Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1348

Search results for: Advertisement Effectiveness

1348 Advertisement Effectiveness for Print Media: A Conceptual Model

Authors: Prateek Maheshwari, Nitin Seth, Anoop Kumar Gupta

Abstract:

The objective of present research paper is to highlight the importance of measuring advertisement effectiveness in print media and to develop a conceptual model for advertisement effectiveness. The developed model is based on dimensions on which advertisement effectiveness depends and on the dimensions which are used to measure the effectiveness. An in-depth and extensive literature review is carried out to understand the concept of advertisement effectiveness and its various determinants in context of print media. Based on the insights gained, a conceptual framework for advertisement effectiveness is presented. The model is an attempt to uncover the relatively less explored area of advertisement effectiveness in Indian advertising scenario. It is believed that present work will encourage scholars and academicians to further explore the area and will offer conceptual assistance and a fresh direction in the domain of advertisement effectiveness.

Keywords: Advertisement Effectiveness, Conceptual Model, Effectiveness Dimensions, Print Media.

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1347 Advertisement Effectiveness: A Review and Research Agenda

Authors: Prateek Maheshwari, Nitin Seth, Anoop Kumar Gupta

Abstract:

In today’s highly competitive, dynamic and technology driven business circumstances, marketers are under steady pressure to deliver the best. Organizations are continuously improving and upgrading themselves to meet customer expectations and demands. Technology has not only changed the way in which business is done in modern times but has also transformed the way to reach out to target audience. Marketers have identified most recent media options to communicate and convince potential customers. Numerous scholars have studied the research domain of advertising and have tried to recognize different measures of advertisement effectiveness in context of various media. The objective of this paper is to critically review accessible literature on advertisement effectiveness in context of varied advertising media, recognize major gaps in the literature and identify future research prospects on the basis of critical analysis of literature.

Keywords: Advertising, Advertising Media, Competition, Effectiveness Measurement.

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1346 Design and Development of an Innovative Advertisement Display with Flipping Mechanism

Authors: Raymond Yeo K. W., P. Y. Lim, Farrah Wong

Abstract:

Attractive and creative advertisement displays are often in high demand as they are known to have profound impact on the commercial market. In the fast advancement of technology, advertising trend has taken a great leap in attracting more and more demanding consumers. A low-cost and low-power consumption flipping advertisement board has been developed in this paper. The design of the electrical circuit and the controller of the advertisement board are presented. A microcontroller, a Darlington Pair driver and a unipolar stepper motor were used to operate the electrical flipping advertisement board. The proposed system has been implemented and the hardware has been tested to demonstrate the capability of displaying multiple advertisements in a panel.

Keywords: Advertisement board, microcontroller, stepper motor.

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1345 The Impact of Online Advertising on Generation Y’s Purchase Decision in Malaysia

Authors: Mui Joo Tang, Eang Teng Chan

Abstract:

Advertising is commonly used to foster sales and reputation of an institution. It is at first the growth of print advertising that has increased the population and number of periodicals of newspaper and its circulation. The rise of Internet and online media has somehow blurred the role of media and advertising though the intention is still to reach out to audience and to increase sales. The relationship between advertising and audience on a product purchase through persuasion has been developing from print media to online media. From the changing media environment and audience, it is the concern of this research to study the impact of online advertising to such a relationship cycle. The content of online advertisements is much of text, multimedia, photo, audio and video. The messages of such content format may indeed bring impacts to its audience and its credibility. This study is therefore reflecting the effectiveness of online advertisement and its influences on generation Y in their purchasing behavior. This study uses Media Dependency Theory to analyze the relationship between the impact of online advertisement and media usage pattern of generation Y. Hierarchy of Effectiveness Model is used as a marketing communication model to study the effectiveness of advertising and further to determine the impact of online advertisement on generation Y in their purchasing decision making. This research uses online survey to reach out the sample of generation Y. The results have shown that online advertisements do not affect much on purchase decision making even though generation Y relies much on the media content including online advertisement for its information and believing in its credibility. There are few other external factors that may interrupt the effectiveness of online advertising. The very obvious influence of purchasing behavior is actually derived from the peers.

Keywords: Generation Y, online advertising, online media, persuasion, print media, purchase decision.

