Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6498

Search results for: Convergence time

6498 A Methodology for Reducing the BGP Convergence Time

Authors: Eatedal A. Alabdulkreem, Hamed S. Al-Raweshidy, Maysam F. Abbod

Abstract:

Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) is the standard routing protocol between various autonomous systems (AS) in the internet. In the event of failure, a considerable delay in the BGP convergence has been shown by empirical measurements. During the convergence time the BGP will repeatedly advertise new routes to some destination and withdraw old ones until it reach a stable state. It has been found that the KEEPALIVE message timer and the HOLD time are tow parameters affecting the convergence speed. This paper aims to find the optimum value for the KEEPALIVE timer and the HOLD time that maximally reduces the convergence time without increasing the traffic. The KEEPALIVE message timer optimal value founded by this paper is 30 second instead of 60 seconds, and the optimal value for the HOLD time is 90 seconds instead of 180 seconds.

Keywords: BGP, Convergence Time, HOLD time, Keep alive.

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6497 A New Modification of Nonlinear Conjugate Gradient Coefficients with Global Convergence Properties

Authors: Ahmad Alhawarat, Mustafa Mamat, Mohd Rivaie, Ismail Mohd

Abstract:

Conjugate gradient method has been enormously used to solve large scale unconstrained optimization problems due to the number of iteration, memory, CPU time, and convergence property, in this paper we find a new class of nonlinear conjugate gradient coefficient with global convergence properties proved by exact line search. The numerical results for our new βK give a good result when it compared with well known formulas.

Keywords: Conjugate gradient method, conjugate gradient coefficient, global convergence.

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6496 Convergence Analysis of an Alternative Gradient Algorithm for Non-Negative Matrix Factorization

Authors: Chenxue Yang, Mao Ye, Zijian Liu, Tao Li, Jiao Bao

Abstract:

Non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) is a useful computational method to find basis information of multivariate nonnegative data. A popular approach to solve the NMF problem is the multiplicative update (MU) algorithm. But, it has some defects. So the columnwisely alternating gradient (cAG) algorithm was proposed. In this paper, we analyze convergence of the cAG algorithm and show advantages over the MU algorithm. The stability of the equilibrium point is used to prove the convergence of the cAG algorithm. A classic model is used to obtain the equilibrium point and the invariant sets are constructed to guarantee the integrity of the stability. Finally, the convergence conditions of the cAG algorithm are obtained, which help reducing the evaluation time and is confirmed in the experiments. By using the same method, the MU algorithm has zero divisor and is convergent at zero has been verified. In addition, the convergence conditions of the MU algorithm at zero are similar to that of the cAG algorithm at non-zero. However, it is meaningless to discuss the convergence at zero, which is not always the result that we want for NMF. Thus, we theoretically illustrate the advantages of the cAG algorithm.

Keywords: Non-negative matrix factorizations, convergence, cAG algorithm, equilibrium point, stability.

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6495 L1-Convergence of Modified Trigonometric Sums

Authors: Sandeep Kaur Chouhan, Jatinderdeep Kaur, S. S. Bhatia

Abstract:

The existence of sine and cosine series as a Fourier series, their L1-convergence seems to be one of the difficult question in theory of convergence of trigonometric series in L1-metric norm. In the literature so far available, various authors have studied the L1-convergence of cosine and sine trigonometric series with special coefficients. In this paper, we present a modified cosine and sine sums and criterion for L1-convergence of these modified sums is obtained. Also, a necessary and sufficient condition for the L1-convergence of the cosine and sine series is deduced as corollaries.

Keywords: Conjugate Dirichlet kernel, Dirichlet kernel, L1-convergence, modified sums.

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6494 DHT-LMS Algorithm for Sensorineural Loss Patients

Authors: Sunitha S. L., V. Udayashankara

Abstract:

Hearing impairment is the number one chronic disability affecting many people in the world. Background noise is particularly damaging to speech intelligibility for people with hearing loss especially for sensorineural loss patients. Several investigations on speech intelligibility have demonstrated sensorineural loss patients need 5-15 dB higher SNR than the normal hearing subjects. This paper describes Discrete Hartley Transform Power Normalized Least Mean Square algorithm (DHT-LMS) to improve the SNR and to reduce the convergence rate of the Least Means Square (LMS) for sensorineural loss patients. The DHT transforms n real numbers to n real numbers, and has the convenient property of being its own inverse. It can be effectively used for noise cancellation with less convergence time. The simulated result shows the superior characteristics by improving the SNR at least 9 dB for input SNR with zero dB and faster convergence rate (eigenvalue ratio 12) compare to time domain method and DFT-LMS.

