Search results for: Ajay Kumar Pandey
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 670

Search results for: Ajay Kumar Pandey

670 Effect of Gamma Irradiation on the Microhardness of Polymer Blends of Poly (Ethyl Methacrylate)(Pema) and Poly (Ethylene Oxide) (Peo)

Authors: Sanjay Kumar Awasthi, Sunil Kumar Bajpai, Surendra Kumar Pandey, Ajay Utiye

Abstract:

The effect of gamma irradiation on micro-hardness of polymer blends of poly (ethyl methacrylate)(PEMA) and poly (ethylene oxide) (PEO) has been investigated to detect the radiation induced crosslinking. The blend system comprises a noncrystallizable polymer, PEMA and a crystallizable polymer, PEO. On irradiation, the overall hardness of the blend specimens for different dose levels infers occurrence of a crosslinking process. The radiation-induced crosslinking was greater for blends having lower concentration of PEO. However, increase in radiation dose causes softening of blend system due to radiation induced scissioning of the chains

Keywords: Microhardness, Radiation induced crosslinking, Solution cast technique, Vicker's hardness number.

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669 Edge Detection in Low Contrast Images

Authors: Koushlendra Kumar Singh, Manish Kumar Bajpai, Rajesh K. Pandey

Abstract:

The edges of low contrast images are not clearly distinguishable to human eye. It is difficult to find the edges and boundaries in it. The present work encompasses a new approach for low contrast images. The Chebyshev polynomial based fractional order filter has been used for filtering operation on an image. The preprocessing has been performed by this filter on the input image. Laplacian of Gaussian method has been applied on preprocessed image for edge detection. The algorithm has been tested on two test images.

Keywords: Chebyshev polynomials, Fractional order differentiator, Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) method, Low contrast image.

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668 Industrial Production and Clinical Application of L-Asparaginase: A Chemotherapeutic Agent

Authors: Soni Yadav, Sitansu Kumar Verma, Jitendra Singh, Ajay Kumar

Abstract:

This article comprises detail information about L-asparaginase, encompassing topic such as various sources of L-asparaginase, mechanism and properties of L-asparaginase. Also describe the production, cultivation and purification of L-asparaginase along with information about the application of L-asparaginase. L-asparaginase catalyzes the conversion reaction to convert asparagine to aspartic acid and ammonia. Asparagine is a nutritional requirement for both normal and tumor cell. Present scenario has found that L-asparaginase has been found to be a best anti tumor or antileukemic agent. In the recent years this enzyme gained application in the field of clinical research pharmacologic and food industry. It has been characterized based on the enzyme assay principle hydrolyzing L-asparagine into L-aspartic acid and ammonia. It has been observed that eukaryotic microorganisms such as yeast and filamentous fungi have a potential for L-asparaginase production. L-asparaginase has been and is still one of the most lengthily studied therapeutic enzymes by scientist and researchers worldwide.

Keywords: L-asparaginase, antitumor, solid state fermentation, chemotherapeutic.

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667 Clustering Based Formulation for Short Term Load Forecasting

Authors: Ajay Shekhar Pandey, D. Singh, S. K. Sinha

Abstract:

A clustering based technique has been developed and implemented for Short Term Load Forecasting, in this article. Formulation has been done using Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE) as an objective function. Data Matrix and cluster size are optimization variables. Model designed, uses two temperature variables. This is compared with six input Radial Basis Function Neural Network (RBFNN) and Fuzzy Inference Neural Network (FINN) for the data of the same system, for same time period. The fuzzy inference system has the network structure and the training procedure of a neural network which initially creates a rule base from existing historical load data. It is observed that the proposed clustering based model is giving better forecasting accuracy as compared to the other two methods. Test results also indicate that the RBFNN can forecast future loads with accuracy comparable to that of proposed method, where as the training time required in the case of FINN is much less.

Keywords: Load forecasting, clustering, fuzzy inference.

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666 Study of Flow Behavior of Aqueous Solution of Rhodamine B in Annular Reactor Using Computational Fluid Dynamics

Authors: Jatinder Kumar, Ajay Bansal

Abstract:

The present study deals with the modeling and simulation of flow through an annular reactor at different hydrodynamic conditions using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to investigate the flow behavior. CFD modeling was utilized to predict velocity distribution and average velocity in the annular geometry. The results of CFD simulations were compared with the mathematically derived equations and already developed correlations for validation purposes. CFD modeling was found suitable for predicting the flow characteristics in annular geometry under laminar flow conditions. It was observed that CFD also provides local values of the parameters of interest in addition to the average values for the simulated geometry.

