Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 33

Search results for: Bacterial

33 On a Negative Relation between Bacterial Taxis and Turing Pattern Formation

Authors: A. Elragig, S. Townley, H. Dreiwi

Abstract:

In this paper we introduce a bacteria-leukocyte model with bacteria chemotaxsis. We assume that bacteria develop a tactic defence mechanism as a response to Leukocyte phagocytosis. We explore the effect of this tactic motion on Turing space in two parameter spaces. A fine tuning of bacterial chemotaxis shows a significant effect on developing a non-uniform steady state.

Keywords: Chemotaxis-diffusion driven instability, bacterial chemotaxis.

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32 Computational Identification of Bacterial Communities

Authors: Eleftheria Tzamali, Panayiota Poirazi, Ioannis G. Tollis, Martin Reczko

Abstract:

Stable bacterial polymorphism on a single limiting resource may appear if between the evolved strains metabolic interactions take place that allow the exchange of essential nutrients [8]. Towards an attempt to predict the possible outcome of longrunning evolution experiments, a network based on the metabolic capabilities of homogeneous populations of every single gene knockout strain (nodes) of the bacterium E. coli is reconstructed. Potential metabolic interactions (edges) are allowed only between strains of different metabolic capabilities. Bacterial communities are determined by finding cliques in this network. Growth of the emerged hypothetical bacterial communities is simulated by extending the metabolic flux balance analysis model of Varma et al [2] to embody heterogeneous cell population growth in a mutual environment. Results from aerobic growth on 10 different carbon sources are presented. The upper bounds of the diversity that can emerge from single-cloned populations of E. coli such as the number of strains that appears to metabolically differ from most strains (highly connected nodes), the maximum clique size as well as the number of all the possible communities are determined. Certain single gene deletions are identified to consistently participate in our hypothetical bacterial communities under most environmental conditions implying a pattern of growth-condition- invariant strains with similar metabolic effects. Moreover, evaluation of all the hypothetical bacterial communities under growth on pyruvate reveals heterogeneous populations that can exhibit superior growth performance when compared to the performance of the homogeneous wild-type population.

Keywords: Bacterial polymorphism, clique identification, dynamic FBA, evolution, metabolic interactions.

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31 Evaluation of Bacterial Composition of the Aerosol of Selected Abattoirs in Akure, South Western Nigeria

Authors: Funmilola O. Omoya, Joseph O. Obameso, Titus A. Olukibiti

Abstract:

This study was carried out to reveal the bacterial composition of aerosol in the studied abattoirs. Bacteria isolated were characterized according to microbiological standards. Factors such as temperature and distance were considered as variable in this study. The isolation was carried out at different temperatures such as 27oC, 31oC and 29oC and at various distances of 100meters and 200meters away from the slaughter sites. Result obtained showed that strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Lactobacillus alimentarius and Micrococcus sp. were identified. The total viable counts showed that more microorganisms were present in the morning while the least viable count of 388cfu was recorded in the evening period of this study. This study also showed that more microbial loads were recorded the further the distance is to the slaughter site. Conclusively, the array of bacteria isolated suggests that abattoir sites may be a potential source of pathogenic organisms to commuters if located within residential environment.

Keywords: Abattoir, Aerosol, Bacterial Composition, Environment.

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30 Fermentative Production and Characterization of Carboxymethyl Bacterial Cellulose Using Date Syrup

Authors: Marzieh Moosavi-Nasab, Ali R. Yousefi, Hamed Askari, Maryam Bakhtiyari

Abstract:

In this study, static batch fermentation was used for bacterial cellulose production in date syrup solution (Bx. 10%) at 28°C using Gluconacetobacter. xylinus (PTCC 1734). The physicochemical properties of standard Sigma CMC and the produced carboxymethyl bacterial cellulose (CMBC) were studied using FT-IR spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). According to the FT-IR spectra the bands at 1664 and 1431 cm-1 indicate that carboxylic acid groups and carboxylate groups exist on the surface. The SEM imaging of CMBC and CMC carried out in magnification of 1K. Comparing the SEM imaging obviously showed that the ribbon shape in CMC remained but the length of ribbons became shorter while that shape changed to flake shape for CMBC. Determination of the area under XRD patterns demonstrated that the crystallinity amount of CMC was more than that for CMBC (51.08% and 81.84% for CMBC and CMC, respectively).

Keywords: Carboxymethyl bacterial cellulose, Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy, X-ray diffractometry.

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29 Modification and Characterization of Bacterial Cellulose Biopolymer as Proton Conducting Membrane

Authors: C. W. Lin, S.W. Chen

Abstract:

This study describes the preparation of a novel proton conducting membranes based on bacterial cellulose (BC) modified by grafting of 2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1 -propanesulfonic acid (AMPS) through UV-induced graft polymerization. These AMPS-g-BC membranes have been characterized by various techniques including FTIR, SEM and TGA, to find their successful grafting of AMPS on BC, surface morphology and thermal stability, respectively. Physical properties of AMPS-g-BC membranes have been assessed in terms of Lamda value( λ ), ion exchange capacity(IEC) and proton conductivity. The relationship between degree of grafting and AMPS concentration used for grafting has been determined by weight gain method. An optimum proton conductivity equal to 2.89x10-2 S cm-1 and IEC value equal to 1.79 mmol g-1 have been obtained when 20 wt% AMPS concentration is used for grafting (i.e. the corresponding membrane is notated as AMPS20-g-BC).

