mises stress. Mass reduction of 62.9% is achieved in case of riveted eye mono leaf spring as compared to standard eye mono leaf spring for the same loading conditions.

Keywords: CAE, Leaf Spring, 65Si7 spring steel.

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199 The Effect of Seed Inoculation (Pseudomonas putida+Bacillus lentus) and Different Levels of Fertilizers on Yield and Yield Components of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Cultivars

Authors: Hamid Abbasdokht , Ahmad Gholami

Abstract:

In order to study of The Effect of seed inoculation with Pseudomonas putida+Bacillus lentus on yield and yield components of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars, an experiment was carried out as factorial based on Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) in Agricultural Research Station of Shahrood University of Technology. Results showed that inoculation with Pseudomonas putida+Bacillus lentus promoted seed germination. Also, inoculation with Pseudomonas putida+Bacillus lentus significantly affected grain yield, Number of spikes per m2, Number of grain per spike and 1000-seed weight and There was not statistically significant difference between Chamran and Pishtaz cultivars . Finally, the dosages of chemical fertilizers currently applied in commercial wheat field in Iran (Shahrood region) could be reduced through proper combination of Pseudomonas putida+Bacillus lentus inoculation plus fertilization.

Keywords: Seed inoculation, wheat, yield, yield components

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198 Image-Based (RBG) Technique for Estimating Phosphorus Levels of Crops

Authors: M. M. Ali, Ahmed Al-Ani, Derek Eamus, Daniel K. Y. Tan

Abstract:

In this glasshouse study, we developed a new imagebased non-destructive technique for detecting leaf P status of different crops such as cotton, tomato and lettuce. The plants were grown on a nutrient solution containing different P concentrations, e.g. 0%, 50% and 100% of recommended P concentration (P0 = no P, L; P1 = 2.5 mL 10 L-1 of P and P2 = 5 mL 10 L-1 of P). After 7 weeks of treatment, the plants were harvested and data on leaf P contents were collected using the standard destructive laboratory method and at the same time leaf images were collected by a handheld crop image sensor. We calculated leaf area, leaf perimeter and RGB (red, green and blue) values of these images. These data were further used in linear discriminant analysis (LDA) to estimate leaf P contents, which successfully classified these plants on the basis of leaf P contents. The data indicated that P deficiency in crop plants can be predicted using leaf image and morphological data. Our proposed nondestructive imaging method is precise in estimating P requirements of different crop species.

Keywords: Image-based techniques, leaf area, leaf P contents, linear discriminant analysis.

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197 In vivo Alterations in Ruminal Parameters by Megasphaera elsdenii Inoculation on Subacute Ruminal Acidosis (SARA)

Authors: M. S. Alatas, H. D. Umucalilar

Abstract:

SARA is a common and serious metabolic disorder in early lactation in dairy cattle and in finishing beef cattle, caused by diets with high inclusion of cereal grain. This experiment was performed to determine the efficacy of Megasphaera elsdenii, a major lactate-utilizing bacterium in prevention/treatment of SARA in vivo. In vivo experimentation, it was used eight ruminally cannulated rams and it was applied the rapid adaptation with the mixture of grain based on wheat (80% wheat, 20% barley) and barley (80% barley, 20% wheat). During the systematic adaptation, it was followed the probability of SARA formation by being measured the rumen pH with two hours intervals after and before feeding. After being evaluated the data, it was determined the ruminal pH ranged from 5.2-5.6 on the condition of feeding with 60 percentage of grain mixture based on barley and wheat, that assured the definite form of subacute acidosis. In four days SARA period, M. elsdenii (1010 cfu ml-1) was inoculated during the first two days. During the SARA period, it was observed the decrease of feed intake with M. elsdenii inoculation. Inoculation of M. elsdenii was caused to differentiation of rumen pH (P<0.0001), while it was found the pH level approximately 5.55 in animals applied the inoculation, it was 5.63 pH in other animals. It was observed that total VFA with the bacterium inoculation tended to change in terms of grain feed (P<0.07). It increased with the effect of total VFA inoculation in barley based diet, but it was more stabilized in wheat based diet. Bacterium inoculation increased the ratio of propionic acid (18.33%-21.38%) but it caused to decrease the butyric acid, and acetic/propionic acid. During the rapid adaptation, the concentration of lactic acid in the rumen liquid increased depending upon grain level (P<0.0001). On the other hand bacterium inoculation did not have an effect on concentration of lactic acid. M. elsdenii inoculation did not affect ruminal ammonia concentration. In the group that did not apply inoculation, the level of ruminal ammonia concentration was higher than the others applied inoculation. M. elsdenii inoculation did not changed protozoa count in barley-based diet whereas it decreased in wheat-based diet. When it is generally evaluated, it is seen that M. elsdenii inoculation has not a positive impact on rumen parameters. Therefore, to reveal the full impact of the inoculation with different strains, feedstuffs and animal groups, further research is required.