Keywords: Annular reactor, computational fluid dynamics (CFD), hydrodynamics, Rhodamine B

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665 Web–Based Tools and Databases for Micro-RNA Analysis: A Review

Authors: Sitansu Kumar Verma, Soni Yadav, Jitendra Singh, Shraddha, Ajay Kumar

Abstract:

MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a class of approximately 22 nucleotide long non coding RNAs which play critical role in different biological processes. The mature microRNA is usually 19–27 nucleotides long and is derived from a bigger precursor that folds into a flawed stem-loop structure. Mature micro RNAs are involved in many cellular processes that encompass development, proliferation, stress response, apoptosis, and fat metabolism by gene regulation. Resent finding reveals that certain viruses encode their own miRNA that processed by cellular RNAi machinery. In recent research indicate that cellular microRNA can target the genetic material of invading viruses. Cellular microRNA can be used in the virus life cycle; either to up regulate or down regulate viral gene expression Computational tools use in miRNA target prediction has been changing drastically in recent years. Many of the methods have been made available on the web and can be used by experimental researcher and scientist without expert knowledge of bioinformatics. With the development and ease of use of genomic technologies and computational tools in the field of microRNA biology has superior tremendously over the previous decade. This review attempts to give an overview over the genome wide approaches that have allow for the discovery of new miRNAs and development of new miRNA target prediction tools and databases.

Keywords: MicroRNAs, computational tools, gene regulation, databases, RNAi.

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664 Species Profiling of White Grub Beetles and Evaluation of Pre and Post Sown Application of Insecticides against White Grub Infesting Soybean

Authors: Ajay Kumar Pandey, Mayank Kumar

Abstract:

White grub (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) is a major destructive pest in western Himalayan region of Uttarakhand. Beetles feed on apple, apricot, plum, walnut etc. during night while, second and third instar grubs feed on live roots of cultivated as well as non-cultivated crops. Collection and identification of scarab beetles through light trap was carried out at Crop Research Centre, Govind Ballab Pant University Pantnagar, Udham Singh Nagar (Uttarakhand) during 2018. Field trials were also conducted in 2018 to evaluate pre and post sown application of different insecticides against the white grub infesting soybean. The insecticides like Carbofuran 3 Granule (G) (750 g a.i./ha), Clothianidin 50 Water Dispersal Granule (WG) (120 g a.i./ha), Fipronil 0.3 G (50 g a.i./ha), Thiamethoxam 25 WG (80 g a.i./ha), Imidacloprid 70 WG (300 g a.i./ha), Chlorantraniliprole 0.4% G(100 g a.i./ha) and mixture of Fipronil 40% and Imidacloprid 40% WG (300 g a.i./ha) were applied at the time of sowing in pre sown experiment while same dosage of insecticides were applied in standing soybean crop during (first fortnight of July). Commutative plant mortality data were recorded after 20, 40, 60 days intervals and compared with untreated control. Total 23 species of white grub beetles recorded on the light trap and Holotrichia serrata Fabricious (Coleoptera: Melolonthinae) was found to be predominant species by recording 20.6% relative abundance out of the total light trap catch (i.e. 1316 beetles) followed by Phyllognathus sp. (14.6% relative abundance). H. rosettae and Heteronychus lioderus occupied third and fourth rank with 11.85% and 9.65% relative abundance, respectively. The emergence of beetles of predominant species started from 15th March, 2018. In April, average light trap catch was 382 white grub beetles, however, peak emergence of most of the white grub species was observed from June to July, 2018 i.e. 336 beetles in June followed by 303 beetles in the July. On the basis of the emergence pattern of white grub beetles, it may be concluded that the Peak Emergence Period (PEP) for the beetles of H. serrata was second fortnight of April for the total period of 15 days. In May, June and July relatively low population of H. serrata was observed. A decreasing trend in light trap catch was observed and went on till September during the study. No single beetle of H. serrata was observed on light trap from September onwards. The cumulative plant mortality data in both the experiments revealed that all the insecticidal treatments were significantly superior in protection-wise (6.49-16.82% cumulative plant mortality) over untreated control where highest plant mortality was 17.28 to 39.65% during study. The mixture of Fipronil 40% and Imidacloprid 40% WG applied at the rate of 300 g a.i. per ha proved to be most effective having lowest plant mortality i.e. 9.29 and 10.94% in pre and post sown crop, followed by Clothianidin 50 WG (120 g a.i. per ha) where the plant mortality was 10.57 and 11.93% in pre and post sown treatments, respectively. Both treatments were found significantly at par among each other. Production-wise, all the insecticidal treatments were found statistically superior (15.00-24.66 q per ha grain yields) over untreated control where the grain yield was 8.25 & 9.13 q per ha. Treatment Fipronil 40% + Imidacloprid 40% WG applied at the rate of 300 g a.i. per ha proved to be most effective and significantly superior over Imidacloprid 70WG applied at the rate of 300 g a.i. per ha.

