Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3578

Search results for: Metal removal rate (MRR)

3578 The role of pH on Cr(VI) Reduction and Removal by Arthrobacter Viscosus

Authors: B. Silva, H. Figueiredo, I. C. Neves, T. Tavares

Abstract:

Arthrobacter viscosus biomass was used for Cr(VI) biosorption. The effect of pH on Cr(VI) reduction and removal from aqueous solution was studied in the range of 1-4. The Cr(VI) removal involves both redox reaction and adsorption of metal ions on biomass surface. The removal rate of Cr(VI) was enhanced by very acid conditions, while higher solution pH values favored the removal of total chromium. The best removal efficiency and uptake were reached at pH 4, 72.5 % and 12.6 mgCr/gbiomass, respectively.

Keywords: Biosorption, chromium, pH, reduction.

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3577 The removal of Ni, Cu and Fe from a Mixed Metal System using Sodium Hypophosphite as a Reducing Agent

Authors: Promise Sethembiso Ngema, Freeman Ntuli, Mohamed Belaid

Abstract:

The main objective of this study was to remove and recover Ni, Cu and Fe from a mixed metal system using sodium hypophosphite as a reducing agent and nickel powder as seeding material. The metal systems studied consisted of Ni-Cu, Ni-Fe and Ni-Cu-Fe solutions. A 5 L batch reactor was used to conduct experiments where 100 mg/l of each respective metal was used. It was found that the metals were reduced to their elemental form with removal efficiencies of over 80%. The removal efficiency decreased in the order Fe>Ni>Cu. The metal powder obtained contained between 97-99% Ni and was almost spherical and porous. Size enlargement by aggregation was the dominant particulate process.

Keywords: crystallization, electroless plating, heavy metal removal, wastewater treatment

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3576 FEA Modeling of Material Removal Rate in Electrical Discharge Machining of Al6063/SiC Composites

Authors: U. K. Vishwakarma , A. Dvivedi, P. Kumar

Abstract:

Metal matrix composites (MMC) are generating extensive interest in diverse fields like defense, aerospace, electronics and automotive industries. In this present investigation, material removal rate (MRR) modeling has been carried out using an axisymmetric model of Al-SiC composite during electrical discharge machining (EDM). A FEA model of single spark EDM was developed to calculate the temperature distribution.Further, single spark model was extended to simulate the second discharge. For multi-discharge machining material removal was calculated by calculating the number of pulses. Validation of model has been done by comparing the experimental results obtained under the same process parameters with the analytical results. A good agreement was found between the experimental results and the theoretical value.

Keywords: Electrical Discharge Machining, FEA, Metal matrix composites, Multi-discharge

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3575 Removal of Heavy Metals from Wastewater by Adsorption and Membrane Processes: a Comparative Study

Authors: Nermen N. Maximous, George F. Nakhla, W. K. Wan

Abstract:

This research aimed at investigating the Cr (III), Cd (II) and Pb (II) removal efficiencies by using the newly synthesized metal oxides/ polyethersulfone (PES), Al2O3/PES and ZrO2/PES, membranes from synthetic wastewater and exploring fouling mechanisms. A Comparative study between the removal efficiencies of Cr (III), Cd (II) and Pb (II) from synthetic and natural wastewater by using adsorption onto agricultural by products and the newly synthesized Al2O3/PES and ZrO2/PES membranes was conducted to assess the advantages and limitations of using the metal oxides/PES membranes for heavy metals removal. The results showed that about 99 % and 88 % removal efficiencies were achieved by the tested membranes for Pb (II) and Cr (III), respectively.

Keywords: Adsorption, metals removal, ultrafiltrationmembranes, wastewater

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3574 Parameters Affecting the Removal of Copper and Cobalt from Aqueous Solution onto Clinoptiloliteby Ion-Exchange Process

Authors: John Kabuba, Hilary Rutto

Abstract:

Ion exchange is one of the methods used to remove heavy metal such as copper and cobalt from wastewaters. Parameters affecting the ion-exchange of copper and cobalt aqueous solutions using clinoptilolite are the objectives of this study. Synthetic solutions were prepared with the concentration of 0.02M, 0.06M and 0.1M. The cobalt solution was maintained to 0.02M while varying the copper solution to the above stated concentrations. The clinoptilolite was activated with HCl and H2SO4 for removal efficiency. The pHs of the solutions were found to be acidic hence enhancing the copper and cobalt removal. The natural clinoptilolite performance was also found to be lower compared to the HCl and H2SO4 activated one for the copper removal ranging from 68% to 78% of Cu2+ uptake with the natural clinoptilolite to 66% to 51% with HCl and H2SO4 respectively. It was found that the activated clinoptilolite removed more copper and cobalt than the natural one and found that the electronegativity of the metal plays a role in the metal removal and the clinoptilolite selectivity.