Keywords: Bacterial cellulose, 2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid, Proton conducting membrane, Self diffusioncoefficient, Fuel cell

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28 Virulent-GO: Prediction of Virulent Proteins in Bacterial Pathogens Utilizing Gene Ontology Terms

Authors: Chia-Ta Tsai, Wen-Lin Huang, Shinn-Jang Ho, Li-Sun Shu, Shinn-Ying Ho

Abstract:

Prediction of bacterial virulent protein sequences can give assistance to identification and characterization of novel virulence-associated factors and discover drug/vaccine targets against proteins indispensable to pathogenicity. Gene Ontology (GO) annotation which describes functions of genes and gene products as a controlled vocabulary of terms has been shown effectively for a variety of tasks such as gene expression study, GO annotation prediction, protein subcellular localization, etc. In this study, we propose a sequence-based method Virulent-GO by mining informative GO terms as features for predicting bacterial virulent proteins. Each protein in the datasets used by the existing method VirulentPred is annotated by using BLAST to obtain its homologies with known accession numbers for retrieving GO terms. After investigating various popular classifiers using the same five-fold cross-validation scheme, Virulent-GO using the single kind of GO term features with an accuracy of 82.5% is slightly better than VirulentPred with 81.8% using five kinds of sequence-based features. For the evaluation of independent test, Virulent-GO also yields better results (82.0%) than VirulentPred (80.7%). When evaluating single kind of feature with SVM, the GO term feature performs much well, compared with each of the five kinds of features.

Keywords: Bacterial virulence factors, GO terms, prediction, protein sequence.

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27 Soft Computing Based Cluster Head Selection in Wireless Sensor Network Using Bacterial Foraging Optimization Algorithm

Authors: A. Rajagopal, S. Somasundaram, B. Sowmya, T. Suguna

Abstract:

Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) enable new applications and need non-conventional paradigms for the protocol because of energy and bandwidth constraints, In WSN, sensor node’s life is a critical parameter. Research on life extension is based on Low-Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (LEACH) scheme, which rotates Cluster Head (CH) among sensor nodes to distribute energy consumption over all network nodes. CH selection in WSN affects network energy efficiency greatly. This study proposes an improved CH selection for efficient data aggregation in sensor networks. This new algorithm is based on Bacterial Foraging Optimization (BFO) incorporated in LEACH.

Keywords: Bacterial Foraging Optimization (BFO), Cluster Head (CH), Data-aggregation protocols, Low-Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (LEACH).

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26 Evaluation of Negative Air Ions in Bioaerosol Removal: Indoor Concentration of Airborne Bacterial and Fungal in Residential Building in Qom City, Iran

Authors: Z. Asadgol, A. Nadali, H. Arfaeinia, M. Khalifeh Gholi, R. Fateh, M. Fahiminia

Abstract:

The present investigation was conducted to detect the type and concentrations of bacterial and fungal bioaerosols in one room (bedroom) of each selected residential building located in different regions of Qom during February 2015 (n=9) to July 2016 (n=11). Moreover, we evaluated the efficiency of negative air ions (NAIs) in bioaerosol reduction in indoor air in residential buildings. In the first step, the mean concentrations of bacterial and fungal in nine sampling sites evaluated in winter were 744 and 579 colony forming units (CFU)/m3, while these values were 1628.6 and 231 CFU/m3 in the 11 sampling sites evaluated in summer, respectively. The most predominant genera between bacterial and fungal in all sampling sites were detected as Micrococcus spp. and Staphylococcus spp. and also, Aspergillus spp. and Penicillium spp., respectively. The 95% and 45% of sampling sites have bacterial and fungal concentrations over the recommended levels, respectively. In the removal step, we achieved a reduction with a range of 38% to 93% for bacterial genera and 25% to 100% for fungal genera by using NAIs. The results suggested that NAI is a highly effective, simple and efficient technique in reducing the bacterial and fungal concentration in the indoor air of residential buildings.

Keywords: Bacterial, fungal, negative air ions, indoor air, Iran.