Keywords: Bio efficacy, insecticide, Holotrichia, soybean, white grub.

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663 An Improved ICI Self-Cancellation Scheme for Multi-Carrier Communication Systems

Authors: Arvind Kumar, Rajoo Pandey

Abstract:

For broadband wireless mobile communication systems the orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) is a suitable modulation scheme. The frequency offset between transmitter and receiver local oscillator is main drawback of OFDM systems, which causes intercarrier interference (ICI) in the subcarriers of the OFDM system. This ICI degrades the bit error rate (BER) performance of the system. In this paper an improved self-ICI cancellation scheme is proposed to improve the system performance. The proposed scheme is based on discrete Fourier transform-inverse discrete Fourier transform (DFT-IDFT). The simulation results show that there is satisfactory improvement in the bit error rate (BER) performance of the present scheme.

Keywords: OFDM, Intercarrier Interference, InterferenceCoefficients, DFT based Self-ICI Cancellation.

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662 Power Integrity Analysis of Power Delivery System in High Speed Digital FPGA Board

Authors: Anil Kumar Pandey

Abstract:

Power plane noise is the most significant source of signal integrity (SI) issues in a high-speed digital design. In this paper, power integrity (PI) analysis of multiple power planes in a power delivery system of a 12-layer high-speed FPGA board is presented. All 10 power planes of HSD board are analyzed separately by using 3D Electromagnetic based PI solver, then the transient simulation is performed on combined PI data of all planes along with voltage regulator modules (VRMs) and 70 current drawing chips to get the board level power noise coupling on different high-speed signals. De-coupling capacitors are placed between power planes and ground to reduce power noise coupling with signals.

Keywords: Channel simulation, electromagnetic simulation, power-aware signal integrity analysis, power integrity, PIPro.

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661 ED Machining of Particulate Reinforced MMC’s

Authors: Sarabjeet Singh Sidhu, Ajay Batish, Sanjeev Kumar

Abstract:

This paper reports the optimal process conditions for machining of three different types of MMC’s 65vol%SiC/A356.2; 10vol%SiC-5vol%quartz/Al and 30vol%SiC/A359 using PMEDM process. MRR, TWR, SR and surface integrity were evaluated after each trial and contributing process parameters were identified. The four responses were then collectively optimized using TOPSIS and optimal process conditions were identified for each type of MMC. The density of reinforced particles shields the matrix material from spark energy hence the high MRR and SR was observed with lowest reinforced particle. TWR was highest with Cu-Gr electrode due to disintegration of the weakly bonded particles in the composite electrode. Each workpiece was examined for surface integrity and ranked as per severity of surface defects observed and their rankings were used for arriving at the most optimal process settings for each workpiece. 

Keywords: Metal matrix composites (MMCs), Metal removal rate (MRR), Surface roughness (SR), Surface integrity (SI), Tool wear rate (TWR), Technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS).

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660 Lubricating Grease from Waste Cooking Oil and Waste Motor Sludge

Authors: Aseem Rajvanshi, Pankaj Kumar Pandey

Abstract:

Increase in population has increased the demand of energy to fulfill all its needs. This will result in burden on fossil fuels especially crude oil. Waste oil due to its disposal problem creates environmental degradation. In this context, this paper studies utilization of waste cooking oil and waste motor sludge for making lubricating grease. Experimental studies have been performed by variation in time and concentration of mixture of waste cooking oil and waste motor sludge. The samples were analyzed using penetration test (ASTM D-217), dropping point (ASTM D-566), work penetration (ASTM D-217) and copper strip test (ASTM D-408). Among 6 samples, sample 6 gives the best results with a good drop point and a fine penetration value. The dropping point and penetration test values were found to be 205 °C and 315, respectively. The penetration value falls under the category of NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) consistency number 1.