Keywords: Hearing Impairment, DHT-LMS, Convergence rate, SNR improvement.

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6493 Improving Convergence of Parameter Tuning Process of the Additive Fuzzy System by New Learning Strategy

Authors: Thi Nguyen, Lee Gordon-Brown, Jim Peterson, Peter Wheeler

Abstract:

An additive fuzzy system comprising m rules with n inputs and p outputs in each rule has at least t m(2n + 2 p + 1) parameters needing to be tuned. The system consists of a large number of if-then fuzzy rules and takes a long time to tune its parameters especially in the case of a large amount of training data samples. In this paper, a new learning strategy is investigated to cope with this obstacle. Parameters that tend toward constant values at the learning process are initially fixed and they are not tuned till the end of the learning time. Experiments based on applications of the additive fuzzy system in function approximation demonstrate that the proposed approach reduces the learning time and hence improves convergence speed considerably.

Keywords: Additive fuzzy system, improving convergence, parameter learning process, unsupervised learning.

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6492 On the Fast Convergence of DD-LMS DFE Using a Good Strategy Initialization

Authors: Y.Ben Jemaa, M.Jaidane

Abstract:

In wireless communication system, a Decision Feedback Equalizer (DFE) to cancel the intersymbol interference (ISI) is required. In this paper, an exact convergence analysis of the (DFE) adapted by the Least Mean Square (LMS) algorithm during the training phase is derived by taking into account the finite alphabet context of data transmission. This allows us to determine the shortest training sequence that allows to reach a given Mean Square Error (MSE). With the intention of avoiding the problem of ill-convergence, the paper proposes an initialization strategy for the blind decision directed (DD) algorithm. This then yields a semi-blind DFE with high speed and good convergence.

Keywords: Adaptive Decision Feedback Equalizer, PerformanceAnalysis, Finite Alphabet Case, Ill-Convergence, Convergence speed.

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6491 On Convergence Property of MINRES Method for Solving a Complex Shifted Hermitian Linear System

Authors: Guiding Gu, Guo Liu

Abstract:

We discuss the convergence property of the minimum residual (MINRES) method for the solution of complex shifted Hermitian system (αI + H)x = f. Our convergence analysis shows that the method has a faster convergence than that for real shifted Hermitian system (Re(α)I + H)x = f under the condition Re(α) + λmin(H) > 0, and a larger imaginary part of the shift α has a better convergence property. Numerical experiments show such convergence properties.

Keywords: complex shifted linear system, Hermitian matrix, MINRES method.

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6490 A Family of Improved Secant-Like Method with Super-Linear Convergence

Authors: Liang Chen

Abstract:

A family of improved secant-like method is proposed in this paper. Further, the analysis of the convergence shows that this method has super-linear convergence. Efficiency are demonstrated by numerical experiments when the choice of α is correct.

Keywords: Nonlinear equations, Secant method, Convergence order, Secant-like method.

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6489 Improving the Performance of Back-Propagation Training Algorithm by Using ANN

Authors: Vishnu Pratap Singh Kirar

Abstract:

Artificial Neural Network (ANN) can be trained using back propagation (BP). It is the most widely used algorithm for supervised learning with multi-layered feed-forward networks. Efficient learning by the BP algorithm is required for many practical applications. The BP algorithm calculates the weight changes of artificial neural networks, and a common approach is to use a twoterm algorithm consisting of a learning rate (LR) and a momentum factor (MF). The major drawbacks of the two-term BP learning algorithm are the problems of local minima and slow convergence speeds, which limit the scope for real-time applications. Recently the addition of an extra term, called a proportional factor (PF), to the two-term BP algorithm was proposed. The third increases the speed of the BP algorithm. However, the PF term also reduces the convergence of the BP algorithm, and criteria for evaluating convergence are required to facilitate the application of the three terms BP algorithm. Although these two seem to be closely related, as described later, we summarize various improvements to overcome the drawbacks. Here we compare the different methods of convergence of the new three-term BP algorithm.