Keywords: In vivo, subactute ruminal acidosis, Megasphaera elsdenii, rumen fermentation.

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196 The Green Synthesis AgNPs from Basil Leaf Extract

Authors: W. Wonsawat

Abstract:

Bioreduction of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from silver ions (Ag+) using water extract of Thai basil leaf was successfully carried out. The basil leaf extract provided a reducing agent and stabilizing agent for a synthesis of metal nanoparticles. Silver nanoparticles received from cut and uncut basil leaf was compared. The resulting silver nanoparticles are characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy. The maximum intensities of silver nanoparticle from cut and uncut basil leaf were 410 and 420, respectively. The techniques involved are simple, eco-friendly and rapid.

Keywords: Basil leaves, Silver Nanoparticles, Green Synthesis, Plant Extract.

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195 The Effects of Drought and Nitrogen on Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) Physiology and Yield

Authors: Oqba Basal, András Szabó

Abstract:

Legume crops are able to fix atmospheric nitrogen by the symbiotic relation with specific bacteria, which allows the use of the mineral nitrogen-fertilizer to be reduced, or even excluded, resulting in more profit for the farmers and less pollution for the environment. Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) is one of the most important legumes with its high content of both protein and oil. However, it is recommended to combine the two nitrogen sources under stress conditions in order to overcome its negative effects. Drought stress is one of the most important abiotic stresses that increasingly limits soybean yields. A precise rate of mineral nitrogen under drought conditions is not confirmed, as it depends on many factors; soybean yield-potential and soil-nitrogen content to name a few. An experiment was conducted during 2017 growing season in Debrecen, Hungary to investigate the effects of nitrogen source on the physiology and the yield of the soybean cultivar 'Boglár'. Three N-fertilizer rates including no N-fertilizer (0 N), 35 kg ha-1 of N-fertilizer (35 N) and 105 kg ha-1 of N-fertilizer (105 N) were applied under three different irrigation regimes; severe drought stress (SD), moderate drought stress (MD) and control with no drought stress (ND). Half of the seeds in each treatment were pre-inoculated with Bradyrhizobium japonicum inoculant. The overall results showed significant differences associated with fertilization and irrigation, but not with inoculation. Increasing N rate was mostly accompanied with increased chlorophyll content and leaf area index, whereas it positively affected the plant height only when the drought was waived off. Plant height was the lowest under severe drought, regardless of inoculation and N-fertilizer application and rate. Inoculation increased the yield when there was no drought, and a low rate of N-fertilizer increased the yield furthermore; however, the high rate of N-fertilizer decreased the yield to a level even less than the inoculated control. On the other hand, the yield of non-inoculated plants increased as the N-fertilizer rate increased. Under drought conditions, adding N-fertilizer increased the yield of the non-inoculated plants compared to their inoculated counterparts; moreover, the high rate of N-fertilizer resulted in the best yield. Regardless of inoculation, the mean yield of the three fertilization rates was better when the water amount increased. It was concluded that applying N-fertilizer to provide the nitrogen needed by soybean plants, with the absence of N2-fixation process, is very important. Moreover, adding relatively high rate of N-fertilizer is very important under severe drought stress to alleviate the drought negative effects. Further research to recommend the best N-fertilizer rate to inoculated soybean under drought stress conditions should be executed.