Keywords: Crude oil, copper strip corrosion test, dropping point, penetration test.

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659 Modelling and Dimension Analysis of a Multipurpose Convertible Laptop Table Using Autodesk Fusion 360

Authors: Nitesh Pandey, Manish Kumar, Pankaj Gupta, Amit Kumar Srivastava

Abstract:

The convertible table is a versatile and adaptable item designed to provide numerous solutions in one. The design incorporates numerous features that offer both ease and functionality. The description of the versatile convertible table in this overview encompasses a range of features that can be tailored to accommodate various user requirements. With its changeable functionality, this piece can easily transform into a workstation, dining table, or coffee table to suit various needs. Significantly, this multipurpose convertible laptop table includes a specific section for electronic devices such as computers and tablets, offering convenience for remote workers and online learners. In addition, providing storage space for essential equipment promotes a tidy workspace by facilitating the organization of many items. The integrated flash system offers supplementary illumination for dimly lit surroundings, while the cooling fans prevent the table's surface from overheating in hot weather or during prolonged laptop usage, making it an optimal and superior choice for laptop users. In order to cater to the needs of students, painters, and other individuals who require writing tools on a regular basis, a pencil and pen stand is included, hence enhancing the versatility of the table. The scissor lift mechanism allows for easy modifications in height, making it convenient to customize usage and providing the option of using it as a standing desk. Overall, this convertible table exemplifies its ability to adapt, its user-friendly nature, and its usefulness in a wide range of situations and settings.

Keywords: Furniture design, laptop stand, study table, learning tool, furniture manufacturing, contemporary design.

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658 Performance Evaluation of Improved Ball End Magnetorheological Finishing Process

Authors: Anant Kumar Singh, Sunil Jha, Pulak M. Pandey

Abstract:

A novel nanofinishing process using improved ball end magnetorheological (MR) finishing tool was developed for finishing of flat as well as 3D surfaces of ferromagnetic and non ferromagnetic workpieces. In this process a magnetically controlled ball end of smart MR polishing fluid is generated at the tip surface of the tool which is used as a finishing medium and it is guided to follow the surface to be finished through computer controlled 3-axes motion controller. The experiments were performed on ferromagnetic workpiece surface in the developed MR finishing setup to study the effect of finishing time on final surface roughness. The performance of present finishing process on final finished surface roughness was studied. The surface morphology was observed under scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscope. The final surface finish was obtained as low as 19.7 nm from the initial surface roughness of 142.9 nm. The outcome of newly developed finishing process can be found useful in its applications in aerospace, automotive, dies and molds manufacturing industries, semiconductor and optics machining etc.

Keywords: Ball end MR finishing tool, Magnetorheological finishing, Nanofinishing

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657 Design of Compact Dual-Band Planar Antenna for WLAN Systems

Authors: Anil Kumar Pandey

Abstract:

A compact planar monopole antenna with dual-band operation suitable for wireless local area network (WLAN) application is presented in this paper. The antenna occupies an overall area of 18 ×12 mm2. The antenna is fed by a coplanar waveguide (CPW) transmission line and it combines two folded strips, which radiates at 2.4 and 5.2 GHz. In the proposed antenna, by optimally selecting the antenna dimensions, dual-band resonant modes with a much wider impedance matching at the higher band can be produced. Prototypes of the obtained optimized design have been simulated using EM solver. The simulated results explore good dual-band operation with -10 dB impedance bandwidths of 50 MHz and 2400 MHz at bands of 2.4 and 5.2 GHz, respectively, which cover the 2.4/5.2/5.8 GHz WLAN operating bands. Good antenna performances such as radiation patterns and antenna gains over the operating bands have also been observed. The antenna with a compact size of 18×12×1.6 mm3 is designed on an FR4 substrate with a dielectric constant of 4.4.

Keywords: CPW fed antenna, dual-band, electromagnetic simulation, wireless local area network, WLAN.