Keywords: Neural Network, Backpropagation, Local Minima, Fast Convergence Rate.

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6488 Analyzing Convergence of IT and Energy Industry Based on Social System Framework

Authors: Giseob Byun, Ji Yeon Cho, Bong Gyou Lee

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to analyze Green IT industry in major developed countries and to suggest overall directions for IT-Energy convergence industry. Recently, IT industry is pointed out as a problem such as environmental pollution, energy exhaustion, and high energy consumption. Therefore, Green IT gets focused which concerns as solution of these problems. However, since it is a beginning stage of this convergence area, there are only a few studies of IT-Energy convergence industry. According to this, this study examined the major developed countries in terms of institution arrangements, resources, markets and companies based on Van de Ven(1999)'s social system framework that shows relationship among key components of industrial infrastructure. Subsequently, the direction of the future study of convergence on IT and Energy industry is proposed.

Keywords: Green IT, Energy industry, Convergence, Social System Framework.

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6487 Fast Factored DCT-LMS Speech Enhancement for Performance Enhancement of Digital Hearing Aid

Authors: Sunitha. S.L., V. Udayashankara

Abstract:

Background noise is particularly damaging to speech intelligibility for people with hearing loss especially for sensorineural loss patients. Several investigations on speech intelligibility have demonstrated sensorineural loss patients need 5-15 dB higher SNR than the normal hearing subjects. This paper describes Discrete Cosine Transform Power Normalized Least Mean Square algorithm to improve the SNR and to reduce the convergence rate of the LMS for Sensory neural loss patients. Since it requires only real arithmetic, it establishes the faster convergence rate as compare to time domain LMS and also this transformation improves the eigenvalue distribution of the input autocorrelation matrix of the LMS filter. The DCT has good ortho-normal, separable, and energy compaction property. Although the DCT does not separate frequencies, it is a powerful signal decorrelator. It is a real valued function and thus can be effectively used in real-time operation. The advantages of DCT-LMS as compared to standard LMS algorithm are shown via SNR and eigenvalue ratio computations. . Exploiting the symmetry of the basis functions, the DCT transform matrix [AN] can be factored into a series of ±1 butterflies and rotation angles. This factorization results in one of the fastest DCT implementation. There are different ways to obtain factorizations. This work uses the fast factored DCT algorithm developed by Chen and company. The computer simulations results show superior convergence characteristics of the proposed algorithm by improving the SNR at least 10 dB for input SNR less than and equal to 0 dB, faster convergence speed and better time and frequency characteristics.

Keywords: Hearing Impairment, DCT Adaptive filter, Sensorineural loss patients, Convergence rate.

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6486 A Novel Convergence Accelerator for the LMS Adaptive Algorithm

Authors: Jeng-Shin Sheu, Jenn-Kaie Lain, Tai-Kuo Woo, Jyh-Horng Wen

Abstract:

The least mean square (LMS) algorithmis one of the most well-known algorithms for mobile communication systems due to its implementation simplicity. However, the main limitation is its relatively slow convergence rate. In this paper, a booster using the concept of Markov chains is proposed to speed up the convergence rate of LMS algorithms. The nature of Markov chains makes it possible to exploit the past information in the updating process. Moreover, since the transition matrix has a smaller variance than that of the weight itself by the central limit theorem, the weight transition matrix converges faster than the weight itself. Accordingly, the proposed Markov-chain based booster thus has the ability to track variations in signal characteristics, and meanwhile, it can accelerate the rate of convergence for LMS algorithms. Simulation results show that the LMS algorithm can effectively increase the convergence rate and meantime further approach the Wiener solution, if the Markov-chain based booster is applied. The mean square error is also remarkably reduced, while the convergence rate is improved.

Keywords: LMS, Markov chain, convergence rate, accelerator.

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6485 Particle Swarm Optimisation of a Terminal Synergetic Controllers for a DC-DC Converter

Authors: H. Abderrezek, M. N. Harmas

Abstract:

DC-DC converters are widely used as reliable power source for many industrial and military applications, computers and electronic devices. Several control methods were developed for DC-DC converters control mostly with asymptotic convergence. Synergetic control (SC) is a proven robust control approach and will be used here in a so called terminal scheme to achieve finite time convergence. Lyapounov synthesis is adopted to assure controlled system stability. Furthermore particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm, based on an integral time absolute of error (ITAE) criterion will be used to optimize controller parameters. Simulation of terminal synergetic control of a DC-DC converter is carried out for different operating conditions and results are compared to classic synergetic control performance, that which demonstrate the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed control method.