Keywords: Drought stress, inoculation, N-fertilizer, soybean physiology, yield.

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194 The Impact of Crop Rotation and N Fertilization on the Leaf Area Index, Leaf Disease and Yield of Winter Wheat

Authors: E. Vári, K. Máriás

Abstract:

The research focused on the effects of previous cropping and fertilizers on the LAI, rhythm of the dry matter, leaf disease intensity and amount of yield. Long term field experiments’ results proved that the previous crop fundamentally determines size, rate and dynamics of the dry matter formation in the spring time vegetation period. The LAI index and crop results of winter wheat can be influenced mainly by raising the fertilizer amount. N fertilization has an outstanding role in the changes in leaf area index (LAI), weight of dry matter and yield of winter wheat. According to our results, the interaction effect of leaf area index, weight of dry matter and fertilization resulted in the maximum yield in biculture and triculture.

Keywords: Crop rotation, Leaf Area Index, leaf disease of winter wheat.

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193 Effect of Selenite and Selenate Uptake by Maize Plants on Specific Leaf Area

Authors: F. Garousi, Sz. Veres, É. Bódi, Sz. Várallyay, B. Kovács

Abstract:

Specific leaf area (SLA; cm2leaf g-1leaf) the ratio of leaf area to leaf dry mass is a key ecophysiological parameter influencing leaf physiology, photosynthesis, and whole plant carbon gain and also can be used as a rapid and diagnostic tool. In this study, two species of soluble inorganic selenium forms, selenite (Se^IV) and selenate (Se^VI) at different concentrations were investigated on maize plants that were growing in nutrient solutions during 2 weeks and at the end of the experiment, amounts of SLA for first and second leaves of maize were measured. In accordance with the results we observed that our regarded Se concentrations in both forms of Se^IV and Se^VI were not effective on maize plants’ SLA significantly although high level of 3 mg.kg-1 Se^IV had negative affect on growth of the samples that had been treated by it but about Se^VI samples we did not observe this state and our different considered Se^VI concentrations were not toxic for maize plants.

Keywords: Maize, Sodium selenate, sodium selenite, specific leaf area.

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192 Comparative Micro-Morphology, Anatomy and Architecture of Leaf of Physalis

Authors: Chockpisit Thepsithar, Aree Thongpukdee

Abstract:

Two species of Physalis, P.angulataL. and P. peruviana L. were used as models for comparative study to understand the values of micro-morphological, -anatomical and architectural characteristics of leaf for taxonomic purposes and possibly breeding and commercial applications. Both speciespossess amphistomaticleaves with 1-layer epidermis, 3-4-layer spongy mesophyll andbicollateral bundle midrib. Palisade parenchyma cells of P. angulatawere almost twice longer (65-75 μm) than the other one. Type of stomata was similar as anomocyticbut stomatal index(SI) at adaxial surface and abaxial surface of P. angulata were less than of P. peruvianaas 3.57, 4.00 and6.25, 6.66 respectively. Some leaf architectural characteristics such as leaf shape, order of venationalsoprovided information of taxonomic significance

Keywords: Physalis, Solanaceae, micromorphology, anatomy, leaf architecture.

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191 The Leaves of a Tree

Authors: Zhu Jiaming, Yu Mengna

Abstract:

In this article, models based on quantitative analysis, physical geometry and regression analysis are established, by using analytic hierarchy process analysis, fuzzy cluster analysis, fuzzy photographic and data fitting. The reasons of various leaf shapes among different species and the differences between the leaf shapes on same tree have been solved by using software, such as Eviews, VB and Matlab. We also successfully estimate the leaf mass of a tree and the correlation with the tree profile.

