Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 11

Search results for: sparsity

11 Sparsity-Aware Affine Projection Algorithm for System Identification

Authors: Young-Seok Choi

Abstract:

This work presents a new type of the affine projection (AP) algorithms which incorporate the sparsity condition of a system. To exploit the sparsity of the system, a weighted l1-norm regularization is imposed on the cost function of the AP algorithm. Minimizing the cost function with a subgradient calculus and choosing two distinct weighting for l1-norm, two stochastic gradient based sparsity regularized AP (SR-AP) algorithms are developed. Experimental results exhibit that the SR-AP algorithms outperform the typical AP counterparts for identifying sparse systems.

Keywords: System identification, adaptive filter, affine projection, sparsity, sparse system.

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10 Subband Adaptive Filter Exploiting Sparsity of System

Authors: Young-Seok Choi

Abstract:

This paper presents a normalized subband adaptive filtering (NSAF) algorithm to cope with the sparsity condition of an underlying system in the context of compressive sensing. By regularizing a weighted l1-norm of the filter taps estimate onto the cost function of the NSAF and utilizing a subgradient analysis, the update recursion of the l1-norm constraint NSAF is derived. Considering two distinct weighted l1-norm regularization cases, two versions of the l1-norm constraint NSAF are presented. Simulation results clearly indicate the superior performance of the proposed l1-norm constraint NSAFs comparing with the classical NSAF.

Keywords: Subband adaptive filtering, sparsity constraint, weighted l1-norm.

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9 Sparsity-Based Unsupervised Unmixing of Hyperspectral Imaging Data Using Basis Pursuit

Authors: Ahmed Elrewainy

Abstract:

Mixing in the hyperspectral imaging occurs due to the low spatial resolutions of the used cameras. The existing pure materials “endmembers” in the scene share the spectra pixels with different amounts called “abundances”. Unmixing of the data cube is an important task to know the present endmembers in the cube for the analysis of these images. Unsupervised unmixing is done with no information about the given data cube. Sparsity is one of the recent approaches used in the source recovery or unmixing techniques. The l1-norm optimization problem “basis pursuit” could be used as a sparsity-based approach to solve this unmixing problem where the endmembers is assumed to be sparse in an appropriate domain known as dictionary. This optimization problem is solved using proximal method “iterative thresholding”. The l1-norm basis pursuit optimization problem as a sparsity-based unmixing technique was used to unmix real and synthetic hyperspectral data cubes.

Keywords: Basis pursuit, blind source separation, hyperspectral imaging, spectral unmixing, wavelets.

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8 A Hybrid Recommender System based on Collaborative Filtering and Cloud Model

Authors: Chein-Shung Hwang, Ruei-Siang Fong

Abstract:

User-based Collaborative filtering (CF), one of the most prevailing and efficient recommendation techniques, provides personalized recommendations to users based on the opinions of other users. Although the CF technique has been successfully applied in various applications, it suffers from serious sparsity problems. The cloud-model approach addresses the sparsity problems by constructing the user-s global preference represented by a cloud eigenvector. The user-based CF approach works well with dense datasets while the cloud-model CF approach has a greater performance when the dataset is sparse. In this paper, we present a hybrid approach that integrates the predictions from both the user-based CF and the cloud-model CF approaches. The experimental results show that the proposed hybrid approach can ameliorate the sparsity problem and provide an improved prediction quality.

Keywords: Cloud model, Collaborative filtering, Hybridrecommender system

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7 Sparse Unmixing of Hyperspectral Data by Exploiting Joint-Sparsity and Rank-Deficiency

Authors: Fanqiang Kong, Chending Bian

Abstract:

In this work, we exploit two assumed properties of the abundances of the observed signatures (endmembers) in order to reconstruct the abundances from hyperspectral data. Joint-sparsity is the first property of the abundances, which assumes the adjacent pixels can be expressed as different linear combinations of same materials. The second property is rank-deficiency where the number of endmembers participating in hyperspectral data is very small compared with the dimensionality of spectral library, which means that the abundances matrix of the endmembers is a low-rank matrix. These assumptions lead to an optimization problem for the sparse unmixing model that requires minimizing a combined l2,p-norm and nuclear norm. We propose a variable splitting and augmented Lagrangian algorithm to solve the optimization problem. Experimental evaluation carried out on synthetic and real hyperspectral data shows that the proposed method outperforms the state-of-the-art algorithms with a better spectral unmixing accuracy.

Keywords: Hyperspectral unmixing, joint-sparse, low-rank representation, abundance estimation.

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6 An Incomplete Factorization Preconditioner for LMS Adaptive Filter

Authors: Shazia Javed, Noor Atinah Ahmad

Abstract:

In this paper an efficient incomplete factorization preconditioner is proposed for the Least Mean Squares (LMS) adaptive filter. The proposed preconditioner is approximated from a priori knowledge of the factors of input correlation matrix with an incomplete strategy, motivated by the sparsity patter of the upper triangular factor in the QRD-RLS algorithm. The convergence properties of IPLMS algorithm are comparable with those of transform domain LMS(TDLMS) algorithm. Simulation results show efficiency and robustness of the proposed algorithm with reduced computational complexity.