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25 From Primer Generation to Chromosome Identification: A Primer Generation Genotyping Method for Bacterial Identification and Typing

Authors: Wisam H. Benamer, Ehab A. Elfallah, Mohamed A. Elshaari, Farag A. Elshaari

Abstract:

A challenge for laboratories is to provide bacterial identification and antibiotic sensitivity results within a short time. Hence, advancement in the required technology is desirable to improve timing, accuracy and quality. Even with the current advances in methods used for both phenotypic and genotypic identification of bacteria the need is there to develop method(s) that enhance the outcome of bacteriology laboratories in accuracy and time. The hypothesis introduced here is based on the assumption that the chromosome of any bacteria contains unique sequences that can be used for its identification and typing. The outcome of a pilot study designed to test this hypothesis is reported in this manuscript. Methods: The complete chromosome sequences of several bacterial species were downloaded to use as search targets for unique sequences. Visual basic and SQL server (2014) were used to generate a complete set of 18-base long primers, a process started with reverse translation of randomly chosen 6 amino acids to limit the number of the generated primers. In addition, the software used to scan the downloaded chromosomes using the generated primers for similarities was designed, and the resulting hits were classified according to the number of similar chromosomal sequences, i.e., unique or otherwise. Results: All primers that had identical/similar sequences in the selected genome sequence(s) were classified according to the number of hits in the chromosomes search. Those that were identical to a single site on a single bacterial chromosome were referred to as unique. On the other hand, most generated primers sequences were identical to multiple sites on a single or multiple chromosomes. Following scanning, the generated primers were classified based on ability to differentiate between medically important bacterial and the initial results looks promising. Conclusion: A simple strategy that started by generating primers was introduced; the primers were used to screen bacterial genomes for match. Primer(s) that were uniquely identical to specific DNA sequence on a specific bacterial chromosome were selected. The identified unique sequence can be used in different molecular diagnostic techniques, possibly to identify bacteria. In addition, a single primer that can identify multiple sites in a single chromosome can be exploited for region or genome identification. Although genomes sequences draft of isolates of organism DNA enable high throughput primer design using alignment strategy, and this enhances diagnostic performance in comparison to traditional molecular assays. In this method the generated primers can be used to identify an organism before the draft sequence is completed. In addition, the generated primers can be used to build a bank for easy access of the primers that can be used to identify bacteria.

Keywords: Bacteria chromosome, bacterial identification, sequence, primer generation.

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24 IBFO_PSO: Evaluating the Performance of Bio-Inspired Integrated Bacterial Foraging Optimization Algorithm and Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm in MANET Routing

Authors: K. Geetha, P. Thangaraj, C. Rasi Priya, C. Rajan, S. Geetha

Abstract:

This paper presents the performance of Integrated Bacterial Foraging Optimization and Particle Swarm Optimization (IBFO_PSO) technique in MANET routing. The BFO is a bio-inspired algorithm, which simulates the foraging behavior of bacteria. It is effectively applied in improving the routing performance in MANET. In results, it is proved that the PSO integrated with BFO reduces routing delay, energy consumption and communication overhead.

Keywords: Ant Colony Optimization, Bacterial Foraging Optimization, Hybrid Routing Intelligent Algorithm, Naturally inspired algorithms, Particle Swarm Optimization.

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23 Development of a Bacterial Resistant Concrete for Use in Low Cost Kitchen Floors

Authors: S. S. Mahlangu, R. K. K. Mbaya, D. D. Delport, H. Van. Zyl

Abstract:

The degrading effect due to bacterial growth on the structural integrity of concrete floor surfaces is predictable; this consequently cause development of surface micro cracks in which organisms penetrate through resulting in surface spalling. Hence, the need to develop mix design meeting the requirement of floor surfaces exposed to aggressive agent to improve certain material properties with good workability, extended lifespan and low cost is essential. In this work, tests were performed to examine the microbial activity on kitchen floor surfaces and the effect of adding admixtures. The biochemical test shows the existence of microorganisms (E.coli, Streptococcus) on newly casted structure. Of up to 6% porosity was reduced and improvement on structural integrity was observed upon adding mineral admixtures from the concrete mortar. The SEM result after 84 days of curing specimens, shows that chemical admixtures have significant role to enable retard bacterial penetration and good quality structure is achieved.

Keywords: Admixture, organisms, porosity and strength.

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22 Numerical Study on the Flow around a Steadily Rotating Spring: Understanding the Propulsion of a Bacterial Flagellum

Authors: Won Yeol Choi, Sangmo Kang

Abstract:

The propulsion of a bacterial flagellum in a viscous fluid has attracted many interests in the field of biological hydrodynamics, but remains yet fully understood and thus still a challenging problem. In this study, therefore, we have numerically investigated the flow around a steadily rotating micro-sized spring to further understand such bacterial flagellum propulsion. Note that a bacterium gains thrust (propulsive force) by rotating the flagellum connected to the body through a bio motor to move forward. For the investigation, we convert the spring model from the micro scale to the macro scale using a similitude law (scale law) and perform simulations on the converted macro-scale model using a commercial software package, CFX v13 (ANSYS). To scrutinize the propulsion characteristics of the flagellum through the simulations, we make parameter studies by changing some flow parameters, such as the pitch, helical radius and rotational speed of the spring and the Reynolds number (or fluid viscosity), expected to affect the thrust force experienced by the rotating spring. Results show that the propulsion characteristics depend strongly on the parameters mentioned above. It is observed that the forward thrust increases in a linear fashion with either of the rotational speed or the fluid viscosity. In addition, the thrust is directly proportional to square of the helical radius and but the thrust force is increased and then decreased based on the peak value to the pitch. Finally, we also present the appropriate flow and pressure fields visualized to support the observations.