Keywords: DC-DC converter, PSO, finite time, terminal, synergetic control.

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6484 Comparison of Newton Raphson and Gauss Seidel Methods for Power Flow Analysis

Authors: H. Abaali, T. Talbi, R.Skouri

Abstract:

This paper presents a comparative study of the Gauss Seidel and Newton-Raphson polar coordinates methods for power flow analysis. The effectiveness of these methods are evaluated and tested through a different IEEE bus test system on the basis of number of iteration, computational time, tolerance value and convergence.

Keywords: Convergence time, Gauss-Seidel Method, Newton-Raphson Method, number of iteration, power flow analysis.

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6483 The Complementarities of Multi-Lateralism, Andregionalism and Income Convergence: ASEAN and SAARC

Authors: Kankesu Jayanthakumaran, Shao-Wei Lee

Abstract:

This paper proposes the hypothesis that multilateralism and regionalism are complementary, and that regional income convergence is likely with a like minded and committed regionalism that often has links geographically and culturally. The association between international trade, income per capita, and regional income convergence in founder members of ASEAN and SAARC, is explored by applying the Lumsdaine, and Papell approach. The causal relationships between the above variables are also studied in respective trade blocs by using Granger causality tests. The conclusion is that global reforms have had a greater impact on increasing trade for both trade blocs and induced convergence only in ASEAN-5 countries. The experience of ASEAN countries shows a two-way causal relationship between the flow from trade to regional income convergence, and vice versa. There is no evidence in SAARC countries for income convergence and causality.

Keywords: ASEAN-5, SAARC-5, trade liberalisation, incomeconvergence, structural breaks and causality.

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6482 Convergence Analysis of a Prediction based Adaptive Equalizer for IIR Channels

Authors: Miloje S. Radenkovic, Tamal Bose

Abstract:

This paper presents the convergence analysis of a prediction based blind equalizer for IIR channels. Predictor parameters are estimated by using the recursive least squares algorithm. It is shown that the prediction error converges almost surely (a.s.) toward a scalar multiple of the unknown input symbol sequence. It is also proved that the convergence rate of the parameter estimation error is of the same order as that in the iterated logarithm law.

Keywords: Adaptive blind equalizer, Recursive leastsquares, Adaptive Filtering, Convergence analysis.

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6481 On Convergence of Affine Thin Plate Bending Element

Authors: Rado Flajs, Miran Saje

Abstract:

In the present paper the displacement-based nonconforming quadrilateral affine thin plate bending finite element ARPQ4 is presented, derived directly from non-conforming quadrilateral thin plate bending finite element RPQ4 proposed by Wanji and Cheung [19]. It is found, however, that element RPQ4 is only conditionally unisolvent. The new element is shown to be inherently unisolvent. This convenient property results in the element ARPQ4 being more robust and thus better suited for computations than its predecessor. The convergence is proved and the rate of convergence estimated. The mathematically rigorous proof of convergence presented in the paper is based on Stummel-s generalized patch test and the consideration of the element approximability condition, which are both necessary and sufficient for convergence.

Keywords: Quadrilateral thin plate bending element, convergence, generalized patch test.

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6480 Semilocal Convergence of a Three Step Fifth Order Iterative Method under Höolder Continuity Condition in Banach Spaces

Authors: Ramandeep Behl, Prashanth Maroju, S. S. Motsa

Abstract:

In this paper, we study the semilocal convergence of a fifth order iterative method using recurrence relation under the assumption that first order Fréchet derivative satisfies the Hölder condition. Also, we calculate the R-order of convergence and provide some a priori error bounds. Based on this, we give existence and uniqueness region of the solution for a nonlinear Hammerstein integral equation of the second kind.

Keywords: Hölder continuity condition, Fréchet derivative, fifth order convergence, recurrence relations.