Keywords: Autocorrelation matrix, Cholesky's factor, eigenvalue spread, Markov input.

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5 A Dictionary Learning Method Based On EMD for Audio Sparse Representation

Authors: Yueming Wang, Zenghui Zhang, Rendong Ying, Peilin Liu

Abstract:

Sparse representation has long been studied and several dictionary learning methods have been proposed. The dictionary learning methods are widely used because they are adaptive. In this paper, a new dictionary learning method for audio is proposed. Signals are at first decomposed into different degrees of Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMF) using Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) technique. Then these IMFs form a learned dictionary. To reduce the size of the dictionary, the K-means method is applied to the dictionary to generate a K-EMD dictionary. Compared to K-SVD algorithm, the K-EMD dictionary decomposes audio signals into structured components, thus the sparsity of the representation is increased by 34.4% and the SNR of the recovered audio signals is increased by 20.9%.

Keywords: Dictionary Learning, EMD, K-means Method, Sparse Representation.

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4 Sparsity-Aware and Noise-Robust Subband Adaptive Filter

Authors: Young-Seok Choi

Abstract:

This paper presents a subband adaptive filter (SAF) for a system identification where an impulse response is sparse and disturbed with an impulsive noise. Benefiting from the uses of l1-norm optimization and l0-norm penalty of the weight vector in the cost function, the proposed l0-norm sign SAF (l0-SSAF) achieves both robustness against impulsive noise and much improved convergence behavior than the classical adaptive filters. Simulation results in the system identification scenario confirm that the proposed l0-norm SSAF is not only more robust but also faster and more accurate than its counterparts in the sparse system identification in the presence of impulsive noise.

Keywords: Subband adaptive filter, l0-norm, sparse system, robustness, impulsive interference.

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3 Application of l1-Norm Minimization Technique to Image Retrieval

Authors: C. S. Sastry, Saurabh Jain, Ashish Mishra

Abstract:

Image retrieval is a topic where scientific interest is currently high. The important steps associated with image retrieval system are the extraction of discriminative features and a feasible similarity metric for retrieving the database images that are similar in content with the search image. Gabor filtering is a widely adopted technique for feature extraction from the texture images. The recently proposed sparsity promoting l1-norm minimization technique finds the sparsest solution of an under-determined system of linear equations. In the present paper, the l1-norm minimization technique as a similarity metric is used in image retrieval. It is demonstrated through simulation results that the l1-norm minimization technique provides a promising alternative to existing similarity metrics. In particular, the cases where the l1-norm minimization technique works better than the Euclidean distance metric are singled out.

Keywords: l1-norm minimization, content based retrieval, modified Gabor function.

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2 A Transform Domain Function Controlled VSSLMS Algorithm for Sparse System Identification

Authors: Cemil Turan, Mohammad Shukri Salman

Abstract:

The convergence rate of the least-mean-square (LMS) algorithm deteriorates if the input signal to the filter is correlated. In a system identification problem, this convergence rate can be improved if the signal is white and/or if the system is sparse. We recently proposed a sparse transform domain LMS-type algorithm that uses a variable step-size for a sparse system identification. The proposed algorithm provided high performance even if the input signal is highly correlated. In this work, we investigate the performance of the proposed TD-LMS algorithm for a large number of filter tap which is also a critical issue for standard LMS algorithm. Additionally, the optimum value of the most important parameter is calculated for all experiments. Moreover, the convergence analysis of the proposed algorithm is provided. The performance of the proposed algorithm has been compared to different algorithms in a sparse system identification setting of different sparsity levels and different number of filter taps. Simulations have shown that the proposed algorithm has prominent performance compared to the other algorithms.

Keywords: Adaptive filtering, sparse system identification, VSSLMS algorithm, TD-LMS algorithm.

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1 Feature Selection with Kohonen Self Organizing Classification Algorithm

Authors: Francesco Maiorana

Abstract:

In this paper a one-dimension Self Organizing Map algorithm (SOM) to perform feature selection is presented. The algorithm is based on a first classification of the input dataset on a similarity space. From this classification for each class a set of positive and negative features is computed. This set of features is selected as result of the procedure. The procedure is evaluated on an in-house dataset from a Knowledge Discovery from Text (KDT) application and on a set of publicly available datasets used in international feature selection competitions. These datasets come from KDT applications, drug discovery as well as other applications. The knowledge of the correct classification available for the training and validation datasets is used to optimize the parameters for positive and negative feature extractions. The process becomes feasible for large and sparse datasets, as the ones obtained in KDT applications, by using both compression techniques to store the similarity matrix and speed up techniques of the Kohonen algorithm that take advantage of the sparsity of the input matrix. These improvements make it feasible, by using the grid, the application of the methodology to massive datasets.

Keywords: Clustering algorithm, Data mining, Feature selection, Grid, Kohonen Self Organizing Map.

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