Keywords: Fluid viscosity, hydrodynamics, similitude, propulsive force.

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21 The Identification of Anuran Glial Cells

Authors: Ibrahim M. S. Shnawa

Abstract:

Attempts were made to identify anuran glial cells. They were found as nervous tissue resident. Having stage dependent morphotype changes, whereby, appeared as an ovoid to oval in resting state and amoeboid mrophotypes in activated state, stained fairly with methylene blue and take up Pelikane blue 10% aqueous solution, as well as having the ability to phagocytize heat killed Staphylococcus aureus. They were delineated from the migrating peripheral monocytes by morphotypic and morphometeric differences. Such criteria were consistence with glial cells. Thus, the anuran glial cells are being identified in the frog Rana ridibunda Pallas 1771 and this animal can be of use as a simple model for the immunobiology of glial cells.

Keywords: Amoeboid cell, bacterial phagocytosis, Glial cells, Resting.

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20 SeqWord Gene Island Sniffer: a Program to Study the Lateral Genetic Exchange among Bacteria

Authors: Bezuidt O., Lima-Mendez G., Reva O. N.

Abstract:

SeqWord Gene Island Sniffer, a new program for the identification of mobile genetic elements in sequences of bacterial chromosomes is presented. This program is based on the analysis of oligonucleotide usage variations in DNA sequences. 3,518 mobile genetic elements were identified in 637 bacterial genomes and further analyzed by sequence similarity and the functionality of encoded proteins. The results of this study are stored in an open database http://anjie.bi.up.ac.za/geidb/geidbhome. php). The developed computer program and the database provide the information valuable for further investigation of the distribution of mobile genetic elements and virulence factors among bacteria. The program is available for download at www.bi.up.ac.za/SeqWord/sniffer/index.html.

Keywords: mobile genetic elements, virulence, bacterial genomes

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19 Bacteriological Quality of Commercially Prepared Fermented Ogi (Akamu) Sold in Some Parts of South Eastern Nigeria

Authors: Alloysius C. Ogodo, Ositadinma C. Ugbogu, Uzochukwu G. Ekeleme

Abstract:

Food poisoning and infection by bacteria are of public health significance to both developing and developed countries. Samples of ogi (akamu) prepared from white and yellow variety of maize sold in Uturu and Okigwe were analyzed together with the laboratory prepared ogi for bacterial quality using the standard microbiological methods. The analyses showed that both white and yellow variety had total bacterial counts (cfu/g) of 4.0 ×107 and 3.9 x 107 for the laboratory prepared ogi while the commercial ogi had 5.2 x 107 and 4.9 x107, 4.9 x107 and 4.5 x107, 5.4 x107 and 5.0 x107 for Eke-Okigwe, Up-gate and Nkwo-Achara market respectively. The Staphylococcal counts ranged from 2.0 x 102 to 5.0 x102 and 1.0 x 102 to 4.0 x102 for the white and yellow variety from the different markets while Staphylococcal growth was not recorded on the laboratory prepared ogi. The laboratory prepared ogi had no Coliform growth while the commercially prepared ogi had counts of 0.5 x103 to 1.6 x 103 for white variety and 0.3 x 103 to 1.1 x103 for yellow variety respectively. The Lactic acid bacterial count of 3.5x106 and 3.0x106 was recorded for the laboratory ogi while the commercially prepared ogi ranged from 3.2x106 to 4.2x106 (white variety) and 3.0 x106 to 3.9 x106 (yellow). The presence of bacteria isolates from the commercial and laboratory fermented ogi showed that Lactobacillus sp, Leuconostoc sp and Citrobacter sp were present in all the samples, Micrococcus sp and Klebsiella sp were isolated from Eke- Okigwe and ABSU-up-gate markets varieties respectively, E. coli and Staphylococcus sp were present in Eke-Okigwe and Nkwo- Achara markets while Salmonella sp were isolated from the three markets. Hence, there are chances of contracting food borne diseases from commercially prepared ogi. Therefore, there is the need for sanitary measures in the production of fermented cereals so as to minimize the rate of food borne pathogens during processing and storage.

Keywords: Bacterial quality, fermentation, maize, Ogi.

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18 A Novel Cytokine Derived Fusion Tag for Over- Expression of Heterologous Proteins in E. coli

Authors: S. Banerjee, A. Apte Deshpande, N. Mandi, S. Padmanabhan

Abstract:

We report a novel fusion tag for expressing recombinant proteins in E. coli. The fusion tag is the C-terminus part of the human GMCSF gene comprising 45 amino acids, which aid in over expression of otherwise non expressible genes. Expression of hIFN a2b with this fusion tag also escapes the requirement of rare codons for expression. This is also a first report of a small fusion tag of human origin having affinity to heparin sepharose column facilitating the purification of fusion protein.