Keywords: Clinoptilolite, cobalt and copper, Ion-exchange, mass dosage, pH.

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3573 Removal of Elemental Mercury from Dry Methane Gas with Manganese Oxides

Authors: Junya Takenami, Md. Azhar Uddin, Eiji Sasaoka, Yasushi Shioya, Tsuneyoshi Takase

Abstract:

In this study, we sought to investigate the mercury removal efficiency of manganese oxides from natural gas. The fundamental studies on mercury removal with manganese oxides sorbents were carried out in a laboratory scale fixed bed reactor at 30 °C with a mixture of methane (20%) and nitrogen gas laden with 4.8 ppb of elemental mercury. Manganese oxides with varying surface area and crystalline phase were prepared by conventional precipitation method in this study. The effects of surface area, crystallinity and other metal oxides on mercury removal efficiency were investigated. Effect of Ag impregnation on mercury removal efficiency was also investigated. Ag supported on metal oxide such titania and zirconia as reference materials were also used in this study for comparison. The characteristics of mercury removal reaction with manganese oxide was investigated using a temperature programmed desorption (TPD) technique. Manganese oxides showed very high Hg removal activity (about 73-93% Hg removal) for first time use. Surface area of the manganese oxide samples decreased after heat-treatment and resulted in complete loss of Hg removal ability for repeated use after Hg desorption in the case of amorphous MnO2, and 75% loss of the initial Hg removal activity for the crystalline MnO2. Mercury desorption efficiency of crystalline MnO2 was very low (37%) for first time use and high (98%) after second time use. Residual potassium content in MnO2 may have some effect on the thermal stability of the adsorbed Hg species. Desorption of Hg from manganese oxides occurs at much higher temperatures (with a peak at 400 °C) than Ag/TiO2 or Ag/ZrO2. Mercury may be captured on manganese oxides in the form of mercury manganese oxide.

Keywords: Mercury removal, Metal and metal oxide sorbents, Methane, Natural gas.

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3572 A Review on the Mechanism Removal of Pesticides and Heavy Metal from Agricultural Runoff in Treatment Train

Authors: N. A. Ahmad Zubairi, H. Takaijudin, K. W. Yusof

Abstract:

Pesticides have been used widely over the world in agriculture to protect from pests and reduce crop losses. However, it affects the environment with toxic chemicals. Exceed of toxic constituents in the ecosystem will result in bad side effects. The hydrological cycle is related to the existence of pesticides and heavy metal which it can penetrate through varieties of sources into the soil or water bodies, especially runoff. Therefore, proper mechanisms of pesticide and heavy metal removal should be studied to improve the quality of ecosystem free or reduce from unwanted substances. This paper reviews the use of treatment train and its mechanisms to minimize pesticides and heavy metal from agricultural runoff. Organochlorine (OCL) is a common pesticide that was found in the agricultural runoff. OCL is one of the toxic chemicals that can disturb the ecosystem such as inhibiting plants' growth and harm human health by having symptoms as asthma, active cancer cell, vomit, diarrhea, etc. Thus, this unwanted contaminant gives disadvantages to the environment and needs treatment system. Hence, treatment train by bioretention system is suitable because removal efficiency achieves until 90% of pesticide removal with selected vegetated plant and additive.

Keywords: Pesticides, heavy metal, agricultural runoff, bioretention, mechanism removal, treatment train.

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3571 Modeling of Material Removal on Machining of Ti-6Al-4V through EDM using Copper Tungsten Electrode and Positive Polarity

Authors: M. M. Rahman, Md. Ashikur Rahman Khan, K. Kadirgama M. M. Noor, Rosli A. Bakar

Abstract:

This paper deals optimized model to investigate the effects of peak current, pulse on time and pulse off time in EDM performance on material removal rate of titanium alloy utilizing copper tungsten as electrode and positive polarity of the electrode. The experiments are carried out on Ti6Al4V. Experiments were conducted by varying the peak current, pulse on time and pulse off time. A mathematical model is developed to correlate the influences of these variables and material removal rate of workpiece. Design of experiments (DOE) method and response surface methodology (RSM) techniques are implemented. The validity test of the fit and adequacy of the proposed models has been carried out through analysis of variance (ANOVA). The obtained results evidence that as the material removal rate increases as peak current and pulse on time increases. The effect of pulse off time on MRR changes with peak ampere. The optimum machining conditions in favor of material removal rate are verified and compared. The optimum machining conditions in favor of material removal rate are estimated and verified with proposed optimized results. It is observed that the developed model is within the limits of the agreeable error (about 4%) when compared to experimental results. This result leads to desirable material removal rate and economical industrial machining to optimize the input parameters.