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1344 Business Penetration through Print Media: A Review of Select Enablers

Authors: Prateek Maheshwari, Nitin Seth

Abstract:

It’s an era of high competition, dynamism and complexities which have forced organizations to change dramatically due to rising customer expectations. Marketers are under constant pressure to deliver finest to their customers. With the advent of technology, marketers have identified latest advertising media options to reach out to target audience. But the conventional ways of print advertisements still holds a deeper penetration and coverage. Various researchers and practitioners have studied the area of print media advertising and have tried to identify and implement advertisement effectiveness enablers. The purpose of this paper is to suggest select enablers for print media in Indian context using an integrated approach of review of literature and investigative interviews with academicians and experts from the area of advertising.

Keywords: Advertising, Advertisement Effectiveness, Competition, Print Media.

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1343 How Celebrities can be used in Advertising to the Best Advantage?

Authors: Laimona Sliburyte

Abstract:

The ever increasing product diversity and competition on the market of goods and services has dictated the pace of growth in the number of advertisements. Despite their admittedly diminished effectiveness over the recent years, advertisements remain the favored method of sales promotion. Consequently, the challenge for an advertiser is to explore every possible avenue of making an advertisement more noticeable, attractive and impellent for consumers. One way to achieve this is through invoking celebrity endorsements. On the one hand, the use of a celebrity to endorse a product involves substantial costs, however, on the other hand, it does not immediately guarantee the success of an advertisement. The question of how celebrities can be used in advertising to the best advantage is therefore of utmost importance. Celebrity endorsements have become commonplace: empirical evidence indicates that approximately 20 to 25 per cent of advertisements feature some famous person as a product endorser. The popularity of celebrity endorsements demonstrates the relevance of the topic, especially in the context of the current global economic downturn, when companies are forced to save in order to survive, yet simultaneously to heavily invest in advertising and sales promotion. The issue of the effective use of celebrity endorsements also figures prominently in the academic discourse. The study presented below is thus aimed at exploring what qualities (characteristics) of a celebrity endorser have an impact on the ffectiveness of the advertisement in which he/she appears and how.

Keywords: Advertising, celebrity, celebrity endorsements, effectiveness of celebrity.

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1342 The Issues of Effectiveness of Advertisement Communication Process: A Case Study of Lithuania Consumers

Authors: Laimona Sliburyte

Abstract:

The goal of this study was to disclose the core of the advertising research based on the psychological aspects by acquainting with the nature of advertising research and revealing the importance of psychological aspects of advertising during the advertising research. The growing interest in consumer response to advertisement served as an encouragement to make the analysis of psychological aspects of the advertising research, because the information obtained during the advertising research helps to answer the question how advertising really works. In the research analysis focuses on the nature of advertising research. The place of advertising research in advertisement planning process and the advertising research process are unfolded. Moreover, the importance of psychological aspects in the advertising research is being examined. The certain psychological aspects like the particularities of advertising communication process, psychological process that are active at advertising acceptance and awareness process as well as the advertising effects are analysed in more detail.

Keywords: Advertising, communication process, advertising message, advertising psychology.

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1341 Value of Sharing: Viral Advertisement

Authors: Duygu Aydın, Aşina Gülerarslan, Süleyman Karaçor, Tarık Doğan

Abstract:

Sharing motivations of viral advertisements by consumers and the impacts of these advertisements on the perceptions for brand will be questioned in this study. Three fundamental questions are answered in the study. These are advertisement watching and sharing motivations of individuals, criteria of liking viral advertisement and the impact of individual attitudes for viral advertisement on brand perception respectively. This study will be carried out via a viral advertisement which was practiced in Turkey. The data will be collected by survey method and the sample of the study consists of individuals who experienced the practice of sample advertisement. Data will be collected by online survey method and will be analyzed by using SPSS statistical package program. Recently traditional advertisement mind have been changing. New advertising approaches which have significant impacts on consumers have been argued. Viral advertising is a modernist advertisement mind which offers significant advantages to brands apart from traditional advertising channels such as television, radio and magazines. Viral advertising also known as Electronic Word-of- Mouth (eWOM) consists of free spread of convincing messages sent by brands among interpersonal communication. When compared to the traditional advertising, a more provocative thematic approach is argued. The foundation of this approach is to create advertisements that are worth sharing with others by consumers. When that fact is taken into consideration, in a manner of speaking it can also be stated that viral advertising is media engineering. The content worth sharing makes people being a volunteer spokesman of a brand and strengthens the emotional bonds among brand and consumer. Especially for some sectors in countries which are having traditional advertising channel limitations, viral advertising creates vital advantages.