Keywords: fusion tag, bacterial expression, rare codons, human GMCSF

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17 MIM: A Species Independent Approach for Classifying Coding and Non-Coding DNA Sequences in Bacterial and Archaeal Genomes

Authors: Achraf El Allali, John R. Rose

Abstract:

A number of competing methodologies have been developed to identify genes and classify DNA sequences into coding and non-coding sequences. This classification process is fundamental in gene finding and gene annotation tools and is one of the most challenging tasks in bioinformatics and computational biology. An information theory measure based on mutual information has shown good accuracy in classifying DNA sequences into coding and noncoding. In this paper we describe a species independent iterative approach that distinguishes coding from non-coding sequences using the mutual information measure (MIM). A set of sixty prokaryotes is used to extract universal training data. To facilitate comparisons with the published results of other researchers, a test set of 51 bacterial and archaeal genomes was used to evaluate MIM. These results demonstrate that MIM produces superior results while remaining species independent.

Keywords: Coding Non-coding Classification, Entropy, GeneRecognition, Mutual Information.

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16 Synthesis, Physicochemical Characterization and Study of the Antimicrobial Activity of Chlorobutanol

Authors: N. Hadhoum, B. Guerfi, T. M. Sider, Z. Yassa, T. Djerboua, M. Boursouti, M. Mamou, F. Z. Hadjadj Aoul, L. R. Mekacher

Abstract:

Introduction and objectives: Chlorobutanol is a raw material, mainly used as an antiseptic and antimicrobial preservative in injectable and ophthalmic preparations. The main objective of our study was the synthesis and evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of chlorobutanol hemihydrates. Material and methods: Chlorobutanol was synthesized according to the nucleophilic addition reaction of chloroform to acetone, identified by an infrared absorption using Spectrum One FTIR spectrometer, melting point, Scanning electron microscopy and colorimetric reactions. The dosage of carvedilol active substance was carried out by assaying the degradation products of chlorobutanol in a basic solution. The chlorobutanol obtained was subjected to bacteriological tests in order to study its antimicrobial activity. The antibacterial activity was evaluated against strains such as Escherichia coli (ATCC 25 922), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25 923) and Pseudomonas aeroginosa (ATCC = American type culture collection). The antifungal activity was evaluated against human pathogenic fungal strains, such as Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger provided by the parasitology laboratory of the Hospital of Tizi-Ouzou, Algeria. Results and discussion: Chlorobutanol was obtained in an acceptable yield. The characterization tests of the product obtained showed a white and crystalline appearance (confirmed by scanning electron microscopy), solubilities (in water, ethanol and glycerol), and a melting temperature in accordance with the requirements of the European pharmacopoeia. The colorimetric reactions were directed towards the presence of a trihalogenated carbon and an alcohol function. The spectral identification (IR) showed the presence of characteristic chlorobutanol peaks and confirmed the structure of the latter. The microbiological study revealed an antimicrobial effect on all strains tested (Sataphylococcus aureus (MIC = 1250 µg/ml), E. coli (MIC = 1250 µg/ml), Pseudomonas aeroginosa (MIC = 1250 µg/ml), Candida albicans (MIC =2500 µg/ml), Aspergillus niger (MIC =2500 µg/ml)) with MIC values close to literature data. Conclusion: Thus, on the whole, the synthesized chlorobutanol satisfied the requirements of the European Pharmacopoeia, and possesses antibacterial and antifungal activity; nevertheless, it is necessary to insist on the purification step of the product in order to eliminate the maximum impurities.

Keywords: Antimicrobial agent, bacterial and fungal strains, chlorobutanol, MIC.

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15 The Effect of Dispersed MWCNTs Using SDBS Surfactant on Bacterial Growth

Authors: J.E. Park, G.R. Kim, D.J. Yoon, C.H. Sin, I.S. Park, T.S. Bea, M.H. Lee

Abstract:

Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are attractive because of their excellent chemical durability mechanical strength and electrical properties. Therefore there is interest in CNTs for not only electrical and mechanical application, but also biological and medical application. In this study, the dispersion power of surfactant-treated multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and their effect on the antibacterial activity were examined. Surfactant was used sodium dodecyl-benzenesulfonate (SDBS). UV-vis absorbance and transmission electron microscopy(TEM) were used to characterize the dispersion of MWCNTs in the aqueous phase, showing that the surfactant molecules had been adsorbed onto the MWCNTs surface. The surfactant-treated MWCNTs exhibited antimicrobial activities to streptococcus mutans. The optical density growth curves and viable cell number determined by the plating method suggested that the antimicrobial activity of surfactant-treated MWCNTs was both concentration and treatment time-dependent.

Keywords: MWCNT, SDBS, surfactant, antibacterial.