Keywords: Ti-6Al-4V, material removal rate, copper tungsten, positive polarity, RSM.

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3570 Optimization of Wire EDM Parameters for Fabrication of Micro Channels

Authors: Gurinder Singh Brar, Sarbjeet Singh, Harry Garg

Abstract:

Wire Electric Discharge Machining (WEDM) is thermal machining process capable of machining very hard electrically conductive material irrespective of their hardness. WEDM is being widely used to machine micro scale parts with the high dimensional accuracy and surface finish. The objective of this paper is to optimize the process parameters of wire EDM to fabricate the micro channels and to calculate the surface finish and material removal rate of micro channels fabricated using wire EDM. The material used is aluminum 6061 alloy. The experiments were performed using CNC wire cut electric discharge machine. The effect of various parameters of WEDM like pulse on time (TON) with the levels (100, 150, 200), pulse off time (TOFF) with the levels (25, 35, 45) and current (IP) with the levels (105, 110, 115) were investigated to study the effect on output parameter i.e. Surface Roughness and Material Removal Rate (MRR). Each experiment was conducted under different conditions of pulse on time, pulse off time and peak current. For material removal rate, TON and Ip were the most significant process parameter. MRR increases with the increase in TON and Ip and decreases with the increase in TOFF. For surface roughness, TON and Ip have the maximum effect and TOFF was found out to be less effective.

Keywords: Micro Channels, Wire Electric Discharge Machining (WEDM), Metal Removal Rate (MRR), Surface Finish.

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3569 Removal of Iron from Groundwater by Sulfide Precipitation

Authors: H. Jusoh, N. Sapari, R.Z. Raja Azie

Abstract:

Iron in groundwater is one of the problems that render the water unsuitable for drinking. The concentration above 0.3 mg/L is common in groundwater. The conventional method of removal is by precipitation under oxic condition. In this study, iron removal under anaerobic conditions was examined by batch experiment as a main purpose. The process involved by purging of groundwater samples with H2S to form iron sulfide. Removal up to 83% for 1 mg/L iron solution was achieved. The removal efficiency dropped to 82% and 75% for the higher initial iron concentrations 3.55 and 5.01 mg/L, respectively. The average residual sulfide concentration in water after the process was 25*g/L. The Eh level during the process was -272 mV. The removal process was found to follow the first order reaction with average rate constant of 4.52 x 10-3. The half-life for the concentrations to reduce from initial values was 157 minutes.

Keywords: Anaerobic, chemical kinetics, hydrogen sulfide, iron, rate constant

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3568 Treatment of Acid Mine Drainage Using Un- Activated Bentonite and Limestone

Authors: Thembelihle Nkonyane, Freeman Ntuli, Edison Muzenda

Abstract:

The use of un-activated bentonite, and un-activated bentonite blended with limestone for the treatment of acid mine drainage (AMD) was investigated. Batch experiments were conducted in a 5 L PVC reactor. Un-activated bentonite on its own did not effectively neutralize and remove heavy metals from AMD. The final pH obtained was below 4 and the metal removal efficiency was below 50% for all the metals when bentonite solid loadings of 1, 5 and 10% were used. With un-activated bentonite (1%) blended with 1% limestone, the final pH obtained was approximately 7 and metal removal efficiencies were greater than 60% for most of the metals. The Langmuir isotherm gave the best fit for the experimental data giving correlation coefficient (R2) very close to 1. Thus, it was concluded that un-activated bentonite blended with limestone is suitable for potential applications in removing heavy metals and neutralizing AMD.

Keywords: acid mine drainage, bentonite, limestone, heavy metal removal.

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3567 Nutrients Removal Control via an Intermittently Aerated Membrane Bioreactor

Authors: Junior B. N. Adohinzin, Ling Xu

Abstract:

Nitrogen is among the main nutrients encouraging the growth of organic matter and algae which cause eutrophication in water bodies. Therefore, its removal from wastewater has become a worldwide emerging concern. In this research, an innovative Membrane Bioreactor (MBR) system named “moving bed membrane bioreactor (MBMBR)” was developed and investigated under intermittently-aerated mode for simultaneous removal of organic carbon and nitrogen.