Keywords: Leaf shape; Mass; Fuzzy cluster; Regression analysis; Eviews; Matlab

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190 Assessment of the Biological Nitrogen Fixation in Soybean Sown in Different Types of Moroccan Soils

Authors: F. Z. Aliyat, B. Ben Messaoud, L. Nassiri, E. Bouiamrine, J. Ibijbijen

Abstract:

The present study aims to assess the biological nitrogen fixation in the soybean tested in different Moroccan soils combined with the rhizobial inoculation. These effects were evaluated by the plant growth mainly by the aerial biomass production, total nitrogen content and the proportion of the nitrogen fixed. This assessment clearly shows that the inoculation with bacteria increases the growth of soybean. Five different soils and a control (peat) were used. The rhizobial inoculation was performed by applying the peat that contained a mixture of 2 strains Sinorhizobium fredii HH103 and Bradyrhizobium. The biomass, the total nitrogen content and the proportion of nitrogen fixed were evaluated under different treatments. The essay was realized at the greenhouse the Faculty of Sciences, Moulay Ismail University. The soybean has shown a great response for the parameters assessed. Moreover, the best response was reported by the inoculated plants compared to non- inoculated and to the absolute control. Finally, good production and the best biological nitrogen fixation present an important ecological technology to improve the sustainable production of soybean and to ensure the increase of the fertility of soils.

Keywords: Biological nitrogen fixation, inoculation, rhizobium, soybean.

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189 Effects of Photovoltaic System Introduction in Detached Houses with All-Electrified Residential Equipment in Japan

Authors: Qingrong Liu, Tetsuo Hayashi, Yuji Ryu

Abstract:

In this paper, in order to investigate the effects of photovoltaic system introduction to detached houses in Japan, two kinds of works were done. Firstly, the hourly generation amount of a 4.2kW photovoltaic system were simulated in 46 cities to investigate the potential of the system in different regions in Japan using a simulation model of photovoltaic system. Secondly, based on the simulated electricity generation amount, the energy saving, the environmental and the economic effect of the photovoltaic system were examined from hourly to annual timescales, based upon calculations of typical electricity, heating, cooling and hot water supply load profiles for Japanese dwellings. The above analysis was carried out using a standard year-s hourly weather data for the different city provided by the Expanded AMeDAS Weather Data issued by AIJ (Architectural Institute of Japan).

Keywords: Photovoltaic system, Energy saving, Environmental effect, Japanese dwelling, Detached house.

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188 Effect of Supplemental Irrigation, Nitrogen Chemical Fertilizer, and Inoculation with Rhizobium Bacteria on Grain Yield and Its Components of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) Under Rainfed Conditions

Authors: Abbas Maleki, Maryam Pournajaf, Rahim Naseri, Reza Rashnavadi

Abstract:

In order to study the effects of supplemental irrigation, different levels of nitrogen chemical fertilizer and inoculation with rhizobium bacteria on the grain yield of chickpea, an experiment was carried out using split plot arrangement in randomize complete block design with three replication in agricultural researches station of Zanjan, Iran during 2009-2010 cropping season. The factors of experiment consisted of irritation (without irrigation (I1), irrigation at flowering stage (I2), irrigation at flowering and grain filling stages (I3) and full irrigation (I4)) and different levels of nitrogen fertilizer (without using of nitrogen fertilizer (N0), 75 kg.ha-1 (N75), 150 kg.ha-1 (N150) and inoculation with rhizobium bacteria (N4). The results of the analysis of variance showed that the effects of irrigation, nitrogen fertilizer levels and bacterial inoculation, were significant affect on number of pods per plant, number grains per plant, grain weight, grain yield, biological yield and harvest index at 1% probability level. Also Results showed that the grain yield in full irrigation treatment and inoculated with rhizobium bacteria was significantly higher than the other treatments.