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656 Decoy-pulse Protocol for Frequency-coded Quantum Key Distribution

Authors: Sudeshna Bhattacharya, Pratyush Pandey, Pradeep Kumar K

Abstract:

We propose a decoy-pulse protocol for frequency-coded implementation of B92 quantum key distribution protocol. A direct extension of decoy-pulse method to frequency-coding scheme results in security loss as an eavesdropper can distinguish between signal and decoy pulses by measuring the carrier photon number without affecting other statistics. We overcome this problem by optimizing the ratio of carrier photon number of decoy-to-signal pulse to be as close to unity as possible. In our method the switching between signal and decoy pulses is achieved by changing the amplitude of RF signal as opposed to modulating the intensity of optical signal thus reducing system cost. We find an improvement by a factor of 100 approximately in the key generation rate using decoy-state protocol. We also study the effect of source fluctuation on key rate. Our simulation results show a key generation rate of 1.5×10-4/pulse for link lengths up to 70km. Finally, we discuss the optimum value of average photon number of signal pulse for a given key rate while also optimizing the carrier ratio.

Keywords: B92, decoy-pulse, frequency-coding, quantum key distribution.

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655 An Energy Aware Dispatch Scheme WSNs

Authors: Siddhartha Chauhan, Kumar S. Pandey, Prateek Chandra

Abstract:

One of the key research issues in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is how to efficiently deploy sensors to cover an area. In this paper, we present a Fishnet Based Dispatch Scheme (FiBDS) with energy aware mobility and interest based sensing angle. We propose two algorithms, one is FiBDS centralized algorithm and another is FiBDS distributed algorithm. The centralized algorithm is designed specifically for the non-time critical applications, commonly known as non real-time applications while the distributed algorithm is designed specifically for the time critical applications, commonly known as real-time applications. The proposed dispatch scheme works in a phase-selection manner. In this in each phase a specific constraint is dealt with according to the specified priority and then moved onto the next phase and at the end of each only the best suited nodes for the phase are chosen. Simulation results are presented to verify their effectiveness. 

Keywords: Dispatch Scheme, Energy Aware Mobility, Interest based Sensing, Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs).

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654 Stability and Kinetic Analysis during Vermicomposting of Sewage Sludge

Authors: Ashish Kumar Nayak, Dhamodharan K., Ajay S. Kalamdhad

Abstract:

The present study is aimed at alteration of sewage sludge into stable compost product using vermicomposting of sewage sludge mixed with cattle manure and saw dust in five different proportions based on C/N ratios (C/N 15 (R1), 20 (R2), 25 (R3) and 30 (R4); and control (R5)) by employing an epigeic earthworm Eisenia fetida. Higher reductions in C/N ratio, CO2 evolution and OUR were observed in R4 demonstrated the compost stability. In addition, R4 proved to be best combination for the growth of the earthworms. In order to observe the optimal degradation, kinetics for degradation of organic matter in vermicomposting were quantitatively evaluated. An approach model was developed by assuming that composting process is carried out in a homogeneous way and the kinetics for decomposition reaction is represented by a Monod-type equation. The results exhibit comparable variations in the kinetic constants Km and K3 under varying parameters during vermicomposting process. Results suggested that higher R2 value in R4, enhanced suitability towards Lineweaver-Burke plot. R4 yields higher degradability coefficient (K) reveals that the occurrence of optimal nutrient balance, which not only enhanced the affinity of enzymes towards substrate but also improved its degradation process. Therefore, it can be proved that R4 provided to be the best feed combination for vermicomposting process as compared to other reactors.

Keywords: Vermicomposting, Eisenia fetida, Sewage sludge, C/N ratio, Stability, Enzyme kinetics concept.

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653 Wear and Friction Analysis of Sintered Metal Powder Self Lubricating Bush Bearing

Authors: J. K. Khare, Abhay Kumar Sharma, Ajay Tiwari, Amol A. Talankar

Abstract:

Powder metallurgy (P/M) is the only economic way to produce porous parts/products. P/M can produce near net shape parts hence reduces wastage of raw material and energy, avoids various machining operations. The most vital use of P/M is in production of metallic filters and self lubricating bush bearings and siding surfaces. The porosity of the part can be controlled by varying compaction pressure, sintering temperature and composition of metal powder mix. The present work is aimed for experimental analysis of friction and wear properties of self lubricating copper and tin bush bearing. Experimental results confirm that wear rate of sintered component is lesser for components having 10% tin by weight percentage. Wear rate increases for high tin percentage (experimented for 20% tin and 30% tin) at same sintering temperature. Experimental results also confirms that wear rate of sintered component is also dependent on sintering temperature, soaking period, composition of the preform, compacting pressure, powder particle shape and size. Interfacial friction between die and punch, between inter powder particles, between die face and powder particle depends on compaction pressure, powder particle size and shape, size and shape of component which decides size & shape of die & punch, material of die & punch and material of powder particles.