Results indicated that the variation of the intermittently aerated duration did not have an apparent impact on COD and NH4+–N removal rate, yielding the effluent with average COD and NH4+–N removal efficiency of more than 92 and 91% respectively. However, in the intermittently aerated cycle of (continuously aeration/0s mix), (aeration 90s/mix 90s) and (aeration 90s/mix 180s); the average TN removal efficiency was 67.6%, 69.5% and 87.8% respectively. At the same time, their nitrite accumulation rate was 4.5%, 49.1% and 79.4% respectively. These results indicate that the intermittently aerated mode is an efficient way to controlling the nitrification to stop at nitrition; and also the length of anoxic duration is a key factor in improving TN removal.

Keywords: Membrane bioreactor (MBR), Moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR), Nutrients removal, Simultaneous nitrification and denitrification.

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3566 Functionalized Nanoparticles as Sorbents for Removal of Toxic Species

Authors: Jerina Majeed, Jayshree Ramkumar, S. Chandramouleeswaran, A. K. Tyagi

Abstract:

Removal of various toxic species from aqueous streams is of great importance. Sorption is one of the important remediation procedures as it involves the use of cheap and easily available materials. Also the advantage of regeneration of the sorbent involves the possibility of using novel sorbents. Nanosorbents are very important as the removal is based on the surface phenomena and this is greatly affected by surface charge and area. Functionalization has been very important to bring about the removal of metal ions with greater selectivity.

Keywords: Mercury, lead, thiol functionalization, ZnO NPs.

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3565 Nitrogen Dynamics and Removal by Algal Turf Scrubber under High Ammonia and Organic Matter Loading in a Recirculating Aquaculture System

Authors: Joshua S. Valeta, Marc C. Verdegem

Abstract:

A study was undertaken to assess the potential of an Algal Turf Scrubber to remove nitrogen from aquaculture effluent to reduce environmental pollution. High total ammonia nitrogen concentrations were introduced to an Algal Turf Scrubber developed under varying hydraulic surface loading rates of African catfish (Clarius gariepinus) effluent in a recirculating aquaculture system. Nutrient removal rates were not affected at total suspended solids concentration of up to 0.04g TSS/l (P > 0.05). Nitrogen removal rates 0.93-0.99g TAN/m²/d were recorded at very high loading rates 3.76-3.81 g TAN/m²/d. Total ammonia removal showed ½ order kinetics between 1.6 to 2.3mg/l Total Ammonia Nitrogen concentrations. Nitrogen removal increased with its loading, which increased with hydraulic surface loading rate. Total Ammonia Nitrogen removal by Algal turf scrubber was higher than reported values for fluidized bed filters and trickling filters. The algal turf scrubber also effectively removed nitrate thereby reducing the need for water exchange.

Keywords: Algal turf, loading rate, nitrogen, organic matter, removal rate.

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3564 Efficient CNC Milling by Adjusting Material Removal Rate

Authors: Majid Tolouei-Rad

Abstract:

This paper describes a combined mathematicalgraphical approach for optimum tool path planning in order to improve machining efficiency. A methodology has been used that stabilizes machining operations by adjusting material removal rate in pocket milling operations while keeping cutting forces within limits. This increases the life of cutting tool and reduces the risk of tool breakage, machining vibration, and chatter. Case studies reveal the fact that application of this approach could result in a slight increase of machining time, however, a considerable reduction of tooling cost, machining vibration, noise and chatter can be achieved in addition to producing a better surface finish.

Keywords: CNC machines, milling, optimization, removal rate.

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3563 Removal of Ni(II), Zn(II) and Pb(II) ions from Single Metal Aqueous Solution using Activated Carbon Prepared from Rice Husk

Authors: Mohd F. Taha, Chong F. Kiat, Maizatul S. Shaharun, Anita Ramli

Abstract:

The abundance and availability of rice husk, an agricultural waste, make them as a good source for precursor of activated carbon. In this work, rice husk-based activated carbons were prepared via base treated chemical activation process prior the carbonization process. The effect of carbonization temperatures (400, 600 and 800oC) on their pore structure was evaluated through morphology analysis using scanning electron microscope (SEM). Sample carbonized at 800oC showed better evolution and development of pores as compared to those carbonized at 400 and 600oC. The potential of rice husk-based activated carbon as an alternative adsorbent was investigated for the removal of Ni(II), Zn(II) and Pb(II) from single metal aqueous solution. The adsorption studies using rice husk-based activated carbon as an adsorbent were carried out as a function of contact time at room temperature and the metal ions were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). The ability to remove metal ion from single metal aqueous solution was found to be improved with the increasing of carbonization temperature. Among the three metal ions tested, Pb(II) ion gave the highest adsorption on rice husk-based activated carbon. The results obtained indicate the potential to utilize rice husk as a promising precursor for the preparation of activated carbon for removal of heavy metals.