Keywords: Chickpea, Nitrogen, Supplemental irrigation.

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187 Correlation between the Sowing Date and the Yield of Maize on Chernozem Soil, in Connection with the Leaf Area Index and the Photosynthesis

Authors: E. Bene

Abstract:

Our sowing date experiment took place in the Demonstration Garden of Institution of Plant Sciences, Centre for Agricultural Sciences of University of Debrecen, in 2012-2014. The paper contains data of test year 2014. Our purpose, besides several other examinations, was to observe how sowing date influences the leaf area index and the activity of photosynthesis of maize hybrids, and how those factors affect fruiting. In the experiment we monitored the change of the leaf area index and the photosynthesis of hybrids with four different growing seasons. The results obtained confirm that not only the environmental and agricultural factors in the growing season have effect on the yield, but also other factors like the leaf area index and the photosynthesis are determinative parameters, and all those factors together, modifying the effects of each other, develop average yields.

Keywords: Sowing date, hybrid, leaf area index, photosynthetic capacity.

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186 Growth and Mineral Content of Mokara chark kuan Pink Orchid as Affected by Allelopathic Lantana camara Weed

Authors: M. Nashriyah, A. R. Shamsiah, M. Salmah, S. Misman, M. N. Maizatul Akmam, M. Y. Jamaliah, M. Mazleha

Abstract:

Growth and mineral nutrient elemental content were studied in Mokara chark kuan pink terrestrial orchid and wild Lantana camara weed agroecosystem. The treated subplots were encircled with L. camara plants and sprayed weekly with L. camara 10% leaf aqueous extract. Allelopathic interactions were possible through extensive invading root of L. camara plants into the treated orchid subplots and weekly L. camara leaf aqueous extract sprayings. Orchid growth was not significantly different in between the control and treated plots, but chlorosis and yellowish patches of leaves were observed in control orchid leaves. Nitrogen content in L. camara leaf was significantly higher than in orchid leaf, the order of importance of mineral nutrient contents in L. camara leaf was K>Mg>Na>N. In treated orchid leaf, the order of importance was N>K>Mg>Na. Orchid leaf N content from the treated plot was higher than control, but Mg and Na contents were almost similar.

Keywords: Growth, Lantana camara, mineral nutrient elements, Mokara chark kuan pink orchid.

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185 Comparative Study on the Antioxidant Activity of Leaf Extract and Carotenoids Extract from Ipomoea batatas var. Oren (Sweetpotato) Leaves

Authors: Seow-Mun Hue, Amru Nasrulhaq Boyce, Chandran Somasundram

Abstract:

Ipomoea batatas (Sweetpotato) is currently ranked sixth in the total world food production and are planted mainly for their storage roots. The present study was undertaken to evaluate and compare the antioxidant properties of the leaf and carotenoids extract from the Ipomoea batatas var. Oren leaves. Total flavonoids in the leaf extract was 144.6 ± 40.5 μg/g compared to 114.86 ± 4.35 μg/g catechin equivalent in the carotenoids extract. Total polyphenols in the leaf extracts (3.470 ± 0.024 GAE g/100g DW) was slightly higher compared to carotenoids extract (2.994 ± 0.078 GAE g/100g DW). The carotenoids extract marked a higher radical scavenging capacity with the IC50= 491.86 μg/ml compared to leaf extract (IC50= 545.39 μg/ml). Concentration-dependent reducing activity was observed for both extracts. Thus, the carotenoids extraction process retained most of the antioxidant capacity from the leaves and can be made into potential natural yellow dye with antioxidant property.