Keywords: Interfacial friction, porous bronze bearing, sintering temperature, wear rate.

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652 Ellagic Acid Enhanced Apoptotic Radiosensitivity via G1 Cell Cycle Arrest and γ-H2AX Foci Formation in HeLa Cells in vitro

Authors: V. R. Ahire, A. Kumar, B. N. Pandey, K. P. Mishra, G. R. Kulkarni

Abstract:

Radiation therapy is an effective vital strategy used globally in the treatment of cervical cancer. However, radiation efficacy principally depends on the radiosensitivity of the tumor, and not all patient exhibit significant response to irradiation. A radiosensitive tumor is easier to cure than a radioresistant tumor which later advances to local recurrence and metastasis. Herbal polyphenols are gaining attention for exhibiting radiosensitization through various signaling. Current work focuses to study the radiosensitization effect of ellagic acid (EA), on HeLa cells. EA intermediated radiosensitization of HeLa cells was due to the induction γ-H2AX foci formation, G1 phase cell cycle arrest, and loss of reproductive potential, growth inhibition, drop in the mitochondrial membrane potential and protein expression studies that eventually induced apoptosis. Irradiation of HeLa in presence of EA (10 μM) to doses of 2 and 4 Gy γ-radiation produced marked tumor cytotoxicity. EA also demonstrated radio-protective effect on normal cell, NIH3T3 and aided recovery from the radiation damage. Our results advocate EA to be an effective adjuvant for improving cancer radiotherapy as it displays striking tumor cytotoxicity and reduced normal cell damage instigated by irradiation.

Keywords: Apoptotic radiosensitivity, ellagic acid, mitochondrial potential, cell-cycle arrest.

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651 Implementation of Intuitionistic Fuzzy Approach in Maximizing Net Present Value

Authors: Gaurav Kumar, Rakesh Kumar Bajaj

Abstract:

The applicability of Net Present Value (NPV) in an investment project is becoming more and more popular in the field of engineering economics. The classical NPV methodology involves only the precise and accurate data of the investment project. In the present communication, we give a new mathematical model for NPV which uses the concept of intuitionistic fuzzy set theory. The proposed model is based on triangular intuitionistic fuzzy number, which may be known as Intuitionistic Fuzzy Net Present Value (IFNPV). The model has been applied to an example and the results are presented.

Keywords: Net Present Value, Intuitionistic Fuzzy Set, Investment Projects.

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650 A Problem in Microstretch Thermoelastic Diffusive Medium

Authors: Devinder Singh, Arbind Kumar, Rajneesh Kumar

Abstract:

The general solution of the equations for a homogeneous isotropic microstretch thermo elastic medium with mass diffusion for two dimensional problems is obtained due to normal and tangential forces. The Integral transform technique is used to obtain the components of displacements, microrotation, stress and mass concentration, temperature change and mass concentration. A particular case of interest is deduced from the present investigation.

Keywords: Normal and tangential force, Microstretch, thermoelastic, The Integral transform technique.

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649 Enhancing Hand Efficiency of Smart Glass Cleaning Robot through Generative Design Module

Authors: Pankaj Gupta, Amit Kumar Srivastava, Nitesh Pandey

Abstract:

This article explores the domain of generative design in order to enhance the development of robot designs for innovative and efficient maintenance approaches for tall buildings. This study aims to optimize the design of robotic hands by focusing on minimizing mass and volume while ensuring they can withstand the specified pressure with equal strength. The research procedure is structured and systematic. The purpose of optimization is to enhance the efficiency of the robot and reduce the manufacturing expenses. The project seeks to investigate the application of generative design in order to optimize products. Autodesk Fusion 360 offers the capability to immediately apply the generative design functionality to the solid model. The effort involved creating a solid model of the Smart Glass Cleaning Robot and optimizing one of its components, the Hand, using generative techniques. The article has thoroughly examined the designs, outcomes, and procedure. These loads serve as a benchmark for creating designs that can endure the necessary level of pressure and preserve their structural integrity. The efficacy of the generative design process is contingent upon the selection of materials, as different materials possess distinct physical attributes. The study utilizes five different materials, namely Steel, Stainless Steel, Titanium, Aluminum, and CFRP (Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer), in order to investigate a range of design possibilities.