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14 Investigation of Physicochemical Properties of the Bacterial Cellulose Produced by Gluconacetobacter xylinus from Date Syrup

Authors: Marzieh Moosavi-Nasab, Ali R. Yousefi

Abstract:

Bacterial cellulose, a biopolysaccharide, is produced by the bacterium, Gluconacetobacter xylinus. Static batch fermentation for bacterial cellulose production was studied in sucrose and date syrup solutions (Bx. 10%) at 28 °C using G. xylinus (PTCC, 1734). Results showed that the maximum yields of bacterial cellulose (BC) were 4.35 and 1.69 g/l00 ml for date syrup and sucrose medium after 336 hours fermentation period, respectively. Comparison of FTIR spectrum of cellulose with BC indicated appropriate coincidence which proved that the component produced by G. xylinus was cellulose. Determination of the area under X-ray diffractometry patterns demonstrated that the crystallinity amount of cellulose (83.61%) was more than that for the BC (60.73%). The scanning electron microscopy imaging of BC and cellulose were carried out in two magnifications of 1 and 6K. Results showed that the diameter ratio of BC to cellulose was approximately 1/30 which indicated more delicacy of BC fibers relative to cellulose.

Keywords: Gluconacetobacter xylinus, Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy, X-ray diffractometry

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13 Synthesis, Physicochemical Characterization and Study of the Antimicrobial Activity of Chlorobutanol

Authors: H. Nadia, G. Bahdja, S. Thili Malha, Y. Zahoua, D. Taoufik, B. Mourad, M. Marzouk, F. Z. Hadjadj Aoul, L. R. Mekacher

Abstract:

Introduction and objectives: Chlorobutanol is a raw material, mainly used as an antiseptic and antimicrobial preservative in injectable and ophthalmic preparations. The main objective of our study was the synthesis and evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of chlorobutanol hemihydrates. Material and methods: Chlorobutanol was synthesized according to the nucleophilic addition reaction of chloroform to acetone, identified by an infrared absorption using Spectrum One FTIR spectrometer, melting point, Scanning electron microscopy and colorimetric reactions. The dosage of Carvedilol active substance was carried out by assaying the degradation products of chlorobutanol in a basic solution. The chlorobutanol obtained was subjected to bacteriological tests in order to study its antimicrobial activity. The antibacterial activity was evaluated against strains such as Escherichia coli (ATCC 25 922), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25 923) and Pseudomonas aeroginosa (ATCC = American type culture collection). The antifungal activity was evaluated against human pathogenic fungal strains, such as Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger provided by the parasitology laboratory of the Hospital of Tizi-Ouzou, Algeria. Results and discussion: Chlorobutanol was obtained in an acceptable yield. The characterization tests of the product obtained showed a white and crystalline appearance (confirmed by scanning electron microscopy), solubilities (in water, ethanol and glycerol), and a melting temperature in accordance with the requirements of the European pharmacopoeia. The colorimetric reactions were directed towards the presence of a trihalogenated carbon and an alcohol function. The spectral identification (IR) showed the presence of characteristic chlorobutanol peaks and confirmed the structure of the latter. The microbiological study revealed an antimicrobial effect on all strains tested (Sataphylococcus aureus (MIC = 1250 µg/ml), E. coli (MIC = 1250 µg/ml), Pseudomonas aeroginosa (MIC = 1250 µg/ml), Candida albicans (MIC =2500 µg/ml), Aspergillus niger (MIC =2500 µg/ml)) with MIC values close to literature data. Conclusion: Thus, on the whole, the synthesized chlorobutanol satisfied the requirements of the European Pharmacopoeia, and possesses antibacterial and antifungal activity; nevertheless it is necessary to insist on the purification step of the product in order to eliminate the maximum impurities.

Keywords: Antimicrobial agent, bacterial and fungal strains, chlorobutanol, MIC.

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12 In situ Biodegradation of Endosulfan, Imidacloprid, and Carbendazim Using Indigenous Bacterial Cultures of Agriculture Fields of Uttarakhand, India

Authors: Geeta Negi, Pankaj, Anjana Srivastava, Anita Sharma

Abstract:

In the present study, presence of endosulfan, imidacloprid, carbendazim, in the soil /vegetables/cereals and water samples was observed in agriculture fields of Uttarakhand. In view of biodegradation of these pesticides, 9 bacterial isolates were recovered from the soil samples of the fields which tolerated endosulfan, imidacloprid, carbendazim from 100 to 200 µg/ml. Three bacterial consortia used for in vitro bioremediation experiments were consisted of 3 bacterial isolates for carbendazim, imidacloprid and endosulfan, respectively. Maximum degradation (87 and 83%) of α and β endosulfan respectively was observed in soil slurry by consortium. Degradation of Imidacloprid and carbendazim under similar conditions was 88.4 and 77.5% respectively. FT-IR analysis of biodegraded samples of pesticides in liquid media showed stretching of various bonds. GC-MS of biodegraded endosulfan sample in soil slurry showed the presence of nontoxic intermediates. A pot trial with Bacterial treatments lowered down the uptake of pesticides in onion plants.