Keywords: Viral advertising, marketing, consumers, brands.

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1340 An Open Source Advertisement System

Authors: Pushkar Umaranikar, Chris Pollett

Abstract:

An online advertisement system and its implementation for the Yioop open source search engine are presented. This system supports both selling advertisements and displaying them within search results. The selling of advertisements is done using a system to auction off daily impressions for keyword searches. This is an open, ascending price auction system in which all accepted bids will receive a fraction of the auctioned day’s impressions. New bids in our system are required to be at least one half of the sum of all previous bids ensuring the number of accepted bids is logarithmic in the total ad spend on a keyword for a day. The mechanics of creating an advertisement, attaching keywords to it, and adding it to an advertisement inventory are described. The algorithm used to go from accepted bids for a keyword to which ads are displayed at search time is also presented. We discuss properties of our system and compare it to existing auction systems and systems for selling online advertisements.

Keywords: Online markets, online ad system, online auctions, search engines.

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1339 The Application of Fuzzy Set Theory to Mobile Internet Advertisement Fraud Detection

Authors: Jinming Ma, Tianbing Xia, Janusz R. Getta

Abstract:

This paper presents the application of fuzzy set theory to implement of mobile advertisement anti-fraud systems. Mobile anti-fraud is a method aiming to identify mobile advertisement fraudsters. One of the main problems of mobile anti-fraud is the lack of evidence to prove a user to be a fraudster. In this paper, we implement an application by using fuzzy set theory to demonstrate how to detect cheaters. The advantage of our method is that the hardship in detecting fraudsters in small data samples has been avoided. We achieved this by giving each user a suspicious degree showing how likely the user is cheating and decide whether a group of users (like all users of a certain APP) together to be fraudsters according to the average suspicious degree. This makes the process more accurate as the data of a single user is too small to be predictable.

Keywords: Mobile internet, advertisement, anti-fraud, fuzzy set theory.

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1338 Analysis of the Ambient Media Approach of Advertisement Samples from the Adman Awards and Symposium under the Category of Outdoor and Ambience

Authors: Chanthana Poninthawong

Abstract:

This research is to study the types of products and services that employs 'ambient media and respective techniques in its advertisement materials. Data collection has been done via analyses of a total of 62 advertisements that employed ambient media approach in Thailand during the years 2004 to 2011. The 62 advertisement were qualifying advertisements of the Adman Awards & Symposium under the category of Outdoor & Ambience. Analysis results reveal that there is a total of 14 products and services that chooses to utilize ambient media in its advertisement. Amongst all ambient media techniques, 'intrusion' uses the value of a medium in its representation of content most often. Following intrusion is 'interaction', where consumers are invited to participate and interact with the advertising materials. 'Illusion' ranks third in its ability to subject the viewers to distortions of reality that makes the division between reality and fantasy less clear.

Keywords: Ambient media, Adman Awards, advertising, Out of Home media.

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1337 Joint Optimization of Pricing and Advertisement for Seasonal Branded Products

Authors: Mohammad Modarres, Shirin Aslani

Abstract:

The goal of this paper is to develop a model to integrate “pricing" and “advertisement" for short life cycle products, such as branded fashion clothing products. To achieve this goal, we apply the concept of “Dynamic Pricing". There are two classes of advertisements, for the brand (regardless of product) and for a particular product. Advertising the brand affects the demand and price of all the products. Thus, the model considers all these products in relation with each other. We develop two different methods to integrate both types of advertisement and pricing. The first model is developed within the framework of dynamic programming. However, due to the complexity of the model, this method cannot be applicable for large size problems. Therefore, we develop another method, called hieratical approach, which is capable of handling the real world problems. Finally, we show the accuracy of this method, both theoretically and also by simulation.

Keywords: Advertising, Dynamic programming, Dynamic pricing, Promotion.