Keywords: Activated carbon, metal ion adsorption, rice husk, wastewater treatment.

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3562 Anaerobic Treatment of Petroleum Refinery Wastewater

Authors: H. A. Gasim, S. R. M. Kutty, M. Hasnain Isa

Abstract:

Anaerobic treatment has many advantages over other biological method particularly when used to treat complex wastewater such as petroleum refinery wastewater. In this study two Up-flow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) reactors were operated in parallel to treat six volumetric organic loads (0.58, 1.21, 0.89, 2.34, 1.47 and 4.14 kg COD/m3·d) to evaluate the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency. The reactors were continuously adapting to the changing of operation condition with increase in the removal efficiency or slight decrease until the last load which was more than two times the load, at which the reactor stressed and the removal efficiency decreased to 75% with effluent concentration of 1746 mg COD/L. Other parameters were also monitored such as pH, alkalinity, volatile fatty acid and gas production rate. The UASB reactor was suitable to treat petroleum refinery wastewater and the highest COD removal rate was 83% at 1215 kg/m3·d with COD concentration about 356 mg/L in the effluent.

Keywords: Petroleum refinery wastewater, anaerobic digestion, UASB, organic volumetric loading rate

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3561 Biosorption of Heavy Metals by Low Cost Adsorbents

Authors: Azam Tabatabaee, Fereshteh Dastgoshadeh, Akram Tabatabaee

Abstract:

This paper describes the use of by-products as adsorbents for removing heavy metals from aqueous effluent solutions. Products of almond skin, walnut shell, saw dust, rice bran and egg shell were evaluated as metal ion adsorbents in aqueous solutions. A comparative study was done with commercial adsorbents like ion exchange resins and activated carbon too. Batch experiments were investigated to determine the affinity of all of biomasses for, Cd(ΙΙ), Cr(ΙΙΙ), Ni(ΙΙ), and Pb(ΙΙ) metal ions at pH 5. The rate of metal ion removal in the synthetic wastewater by the biomass was evaluated by measuring final concentration of synthetic wastewater. At a concentration of metal ion (50 mg/L), egg shell adsorbed high levels (98.6 – 99.7%) of Pb(ΙΙ) and Cr(ΙΙΙ) and walnut shell adsorbed high levels (35.3 – 65.4%) of Ni(ΙΙ) and Cd(ΙΙ). In this study, it has been shown that by-products were excellent adsorbents for removal of toxic ions from wastewater with efficiency comparable to commercially available adsorbents, but at a reduced cost. Also statistical studies using Independent Sample t Test and ANOVA Oneway for statistical comparison between various elements adsorption showed that there isn’t a significant difference in some elements adsorption percentage by by-products and commercial adsorbents.

Keywords: Adsorbents, heavy metals, commercial adsorbents, wastewater, by-products.

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3560 Optimization of Lead Bioremediation by Marine Halomonas sp. ES015 Using Statistical Experimental Methods

Authors: Aliaa M. El-Borai, Ehab A. Beltagy, Eman E. Gadallah, Samy A. ElAssar

Abstract:

Bioremediation technology is now used for treatment instead of traditional metal removal methods. A strain was isolated from Marsa Alam, Red sea, Egypt showed high resistance to high lead concentration and was identified by the 16S rRNA gene sequencing technique as Halomonas sp. ES015. Medium optimization was carried out using Plackett-Burman design, and the most significant factors were yeast extract, casamino acid and inoculums size. The optimized media obtained by the statistical design raised the removal efficiency from 84% to 99% from initial concentration 250 ppm of lead. Moreover, Box-Behnken experimental design was applied to study the relationship between yeast extract concentration, casamino acid concentration and inoculums size. The optimized medium increased removal efficiency to 97% from initial concentration 500 ppm of lead. Immobilized Halomonas sp. ES015 cells on sponge cubes, using optimized medium in loop bioremediation column, showed relatively constant lead removal efficiency when reused six successive cycles over the range of time interval. Also metal removal efficiency was not affected by flow rate changes. Finally, the results of this research refer to the possibility of lead bioremediation by free or immobilized cells of Halomonas sp. ES015. Also, bioremediation can be done in batch cultures and semicontinuous cultures using column technology.

Keywords: Bioremediation, lead, Box–Behnken, Halomonas sp. ES015, loop bioremediation, Plackett-Burman.