Keywords: Biodegradation, carbendazim, consortium, Endosulfan.

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11 Activation of Prophenoloxidase during Bacterial Injection into the Desert Locust, Schistocerca Gregaria

Authors: Shaiemaa, A. Momen, Dalia, A.M. Salem, Emad, M.S. Barakat, Mohamed, S. Salama

Abstract:

The present study has been conducted to characterize the prophenoloxidase (PPO) system of the desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria following injection of Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki (Bt). The bulk of PPO system was associated with haemocytes and a little amount was found in plasma. This system was activated by different activators such as laminarin, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and trypsin suggesting that the stimulatory mechanism may involve an enzyme cascade of one or more associated molecules. These activators did not activate all the molecules of the cascade. Presence of phenoloxidase activity (PO) coincides with the appearance of protein band with molecular weight (MW) 70.154 KD (Kilo Dalton).

Keywords: Schistocerca gregaria, haemolymph, proteins, prophenoloxidase system, phenoloxidase

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10 Numbers and Biomass of Bacteria and Fungi Obtained by the Direct Microscopic Count Method

Authors: Ayuko Itsuki, Sachiyo Aburatani

Abstract:

The soil ecology of the organic and mineral soil layers of laurel-leaved and Cryptomeria japonica forest in the Kasuga-yama Hill Primeval Forest (Nara, Japan) was assessed. The number of bacteria obtained by the dilution plate count method was less than 0.05% of those counted by the direct microscopic count. We therefore found that forest soil contains large numbers of non-culturable bacteria compared with agricultural soils. The numbers of bacteria and fungi obtained by both the dilution plate count and the direct microscopic count were larger in the deeper horizons (F and H) of the organic layer than in the mineral soil layer. This suggests that active microbial metabolism takes place in the organic layer. The numbers of bacteria and the length of fungal hyphae obtained by the direct count method were greater in the H horizon than in the F horizon. The direct microscopic count revealed numerous non-culturable bacteria and fungi in the soil. The ratio of fungal to bacterial biomass was lower in the laurel-leaved forest soil. The fungal biomass was therefore relatively low in the laurel-leaved forest soil due to differences in forest vegetation.

Keywords: Bacterial number, Dilution plate count, Direct microscopic count, Forest soil.

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9 Design of Controllers to Control Frequency for Distributed Generation

Authors: R. Satish, G. Raja Rao

Abstract:

In this paper a hybrid distributed generation (DG) system connected to isolated load is studied. The DG system consisting of photo voltaic (PV) system, fuel cells, aqua electrolyzer, diesel engine generator and a battery energy storage system. The ambient temperature value of PV is taken as constant to make the output power of PV is directly proportional to the radiation and output power of other DG sources and frequency of the system is controlled by simple integral (I), proportional plus integral (PI), and proportional plus integral and derivative(PID) controllers. A maiden attempt is made to apply a more recent and powerful optimization technique named as bacterial foraging technique for optimization of controllers gains of the proposed hybrid DG system. The system responses with bacterial foraging based controllers are compared with that of classical method. Investigations reveal that bacterial foraging based controllers gives better responses than the classical method and also PID controller is best. Sensitivity analysis is carried out which demonstrates the robustness of the optimized gain values for system loading condition.

Keywords: Aqua electrolyzer, bacterial foraging, battery energy storage system, diesel engine generator, distributed generation, fuel cells, photo voltaic system.

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8 Microorganisms Isolated from Surgical Wounds Infection and Treatment with Different Natural Products and Medications

Authors: Amany S. Youssef, Suzan A.M. El Feky, Samy A. El-Asser, Rasha A.M. Abd Allah

Abstract:

Surgical site infections (SSIs) are the most common nosocomial infection in surgical patients resulting in significant increases in postoperative morbidity and mortality. The commonly causative bacteria developed resistance to virtually all antibiotics available. The aim of this study was to isolation and identification the most common bacteria that cause SSIs in Medical Research Institute, and to compare their sensitivity to selected group of antibiotics and natural products (garlic, oregano, olive, and Nigella sativa oils). The isolated pathogens collected from infected surgical wounds were identified, and their sensitivities to the antibiotics commonly available for clinical use, and also to the different concentrations of the used natural products were investigated. The results indicate to the potential therapeutic effect of the tested natural products in treatment of surgical wound infections.

Keywords: Surgical wounds, multi-resistant bacteria, bacterial sensitivity, natural oils.