Keywords: antioxidants, carotenoids extract, Ipomoea batatas, sweetpotato leaves

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184 Leaf Pigments Help Almond Explants Tolerating Osmotic Stress

Authors: Soheil Karimi, Abbas Yadollahi, Kazem Arzani, Ali Imani

Abstract:

This study was conducted to evaluate the response of almond genotypes to osmotic stress in vitro in order to screen drought tolerance. Explants subjected to polyethyleneglycol osmotic stress (0, 3.5, and 7.0% WV) on the MS medium. Concentrations of photosynthesis pigments, anthocyanins, and carothenoids were significantly reduced under osmotic stress. Under osmotic stress, leaf water content, cellular membrane stability and pigments concentrations were significantly higher in the leaves of drought tolerant genotypes. The results revealed that carotenoids and anthocyanins may act as photoprotectant compounds in almond leaves and involved in drought tolerance system of the plant.

Keywords: Almond, Anthocianins, Carotenoids, in vitro; Leaf Osmotic Stress, Leaf Pigments, Polyethylene Glycol.

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183 Design and Analysis of Universal Multifunctional Leaf Spring Main Landing Gear for Light Aircraft

Authors: Meiyuan Zheng, Jingwu He, Yuexi Xiong

Abstract:

A universal multi-function leaf spring main landing gear was designed for light aircraft. The main landing gear combined with the leaf spring, skidding, and wheels enables it to have a good takeoff and landing performance on various grounds such as the hard, snow, grass and sand grounds. Firstly, the characteristics of different landing sites were studied in this paper in order to analyze the load of the main landing gear on different types of grounds. Based on this analysis, the structural design optimization along with the strength and stiffness characteristics of the main landing gear has been done, which enables it to have good takeoff and landing performance on different types of grounds given the relevant regulations and standards. Additionally, the impact of the skidding on the aircraft during the flight was also taken into consideration. Finally, a universal multi-function leaf spring type of the main landing gear suitable for light aircraft has been developed.

Keywords: Landing gear, multi-function, leaf spring, skidding.

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182 Enhanced Efficiency for Propagation of Phalaenopsis cornu-cervi (Breda) Blume & Rchb. F. Using Trimmed Leaf Technique

Authors: Suphat Rittirat, Sutha Klaocheed, Kanchit Thammasiri

Abstract:

The effects of thidiazuron (TDZ) and benzyladenine (BA) on protocorm-like bodies (PLBs) induction from leaf explants was investigated. It was found that TDZ was superior to BA. The highest percentage and number of PLBs per leaf explant at 30 and 5.3, respectively were obtained on ½ MS medium supplemented with 9µM TDZ. The regenerated plantlets were potted and acclimatized in the greenhouse. These plants grew well and developed into normal plants after 3 month of transplantation. The 100% survival of plantlets was achieved when planted on pots containing sphagnum moss. 

Keywords: Orchid, PLBs, sphagnum moss, thidiazuron.

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181 Effect of the Ethanolic Leaf Extract of Ficus exasperata on Biochemical Indices of Albino Mice Experimentally Infected with Plasmodium berghei (NK 65)

Authors: Lebari B. Gboeloh

Abstract:

Ficus exasperata is a plant used in the traditional management of malaria in south-south Nigeria. An investigation into the effects of the ethanolic extract of the leaf of the plant on some biochemical indices in albino mice infected with Plasmodium berghei (NK 65) was conducted. 48 mice with weight range of 13-23 g were grouped into six (A, B, C, D, E, and F). Each group contained 8 mice. Groups A, B, C, D and E were infected with blood containing the parasite. Group F was not infected and served as the normal control. On the 6th day after infection, 4 mice from each group were sacrificed and blood samples are collected for investigation. The remaining mice in each group were treated. Mice in Groups A, B and C were administered orally with 200, 300 and 500 mg/kg body weight of Ficus exasperata respectively for six days. Group D was not treated while Group F was given distilled water. Group E was treated with 5 mg/kg body weight of chloroquine. On the 6th day post treatment, these mice were sacrificed and blood samples were collected for biochemical analysis. The results indicated that on the 6th day post inoculation, the levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in all the mice infected with the parasite were significantly (p < 0.05) elevated. However, on the 6th day post administration of extract, the increased levels of AST, ALP and ALT were significantly (p < 0.05) reduced in groups administered with 300 and 500 mg/kg body weight of the extract compared with groups D and F. The reduction in the levels of these enzymes is an indication that F. exasperata have no hepatotoxic effect on the mice at the dose levels administered.