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3559 Simulation of “Net” Nutrients Removal by Green Mussel (Perna viridis) in Estuarine and Coastal Areas

Authors: Chayarat Tantanasarit, Sandhya Babel

Abstract:

Green mussels (Perna viridis) can effectively remove  nutrients from seawater through their filtration process. This study  aims to estimate “net” nutrient removal rate by green mussel through  calculation of nutrient uptake and release. Nutrients (carbon, nitrogen  and phosphorus) uptake was calculated based on the mussel filtration  rate. Nutrient release was evaluated from carbon, nitrogen and  phosphorus released as mussel faeces. By subtracting nutrient release  from nutrient uptake, net nutrient removal by green mussel can be  found as 3302, 380 and 124 mg/year/indv. Mass balance model was  employed to simulate nutrient removal in actual green mussel  farming conditions. Mussels farm area, seawater flow rate, and  amount of mussels were considered in the model. Results show that  although larger quantity of green mussel farms lead to higher nutrient  removal rate, the maximum green mussel cultivation should be taken  into consideration as nutrients released through mussel excretion can  strongly affect marine ecosystem.

 

Keywords: Carbon, Excretion, Filtration, Nitrogen, Phosphorus.

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3558 Mercury Removal Using Pseudomonas putida (ATTC 49128): Effect of Acclimatization Time, Speed and Temperature of Incubator Shaker

Authors: A. A. M. Azoddein, R. M. Yunus, N. M. Sulaiman, A. B. Bustary, K. Sabar

Abstract:

Microbes have been used to solve environmental problems for many years. The role of microorganism to sequester, precipitate or alter the oxidation state of various heavy metals has been extensively studied. Treatment using microorganism interacts with toxic metal are very diverse. The purpose of this research is to remove the mercury using Pseudomonas putida (P. putida), pure culture ATTC 49128 at optimum growth parameters such as techniques of culture, acclimatization time and speed of incubator shaker. Thus, in this study, the optimum growth parameters of P. putida were obtained to achieve the maximum of mercury removal. Based on the optimum parameters of P. putida for specific growth rate, the removal of two different mercury concentration, 1 ppm and 4 ppm were studied. From mercury nitrate solution, a mercuryresistant bacterial strain which is able to reduce from ionic mercury to metallic mercury was used to reduce ionic mercury. The overall levels of mercury removal in this study were between 80% and 89%. The information obtained in this study is of fundamental for understanding of the survival of P. putida ATTC 49128 in mercury solution. Thus, microbial mercury removal is a potential bioremediation for wastewater especially in petrochemical industries in Malaysia.

Keywords: Pseudomonas putida, growth kinetic, biosorption, mercury, petrochemical wastewater.

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3557 NiO-CeO2 Nano-Catalyst for the Removal of Priority Organic Pollutants from Wastewater through Catalytic Wet Air Oxidation at Mild Conditions

Authors: Anushree, Chhaya Sharma, Satish Kumar

Abstract:

Catalytic wet air oxidation (CWAO) is normally carried out at elevated temperature and pressure. This work investigates the potential of NiO-CeO2 nano-catalyst in CWAO of paper industry wastewater under milder operating conditions of 90 °C and 1 atm. The NiO-CeO2 nano-catalysts were synthesized by a simple co-precipitation method and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), before and after use, in order to study any crystallographic change during experiment. The extent of metal-leaching from the catalyst was determined using the inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The catalytic activity of nano-catalysts was studied in terms of total organic carbon (TOC), adsorbable organic halides (AOX) and chlorophenolics (CHPs) removal. Interestingly, mixed oxide catalysts exhibited higher activity than the corresponding single-metal oxides. The maximum removal efficiency was achieved with Ce40Ni60 catalyst. The results indicate that the CWAO process is efficient in removing the priority organic pollutants from wastewater, as it exhibited up to 59% TOC, 55% AOX, and 54 % CHPs removal.

Keywords: Nano-materials, NiO-CeO2, wastewater, wet air oxidation.

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3556 Biodegradation of Cyanide by a Novel Cyanidedegrading Bacterium

Authors: S. Potivichayanon, R. Kitleartpornpairoat

Abstract:

The objectives were to identify cyanide-degrading bacteria and study cyanide removal efficiency. Agrobacterium tumefaciens SUTS 1 was isolated. This is a new strain of microorganisms for cyanide degradation. The maximum growth rate of SUTS 1 obtained 4.7 × 108 CFU/ml within 4 days. The cyanide removal efficiency was studied at 25, 50, and 150 mg/L cyanide. The residual cyanide, ammonia, nitrate, nitrite, pH, and cell counts were analyzed. At 25 and 50 mg/L cyanide, SUTS 1 obtained similar removal efficiency approximately 87.50%. At 150 mg/L cyanide, SUTS 1 enhanced the cyanide removal efficiency up to 97.90%. Cell counts of SUTS 1 increased when the cyanide concentration was set at lower. The ammonia increased when the removal efficiency increased. The nitrate increased when the ammonia decreased but the nitrite did not detect in all experiments. pH values also increased when the cyanide concentrations were set at higher.