Keywords: Generative design, mass and volume optimization, material strength analysis, generative design, smart glass cleaning robot.

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648 Information Entropy of Isospectral Hydrogen Atom

Authors: Anil Kumar, C. Nagaraja Kumar

Abstract:

The position and momentum space information entropies of hydrogen atom are exactly evaluated. Using isospectral Hamiltonian approach, a family of isospectral potentials is constructed having same energy eigenvalues as that of the original potential. The information entropy content is obtained in position space as well as in momentum space. It is shown that the information entropy content in each level can be re-arranged as a function of deformation parameter.

Keywords: Information Entropy, BBM inequality, Isospectral Potential.

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647 Architecture of Speech-based Registration System

Authors: Mayank Kumar, D B Mahesh Kumar, Ashwin S Kumar, N K Srinath

Abstract:

In this era of technology, fueled by the pervasive usage of the internet, security is a prime concern. The number of new attacks by the so-called “bots", which are automated programs, is increasing at an alarming rate. They are most likely to attack online registration systems. Technology, called “CAPTCHA" (Completely Automated Public Turing test to tell Computers and Humans Apart) do exist, which can differentiate between automated programs and humans and prevent replay attacks. Traditionally CAPTCHA-s have been implemented with the challenge involved in recognizing textual images and reproducing the same. We propose an approach where the visual challenge has to be read out from which randomly selected keywords are used to verify the correctness of spoken text and in turn detect the presence of human. This is supplemented with a speaker recognition system which can identify the speaker also. Thus, this framework fulfills both the objectives – it can determine whether the user is a human or not and if it is a human, it can verify its identity.

Keywords: CAPTCHA, automatic speech recognition, keyword spotting.

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646 Physicochemical Properties of Microemulsions and their uses in Enhanced Oil Recovery

Authors: T. Kumar, Achinta Bera, Ajay Mandal

Abstract:

Use of microemulsion in enhanced oil recovery has become more attractive in recent years because of its high level of extraction efficiency. Experimental investigations have been made on characterization of microemulsions of oil-brinesurfactant/ cosurfactant system for its use in enhanced oil recovery (EOR). Sodium dodecyl sulfate, propan-1-ol and heptane were selected as surfactant, cosurfactant and oil respectively for preparation of microemulsion. The effects of salinity on the relative phase volumes and solubilization parameters have also been studied. As salinity changes from low to high value, phase transition takes place from Winsor I to Winsor II via Winsor III. Suitable microemulsion composition has been selected based on its stability and ability to reduce interfacial tension. A series of flooding experiments have been performed using the selected microemulsion. The flooding experiments were performed in a core flooding apparatus using uniform sand pack. The core holder was tightly packed with uniform sands (60-100 mesh) and saturated with brines of different salinities. It was flooded with the brine at 25 psig and the absolute permeability was calculated from the flow rate of the through sand pack. The sand pack was then flooded with the crude oil at 800 psig to irreducible water saturation. The initial water saturation was determined on the basis of mass balance. Waterflooding was conducted by placing the coreholder horizontally at a constant injection pressure at 200 pisg. After water flooding, when water-cut reached above 95%, around 0.5 pore volume (PV) of the above microemulsion slug was injected followed by chasing water. The experiments were repeated using different composition of microemulsion slug. The additional recoveries were calculated by material balance. Encouraging results with additional recovery more than 20% of original oil in place above the conventional water flooding have been observed.

Keywords: Microemulsion Flooding, Enhanced Oil Recovery, Phase Behavior, Optimal salinity

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645 Intuitionistic Fuzzy Points in Semigroups

Authors: Sujit Kumar Sardar Manasi Mandal Samit Kumar Majumder

Abstract:

The notion of intuitionistic fuzzy sets was introduced by Atanassov as a generalization of the notion of fuzzy sets. Y.B. Jun and S.Z. Song introduced the notion of intuitionistic fuzzy points. In this paper we find some relations between the intuitionistic fuzzy ideals of a semigroup S and the set of all intuitionistic fuzzy points of S.

Keywords: Semigroup, Regular(intra-regular) semigroup, Intuitionistic fuzzy point, Intuitionistic fuzzy subsemigroup, Intuitionistic fuzzy ideal, Intuitionistic fuzzy interior ideal, Intuitionistic fuzzy semiprime ideal, Intuitionistic fuzzy prime ideal.