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6479 New Newton's Method with Third-order Convergence for Solving Nonlinear Equations

Authors: Osama Yusuf Ababneh

Abstract:

For the last years, the variants of the Newton-s method with cubic convergence have become popular iterative methods to find approximate solutions to the roots of non-linear equations. These methods both enjoy cubic convergence at simple roots and do not require the evaluation of second order derivatives. In this paper, we present a new Newton-s method based on contra harmonic mean with cubically convergent. Numerical examples show that the new method can compete with the classical Newton's method.

Keywords: Third-order convergence, non-linear equations, root finding, iterative method.

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6478 Perspectives of Financial Reporting Harmonization

Authors: Sorana M. Manoiu, Razvan V. Mustata, Jiří Strouhal, Carmen G. Bonaci, Dumitru Matis, Jiřina Bokšová

Abstract:

In the current context of globalization, accountability has become a key subject of real interest for both, national and international business areas, due to the need for comparability and transparency of the economic situation, so we can speak about the harmonization and convergence of international accounting. The paper presents a qualitative research through content analysis of several reports concerning the roadmap for convergence. First, we develop a conceptual framework for the evolution of standards’ convergence and further we discuss the degree of standards harmonization and convergence between US GAAP and IAS/IFRS as to October 2012. We find that most topics did not follow the expected progress. Furthermore there are still some differences in the long-term project that are in process to be completed and other that were reassessed as a lower priority project.

Keywords: Convergence, harmonization, FASB, IASB, IFRS, US GAAP.

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6477 Increasing Convergence Rate of a Fractionally-Spaced Channel Equalizer

Authors: Waseem Khan

Abstract:

In this paper a technique for increasing the convergence rate of fractionally spaced channel equalizer is proposed. Instead of symbol-spaced updating of the equalizer filter, a mechanism has been devised to update the filter at a higher rate. This ensures convergence of the equalizer filter at a higher rate and therefore less time-consuming. The proposed technique has been simulated and tested for two-ray modeled channels with various delay spreads. These channels include minimum-phase and nonminimum- phase channels. Simulation results suggest that that proposed technique outperforms the conventional technique of symbol-spaced updating of equalizer filter.

Keywords: Channel equalization, Fractionally-spaced equalizer

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6476 Interaxial Distance and Convergence Control for Efficient Stereoscopic Shooting using Horizontal Moving 3D Camera Rig

Authors: Seong-Mo An, Rohit Ramesh, Young-Sook Lee, Wan-Young Chung

Abstract:

The proper assessment of interaxial distance and convergence control are important factors in stereoscopic imaging technology to make an efficient 3D image. To control interaxial distance and convergence for efficient 3D shooting, horizontal 3D camera rig is designed using some hardware components like 'LM Guide', 'Goniometer' and 'Rotation Stage'. The horizontal 3D camera rig system can be properly aligned by moving the two cameras horizontally in same or opposite directions, by adjusting the camera angle and finally considering horizontal swing as well as vertical swing. In this paper, the relationship between interaxial distance and convergence angle control are discussed and intensive experiments are performed in order to demonstrate an easy and effective 3D shooting.

Keywords: Interaxial, Convergence, Stereoscopic, Horizontal 3D Camera Rig

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6475 Mapping of C* Elements in Finite Element Method using Transformation Matrix

Authors: G. H. Majzoob, B. Sharifi Hamadani

Abstract:

Mapping between local and global coordinates is an important issue in finite element method, as all calculations are performed in local coordinates. The concern arises when subparametric are used, in which the shape functions of the field variable and the geometry of the element are not the same. This is particularly the case for C* elements in which the extra degrees of freedoms added to the nodes make the elements sub-parametric. In the present work, transformation matrix for C1* (an 8-noded hexahedron element with 12 degrees of freedom at each node) is obtained using equivalent C0 elements (with the same number of degrees of freedom). The convergence rate of 8-noded C1* element is nearly equal to its equivalent C0 element, while it consumes less CPU time with respect to the C0 element. The existence of derivative degrees of freedom at the nodes of C1* element along with excellent convergence makes it superior compared with it equivalent C0 element.

Keywords: Mapping, Finite element method, C* elements, Convergence, C0 elements.