Keywords: Ficus exasperata, albino mice, Plasmodium berghei, biochemical parameters.

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180 Effects of Xylanase and Cellulase Production during Composting of EFB and POME using Fungi

Authors: Dayana Amira R., Roshanida A.R., Rosli M.I.

Abstract:

Empty Fruit Bunches (EFB) and Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) are two main wastes from oil palm industries which contain rich lignocellulose. Degradation of EFB and POME by microorganisms will produce hydrolytic enzyme which will degrade cellulose and hemicellulose during composting process. However, normal composting takes about four to six months to reach maturity. Hence, application of fungi into compost can shorten the period of composting. This study identifies the effect of xylanase and cellulase produced by Aspergillus niger and Trichoderma virens on composting process using EFB and POME. The degradation of EFB and POME indicates the lignocellulolytic capacity of Aspergillus niger and Trichoderma virens with more than 7% decrease in hemicellulose and more than 25% decrease in cellulose for both inoculated compost. Inoculation of Aspergillus niger and Trichoderma virens also increased the enzyme activities during the composting period compared to the control compost by 21% for both xylanase and cellulase. Rapid rise in the activities of cellulase and xylanase was observed by Aspergillus niger with the highest activities of 14.41 FPU/mg and 3.89 IU/mg, respectively. Increased activities of cellulase and xylanase also occurred in inoculation of Trichoderma virens with the highest activities obtained at 13.21 FPU/mg and 4.43 IU/mg, respectively. Therefore, it is evident that the inoculation of fungi can increase the enzyme activities hence effectively degrading the EFB and POME.

Keywords: EFB, cellulase, POME, xylanase

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179 Estimation of Critical Period for Weed Control in Corn in Iran

Authors: Sohrab Mahmoodi, Ali Rahimi

Abstract:

The critical period for weed control (CPWC) is the period in the crop growth cycle during which weeds must be controlled to prevent unacceptable yield losses. Field studies were conducted in 2005 and 2006 in the University of Birjand at the south east of Iran to determine CPWC of corn using a randomized complete block design with 14 treatments and four replications. The treatments consisted of two different periods of weed interference, a critical weed-free period and a critical time of weed removal, were imposed at V3, V6, V9, V12, V15, and R1 (based on phonological stages of corn development) with a weedy check and a weed-free check. The CPWC was determined with the use of 2.5, 5, 10, 15 and 20% acceptable yield loss levels by non-linear Regression method and fitting Logistic and Gompertz nonlinear equations to relative yield data. The CPWC of corn was from 5- to 15-leaf stage (19-55 DAE) to prevent yield losses of 5%. This period to prevent yield losses of 2.5, 10 and 20% was 4- to 17-leaf stage (14-59 DAE), 6- to 12-leaf stage (25-47 DAE) and 8- to 9-leaf stage (31-36 DAE) respectively. The height and leaf area index of corn were significantly decreased by weed competition in both weed free and weed infested treatments (P<0.01). Results also showed that there was a significant positive correlation between yield and LAI of corn at silk stage when competing with weeds (r= 0.97).

Keywords: Corn, Critical period, Gompertz, Logistic, Weed control.

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178 Effect of adding Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extracts of Cinnamomum tamala (Bay Leaf) on Nutraceutical Property of Tofu

Authors: Sudip Ghosh, Probir Kumar Ghosh, Paramita Bhattacharjee

Abstract:

Supercritical carbon dioxide extracts of Cinnamomum tamala (bay) leaves obtained at 55°C, 512 bar was found to have appreciable nutraceutical properties and was successfully employed as value-added ingredients in preparation of tofu. The bay leaf formulated tofu sample was evaluated for physicochemical properties (pH, texture analysis and lipid peroxidation), proximate analysis, phytochemical properties (total phenol content, antioxidant properties and total reducing sugar), microbial load and sensory profile analysis for a storage period of ten days, vis-à-vis an experimental control sample. These assays established the superiority of the tofu sample formulated with supercritical carbon dioxide extract of bay leaf over the control sample. Bay leaf extract formulated tofu is a new green functional food with promising nutraceutical benefits. 