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644 Creation of Economic and Social Value by Social Entrepreneurship for Sustainable Development

Authors: Ahaskar Pandey, Gaurav Mukherjee, Sushil Kumar

Abstract:

The ever growing sentiment of environmentalism across the globe has made many people think on the green lines. But most of such ideas halt short of implementation because of the short term economic viability issues with the concept of going green. In this paper we have tried to amalgamate the green concept with social entrepreneurship for solving a variety of issues faced by the society today. In addition the paper also tries to ensure that the short term economic viability does not act as a deterrent. The paper comes up three sustainable models of social entrepreneurship which tackle a wide assortment of issues such as nutrition problem, land problems, pollution problems and employment problems. The models described fall under the following heads: - Spirulina cultivation: The model addresses nutrition, land and employment issues. It deals with cultivation of a blue green alga called Spirulina which can be used as a very nutritious food. Also, the implementation of this model would bring forth employment to the poor people of the area. - Biocomposites: The model comes up with various avenues in which biocomposites can be used in an economically sustainable manner. This model deals with the environmental concerns and addresses the depletion of natural resources. - Packaging material from empty fruit bunches (EFB) of oil palm: This one deals with air and land pollution. It is intended to be a substitute for packaging materials made from Styrofoam and plastics which are non-biodegradable. It takes care of the biodegradability and land pollution issues. It also reduces air pollution as the empty fruit bunches are not incinerated. All the three models are sustainable and do not deplete the natural resources any further. This paper explains each of the models in detail and deals with the operational/manufacturing procedures and cost analysis while also throwing light on the benefits derived and sustainability aspects.

Keywords: Biodegradable, Pollution, Social entrepreneurship, Sustainability.

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643 Fundamental Concepts of Theory of Constraints: An Emerging Philosophy

Authors: Ajay Gupta, Arvind Bhardwaj, Arun Kanda

Abstract:

Dr Eliyahu Goldratt has done the pioneering work in the development of Theory of Constraints. Since then, many more researchers around the globe are working to enhance this body of knowledge. In this paper, an attempt has been made to compile the salient features of this theory from the work done by Goldratt and other researchers. This paper will provide a good starting point to the potential researchers interested to work in Theory of Constraints. The paper will also help the practicing managers by clarifying their concepts on the theory and will facilitate its successful implementation in their working areas.

Keywords: Drum-Buffer-Rope, Goldratt, ProductionScheduling, Theory of Constraints.

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642 Support Vector Regression for Retrieval of Soil Moisture Using Bistatic Scatterometer Data at X-Band

Authors: Dileep Kumar Gupta, Rajendra Prasad, Pradeep Kumar, Varun Narayan Mishra, Ajeet Kumar Vishwakarma, Prashant Kumar Srivastava

Abstract:

An approach was evaluated for the retrieval of soil moisture of bare soil surface using bistatic scatterometer data in the angular range of 200 to 700 at VV- and HH- polarization. The microwave data was acquired by specially designed X-band (10 GHz) bistatic scatterometer. The linear regression analysis was done between scattering coefficients and soil moisture content to select the suitable incidence angle for retrieval of soil moisture content. The 250 incidence angle was found more suitable. The support vector regression analysis was used to approximate the function described by the input output relationship between the scattering coefficient and corresponding measured values of the soil moisture content. The performance of support vector regression algorithm was evaluated by comparing the observed and the estimated soil moisture content by statistical performance indices %Bias, root mean squared error (RMSE) and Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE). The values of %Bias, root mean squared error (RMSE) and Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE) were found 2.9451, 1.0986 and 0.9214 respectively at HHpolarization. At VV- polarization, the values of %Bias, root mean squared error (RMSE) and Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE) were found 3.6186, 0.9373 and 0.9428 respectively.

Keywords: Bistatic scatterometer, soil moisture, support vector regression, RMSE, %Bias, NSE.

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641 Group Invariant Solutions of Nonlinear Time-Fractional Hyperbolic Partial Differential Equation

Authors: Anupma Bansal, Rajeev Budhiraja, Manoj Pandey

Abstract:

In this paper, we have investigated the nonlinear time-fractional hyperbolic partial differential equation (PDE) for its symmetries and invariance properties. With the application of this method, we have tried to reduce it to time-fractional ordinary differential equation (ODE) which has been further studied for exact solutions.

Keywords: Nonlinear time-fractional hyperbolic PDE, Lie Classical method, exact solutions.

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