Keywords: Biodegradation, Cyanide-degrading bacteria, Removal efficiency, Residual cyanide

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3555 ED Machining of Particulate Reinforced MMC’s

Authors: Sarabjeet Singh Sidhu, Ajay Batish, Sanjeev Kumar

Abstract:

This paper reports the optimal process conditions for machining of three different types of MMC’s 65vol%SiC/A356.2; 10vol%SiC-5vol%quartz/Al and 30vol%SiC/A359 using PMEDM process. MRR, TWR, SR and surface integrity were evaluated after each trial and contributing process parameters were identified. The four responses were then collectively optimized using TOPSIS and optimal process conditions were identified for each type of MMC. The density of reinforced particles shields the matrix material from spark energy hence the high MRR and SR was observed with lowest reinforced particle. TWR was highest with Cu-Gr electrode due to disintegration of the weakly bonded particles in the composite electrode. Each workpiece was examined for surface integrity and ranked as per severity of surface defects observed and their rankings were used for arriving at the most optimal process settings for each workpiece. 

Keywords: Metal matrix composites (MMCs), Metal removal rate (MRR), Surface roughness (SR), Surface integrity (SI), Tool wear rate (TWR), Technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS).

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3554 The Effect of Ultrasonic Vibration of Workpiece in Electrical Discharge Machining of AISIH13 Tool Steel

Authors: M. R. Shabgard, B. Sadizadeh, H. Kakoulvand

Abstract:

In the present work, a study has been made on the combination of the electrical discharge machining (EDM) with ultrasonic vibrations to improve the machining efficiency. In experiments the graphite used as tool electrode and material of workpiece was AISIH13 tool steel. The parameters such as discharge peak current and pulse duration were changed to explore their effect on the material removal rate (MRR), relative tool wear ratio (TWR) and surface roughness. From the experimental result it can be seen that ultrasonic vibration of the workpiece can significantly reduces the inactive pulses and improves the stability of process. It was found that ultrasonic assisted EDM (US-EDM) is effective in attaining a high material removal rate (MRR) in finishing regime.

Keywords: AISIH13 tool steel, Electrical discharge machining(EDM), Material removal rate (MRR), Surface roughness (Ra), Toolwear ratio (TWR), Ultrasonic assisted EDM (US-EDM)

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3553 Synthesis of Silk Fibroin Fiber for Indoor air Particulate Removal

Authors: Janjira Triped, Wipada Sanongraj, Bovornlak Oonkhanond, Sompop Sanongraj

Abstract:

The main objective of this research is to synthesize silk fibroin fiber for indoor air particulate removal. Silk cocoons were de-gummed using 0.5 wt % Na2CO3 alkaline solutions at 90 Ó╣ìC for 60 mins, washed with distilled water, and dried at 80 Ó╣ìC for 3 hrs in a vacuum oven. Two sets of experiment were conducted to investigate the impacts of initial particulate matter (PM) concentration and that of air flow rate on the removal efficiency. Rice bran collected from a local rice mill in Ubonratchathani province was used as indoor air contaminant in this work. The morphology and physical properties of silk fibroin (SF) fiber were measured. The SEM revealed the deposition of PM on the used fiber. The PM removal efficiencies of 72.29 ± 3.03 % and 39.33 ± 1.99 % were obtained of PM10 and PM2.5, respectively, when using the initial PM concentration at 0.040 mg/m3 and 0.020 mg/m3 of PM10 and PM2.5, respectively, with the air flow rate of 5 L/min.

Keywords: Indoor air, Particulate matter, Scanning electron microscope (SEM), Silk fibroin fiber.