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7 Isolation of a Bacterial Community with High Removal Efficiencies of the Insecticide Bendiocarb

Authors: Eusebio A. Jiménez-Arévalo, Deifilia Ahuatzi-Chacón, Juvencio Galíndez-Mayer, Cleotilde Juárez-Ramírez, Nora Ruiz-Ordaz

Abstract:

Bendiocarb is a known toxic xenobiotic that presents acute and chronic risks for freshwater invertebrates and estuarine and marine biota; thus, the treatment of water contaminated with the insecticide is of concern. In this paper, a bacterial community with the capacity to grow in bendiocarb as its sole carbon and nitrogen source was isolated by enrichment techniques in batch culture, from samples of a composting plant located in the northeast of Mexico City. Eight cultivable bacteria were isolated from the microbial community, by PCR amplification of 16 rDNA; Pseudoxanthomonas spadix (NC_016147.2, 98%), Ochrobacterium anthropi (NC_009668.1, 97%), Staphylococcus capitis (NZ_CP007601.1, 99%), Bosea thiooxidans. (NZ_LMAR01000067.1, 99%), Pseudomonas denitrificans. (NC_020829.1, 99%), Agromyces sp. (NZ_LMKQ01000001.1, 98%), Bacillus thuringiensis. (NC_022873.1, 97%), Pseudomonas alkylphenolia (NZ_CP009048.1, 98%). NCBI accession numbers and percentage of similarity are indicated in parentheses. These bacteria were regarded as the isolated species for having the best similarity matches. The ability to degrade bendiocarb by the immobilized bacterial community in a packed bed biofilm reactor, using as support volcanic stone fragments (tezontle), was evaluated. The reactor system was operated in batch using mineral salts medium and 30 mg/L of bendiocarb as carbon and nitrogen source. With this system, an overall removal efficiency (ηbend) rounding 90%, was reached.

Keywords: Bendiocarb, biodegradation, biofilm reactor, carbamate insecticide.

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6 Investigating the Impact of the Laundry and Sterilization Process on the Performance of Reusable Surgical Gowns

Authors: N. Khomarloo, F. Mousazadegan, M. Latifi, N. Hemmatinejad

Abstract:

Recently, the utilization of reusable surgical gowns in order to decrease costs, environmental protection and enhance surgeon’s comfort is considered. One of the concerns in applying this kind of medical protective clothing is reduction of their resistance to bacterial penetration especially in wet state, after repeated laundering and sterilizing process. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of the laundering and sterilizing process on the reusable surgical gown’s resistance against bacterial wet penetration. To this end, penetration of Staphylococcus aureus bacteria in wet state after 70 washing and sterilizing cycles was evaluated on the two single-layer and three-layer reusable gowns. The outcomes reveal that up to 20 laundering and sterilizing cycles, protective property of samples improves due to fabric shrinkage, after that because of the fabric’s construction opening, the bacterial penetration increase. However, the three-layer gown presents higher protective performance comparing to the single-layer one.

Keywords: Reusable surgical gown, laundry, sterilization, wet bacterial penetration.

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5 Antibiotic Resistance Profile of Bacterial Isolates from Animal Farming Aquatic Environments and Meats in a Peri-Urban Community in South Korea

Authors: Hyunjin Rho, Bongjin Shin, Okbok Lee, Yu-Hyun Choi, Jiyoung Lee, Jaerang Rho

Abstract:

The increasing usage of antibiotics in the animal farming industry is an emerging worldwide problem contributing to the development of antibiotic resistance. The purpose of this work was to investigate the prevalence and antibiotic resistance profile of bacterial isolates collected from aquatic environments and meats in a peri-urban community in Daejeon, Korea. In an antibacterial susceptibility test, the bacterial isolates showed a high incidence of resistance (~ 26.04 %) to cefazolin, tetracycline, gentamycin, norfloxacin, erythromycin and vancomycin. The results from a test for multiple antibiotic resistance indicated that the isolates were displaying an approximately 5-fold increase in the incidence of multiple antibiotic resistance to combinations of two different antibiotics compared to combinations of three or more antibiotics. Most of the isolates showed multi-antibiotic resistance, and the resistance patterns were similar among the sampling groups. Sequencing data analysis of 16S rRNA showed that most of the resistant isolates appeared to be dominated by the classes Betaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria in the phylum Proteobacteria.

Keywords: Antibiotics, Antibiotic resistance, Antimicrobial resistance, Multi-resistance

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4 Utilization of Wheat Bran as Bed Material in Solid State Bacterial Production of Lactic Acid with Various Nitrogen Sources

Authors: U.K.Ghosh, M.K.Ghosh

Abstract:

The present experimental investigation brings about a comparative study of lactic acid production by pure strains of Lactobacilli (1) L. delbreuckii (NCIM2025), (2) L. pentosus (NCIM 2912), (3) Lactobacillus sp.(NCIM 2734, (4) Lactobacillus sp. (NCIM2084) and coculture of strain-1 and Stain-2 in solid bed of wheat bran, under the influence of different nitrogen sources such as baker-s yeast, meat extract and proteose peptone. Among the pure cultures, strain-3 attained lowest pH value of 3.44, hence highest acid formation 46.41 g/L, while the coculture attained an overall maximum value 47.56 g/L lactic acid (pH 3.38) at 15 g/L and 20 g/L level of baker-s yeast, respectively.

Keywords: Eco-friendly, lactic acid, lactobacilli, wheat bran

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