Keywords: Cinnamomum tamala, Physicochemical properties Phytochemical properties, Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction, Tofu.

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177 Effect of Cocoa Pod Ash and Poultry Manure on Soil Properties and Cocoyam Productivity of Nutrient-Depleted Tropical Alfisol

Authors: T. M. Agbede, A. O. Adekiya

Abstract:

An experiment was carried out for three consecutive years at Owo, southwest Nigeria. The objective of the investigation was to determine the effect of Cocoa Pod Ash (CPA) and Poultry Manure (PM) applied solely and their combined form, as sources of fertilizers on soil properties, leaf nutrient composition, growth and yield of cocoyam. Three soil amendments: CPA, PM (sole forms), CPA and PM (mixture), were applied at 7.5 t ha-1 with an inorganic fertilizer (NPK 15-15-15) at 400 kg ha-1 as a reference and a natural soil fertility, NSF (control), arranged in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Results showed that soil amendments significantly increased (p = 0.05) corm and cormel weights and growth of cocoyam, soil and leaf N, P, K, Ca and Mg, soil pH and organic carbon (OC) concentrations compared with the NSF (control). The mixture of CPA+PM treatment increased corm and cormel weights, plant height and leaf area of cocoyam by 40, 39, 42, and 48%, respectively, compared with inorganic fertilizer (NPK) and 13, 12, 15 and 7%, respectively, compared with PM alone. Sole or mixed forms of soil amendments showed remarkable improvement in soil physical properties compared with NPK and the NSF (control). The mixture of CPA+PM applied at 7.5 t ha-1 was the most effective treatment in improving cocoyam yield and growth parameters, soil and leaf nutrient composition.

Keywords: Cocoa pod ash, cocoyam, poultry manure, soil and leaf nutrient composition.

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176 Effect of Leaf Essential Oil of Citrus sinensis at Different Harvest Time on Some Liver and Kidney Function Indices of Diabetic Rats

Authors: O. Soji-Omoniwa, N. O. Muhammad, L. A. Usman, B. P. Omoniwa

Abstract:

This study was conducted to investigate the effect of the leaf essential oil of C. sinensis harvested at 7.00a.m and 4.00p.m on some Liver and Kidney function indices of diabetic rats as well as investigate the effect of time of harvest on the observed effect. Experimental animals were divided into 4 groups (A, B, C and D). Diabetes mellitus was induced in all animals, except the normal control group (Group A), by injecting 150mg/kg body weight of alloxan monohydrate intraperitoneally. Group A received distilled water while group B (diabetic control group) was not treated. Group C and D were treated with leaf essential oil of C. sinensis harvested at 7.00 a.m and 4.00p.m respectively at a dose of 110 mg/kg body weight every other day for 15 days. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), Alanine Transaminase (ALT) and Aspartate Transaminase (AST) activity was evaluated in the serum, Liver and Kidney of studied animals. Total and Direct Bilirubin level, Total Protein and Globulin, Creatinine and Urea level were also evaluated. Result showed that creatinine and urea, serum ALP, AST and ALT levels was significantly reduced (p < 0.05), while the levels of total Protein and Globulin increased significantly (p < 0.05) for the treated animals compared to the diabetic control group. In conclusion, the leaf essential oil of Citrus sinensis ameliorated the impaired renal and liver function; however, the time of harvest of the leaf does not significantly affect its ameliorative effect.

Keywords: C. sinensis, Function indices, Harvest time, Leaf essential oil.

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