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3552 Biosorption of Metal Ions from Sarcheshmeh Acid Mine Drainage by Immobilized Bacillus thuringiensis in a Fixed-Bed Column

Authors: V. Khosravi, F. D. Ardejani, A. Aryafar, M. Sedighi

Abstract:

Heavy metals have a damaging impact for the environment, animals and humans due to their extreme toxicity and removing them from wastewaters is a very important and interesting task in the field of water pollution control. Biosorption is a relatively new method for treatment of wastewaters and recovery of heavy metals. In this study, a continuous fixed bed study was carried out by using Bacillus thuringiensis as a biosorbent for the removal of Cu and Mn ions from Sarcheshmeh Acid Mine Drainage (AMD). The effect of operating parameters such as flow rate and bed height on the sorption characteristics of B. thuringiensis was investigated at pH 6.0 for each metal ion. The experimental results showed that the breakthrough time decreased with increasing flow rate and decreasing bed height. The data also indicated that the equilibrium uptake of both metals increased with decreasing flow rate and increasing bed height. BDST, Thomas, and Yoon–Nelson models were applied to experimental data to predict the breakthrough curves. All models were found suitable for describing the whole dynamic behavior of the column with respect to flow rate and bed height. In order to regenerate the adsorbent, an elution step was carried out with 1 M HCl and five adsorption-desorption cycles were carried out in continuous manner.

Keywords: Acid Mine Drainage, Bacillus thuringiensis, Biosorption, Cu and Mn ions, Fixed bed.

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3551 The Influence of Clayey Pellet Size on Adsorption Efficiency of Metal Ions Removal from Waste Printing Developer

Authors: Kiurski S. Jelena, Ranogajec G. Jonjaua, Oros B. Ivana, Kecić S. Vesna

Abstract:

The adsorption efficiency of fired clayey pellets of 5 and 8 mm diameter size for Cu(II) and Zn(II) ion removal from a waste printing developer was studied. In order to investigate the influence of contact time, adsorbent mass and pellet size on the adsorption efficiency the batch mode was carried out. Faster uptake of copper ion was obtained with the fired clay pellets of 5 mm diameter size within 30 minutes. The pellets of 8 mm diameter size showed the higher equilibrium time (60 to 75 minutes) for copper and zinc ion. The results pointed out that adsorption efficiency increases with the increase of adsorbent mass. The maximal efficiency is different for Cu(II) and Zn(II) ion due to the pellet size. Therefore, the fired clay pellets of 5 mm diameter size present an effective adsorbent for Cu(II) ion removal (adsorption efficiency is 63.6%), whereas the fired clay pellets of 8 mm diameter size are the best alternative for Zn(II) ion removal (adsorption efficiency is 92.8%) from a waste printing developer.

Keywords: Adsorption efficiency, clayey pellet, metal ions, waste printing developer.

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3550 Reducing Humic Acid and Disinfection By-products in Raw Water using a Bio-activated Carbon Filter

Authors: Wei-Pin Tseng, Jie-Chung Lou, Ming-Ching Wu, Huang-Ming Fang

Abstract:

For stricter drinking water regulations in the future, reducing the humic acid and disinfection byproducts in raw water, namely, trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs) is worthy for research. To investigate the removal of waterborne organic material using a lab-scale of bio-activated carbon filter under different EBCT, the concentrations of humic acid prepared were 0.01, 0.03, 0.06, 0.12, 0.17, 0.23, and 0.29 mg/L. Then we conducted experiments using a pilot plant with in-field of the serially connected bio-activated carbon filters and hollow fiber membrane processes employed in traditional water purification plants. Results showed under low TOC conditions of humic acid in influent (0.69 to 1.03 mg TOC/L) with an EBCT of 30 min, 40 min, and 50 min, TOC removal rates increases with greater EBCT, attaining about 39 % removal rate. The removal rate of THMs and HAAs by BACF was 54.8 % and 89.0 %, respectively.

Keywords: Bio-activated carbon filter, hollow fiber membrane, humic acid, THMs, HAAs, Water Treatment

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3549 Performance Evaluation of Powder Metallurgy Electrode in Electrical Discharge Machining of AISI D2 Steel Using Taguchi Method

Authors: Naveen Beri, S. Maheshwari, C. Sharma, Anil Kumar

Abstract:

In this paper an attempt has been made to correlate the usefulness of electrodes made through powder metallurgy (PM) in comparison with conventional copper electrode during electric discharge machining. Experimental results are presented on electric discharge machining of AISI D2 steel in kerosene with copper tungsten (30% Cu and 70% W) tool electrode made through powder metallurgy (PM) technique and Cu electrode. An L18 (21 37) orthogonal array of Taguchi methodology was used to identify the effect of process input factors (viz. current, duty cycle and flushing pressure) on the output factors {viz. material removal rate (MRR) and surface roughness (SR)}. It was found that CuW electrode (made through PM) gives high surface finish where as the Cu electrode is better for higher material removal rate.

Keywords: Electrical discharge machining (EDM), Powder Metallurgy (PM), Taguchi method, Material Removal Rate (MRR), Surface Roughness (SR).

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