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6474 Steepest Descent Method with New Step Sizes

Authors: Bib Paruhum Silalahi, Djihad Wungguli, Sugi Guritman

Abstract:

Steepest descent method is a simple gradient method for optimization. This method has a slow convergence in heading to the optimal solution, which occurs because of the zigzag form of the steps. Barzilai and Borwein modified this algorithm so that it performs well for problems with large dimensions. Barzilai and Borwein method results have sparked a lot of research on the method of steepest descent, including alternate minimization gradient method and Yuan method. Inspired by previous works, we modified the step size of the steepest descent method. We then compare the modification results against the Barzilai and Borwein method, alternate minimization gradient method and Yuan method for quadratic function cases in terms of the iterations number and the running time. The average results indicate that the steepest descent method with the new step sizes provide good results for small dimensions and able to compete with the results of Barzilai and Borwein method and the alternate minimization gradient method for large dimensions. The new step sizes have faster convergence compared to the other methods, especially for cases with large dimensions.

Keywords: Convergence, iteration, line search, running time, steepest descent, unconstrained optimization.

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6473 A Note on the Convergence of the Generalized AOR Iterative Method for Linear Systems

Authors: Zhong-xi Gao, Hou-biao Li

Abstract:

Recently, some convergent results of the generalized AOR iterative (GAOR) method for solving linear systems with strictly diagonally dominant matrices are presented in [Darvishi, M.T., Hessari, P.: On convergence of the generalized AOR method for linear systems with diagonally dominant cofficient matrices. Appl. Math. Comput. 176, 128-133 (2006)] and [Tian, G.X., Huang, T.Z., Cui, S.Y.: Convergence of generalized AOR iterative method for linear systems with strictly diagonally dominant cofficient matrices. J. Comp. Appl. Math. 213, 240-247 (2008)]. In this paper, we give the convergence of the GAOR method for linear systems with strictly doubly diagonally dominant matrix, which improves these corresponding results.

Keywords: Diagonally dominant matrix, GAOR method, Linear system, Convergence

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6472 Computational Fluid Dynamics Expert System using Artificial Neural Networks

Authors: Gonzalo Rubio, Eusebio Valero, Sven Lanzan

Abstract:

The design of a modern aircraft is based on three pillars: theoretical results, experimental test and computational simulations. As a results of this, Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) solvers are widely used in the aeronautical field. These solvers require the correct selection of many parameters in order to obtain successful results. Besides, the computational time spent in the simulation depends on the proper choice of these parameters. In this paper we create an expert system capable of making an accurate prediction of the number of iterations and time required for the convergence of a computational fluid dynamic (CFD) solver. Artificial neural network (ANN) has been used to design the expert system. It is shown that the developed expert system is capable of making an accurate prediction the number of iterations and time required for the convergence of a CFD solver.

Keywords: Artificial Neural Network, Computational Fluid Dynamics, Optimization

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6471 The Convergence Results between Backward USSOR and Jacobi Iterative Matrices

Authors: Zuan-De Wang, Hou-biao Li, Zhong-xi Gao

Abstract:

In this paper, the backward Ussor iterative matrix is proposed. The relationship of convergence between the backward Ussor iterative matrix and Jacobi iterative matrix is obtained, which makes the results in the corresponding references be improved and refined.Moreover,numerical examples also illustrate the effectiveness of these conclusions.

Keywords: Backward USSOR iterative matrix, Jacobi iterative matrix, convergence, spectral radius

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6470 Convergence Analysis of the Generalized Alternating Two-Stage Method

Authors: Guangbin Wang, Liangliang Li, Fuping Tan

Abstract:

In this paper, we give the generalized alternating twostage method in which the inner iterations are accomplished by a generalized alternating method. And we present convergence results of the method for solving nonsingular linear systems when the coefficient matrix of the linear system is a monotone matrix or an H-matrix.

Keywords: Generalized alternating two-stage method, linear system, convergence.

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6469 CFD Study for Normal and Rifled Tube with a Convergence Check

Authors: Sharfi Dirar, Shihab Elhaj, Ahmed El Fatih

Abstract:

Computational fluid dynamics were used to simulate and study the heated water boiler tube for both normal and rifled tube with a refinement of the mesh to check the convergence. The operation condition was taken from GARRI power station and used in a boundary condition accordingly. The result indicates the rifled tube has higher heat transfer efficiency than the normal tube.

Keywords: Boiler tube, Convergence Check, Normal Tube, Rifled Tube.

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