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1336 Celebrity Endorsement: How It Works When a Celebrity Fits the Brand and Advertisement

Authors: Göksel Şimşek

Abstract:

Celebrities are admired, appreciated and imitated all over the world. As a natural result of this, today many brands choose to work with celebrities for their advertisements. It can be said that the more the brands include celebrities in their marketing communication strategies, the tougher the competition in this field becomes and they allocate a large portion of their marketing budget to this. Brands invest in celebrities who will represent them in order to build the image they want to create.

This study aimed to bring under spotlight the perceptions of Turkish customers regarding the use of celebrities in advertisements and marketing communication and try to understand their possible effects on subsequent purchasing decisions. In addition, consumers’ reactions and perceptions were investigated in the context of the product-celebrity match, to what extent the celebrity conforms to the concept of the advertisement and the celebrity-target audience match.

In  order  to  achieve  this  purpose, a  quantitative research  was conducted  as a case  study concerning  Mavi Jeans  (textile company). Information was obtained through survey. The results from this case study are supported by relevant theories concerning the main subject. The most valuable result would be that instead of creating an advertisement around a celebrity in demand at the time, using a celebrity that fits the concept of the advertisement and feeds the concept rather than replaces it, that is celebrity endorsement, will lead to more striking and positive results.

Keywords: Celebrity endorsement, product-celebrity match, advertising.

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1335 Differences in IT Effectiveness among Firms: An Empirical Investigation

Authors: Crystal X. Jiang, Tess Han, George J. Titus, Matthew J. Liberatore

Abstract:

Information is a critical asset and an important source for gaining competitive advantage in firms. The effective maintenance of IT becomes an important task. In order to better understand the determinants of IT effectiveness, this study employs the Industrial Organization (I/O) and Resource Based View (RBV) theories and investigates the industry effect and several major firmspecific factors in relation to their impact on firms- IT effectiveness. The data consist of a panel data of ten-year observations of firms whose IT excellence had been recognized by the CIO Magazine. The non-profit organizations were deliberately excluded, as explained later. The results showed that the effectiveness of IT management varied significantly across industries. Industry also moderated the effects of firm demographic factors such as size and age on IT effectiveness. Surprisingly, R & D investment intensity had negative correlation to IT effectiveness. For managers and practitioners, this study offers some insights for evaluation criteria and expectation for IT project success. Finally, the empirical results indicate that the sustainability of IT effectiveness appears to be short in duration.

Keywords: Firm effect, industry effect, IT effectiveness, sustained IT effectiveness.

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1334 Emotional Intelligence: The Relationship between Self-Regard and Communication Effectiveness

Authors: Hassan Jorfi, Saeid Jorfi, Hashim Fauzy Bin Yaccob, Ishak Mad Shah

Abstract:

In today's complex global environment, emotional intelligence in educational administrations encompasses self-regard that is formed to utilize communication effectiveness. The paper is undertaken to understand the relationship between managers- emotional intelligence especially self-regard and employees to improve communication effectiveness in educational administrations of Iran. Data (N = 145) for this study were collected through questionnaires that participants were managers and employees educational administrations of Iran. The aim of this paper assess the emotional intelligence especially self-regard of managers and employees and its relationship with communication effectiveness in educational administrations of Iran. This paper explained self-regard that has a high relationship with communication especially communication effectiveness. Self-regard plays an important role in communication effectiveness. Individuals with high self-regard tend to have higher emotional intelligence and this action lead to improve communication effectiveness. The result of the paper shows a strong correspondence between self-regard and communication effectiveness in educational administrations.

Keywords: Emotional intelligence, self-regard, communication effectiveness, motivation.

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1333 Employees’ Perception Analysis towards Leadership Effectiveness Competencies in Indian Manufacturing Industries

Authors: Sandhya, Rajbir Singh, Ramesh Kumar

Abstract:

The purpose of this research paper on the subject of Leadership Effectiveness attempts to conduct a focused amount of research to examine the employees’ perceptions pertaining to specific competencies of leadership effectiveness in Indian manufacturing industries and to correlate their perceptions between private sectors and public sector undertakings. It specifically looks at the current definitions of leadership and looks at some historical background information relating to the more common theories that relate to leadership and effectiveness. This research was conducted by using a variety of current books and periodical articles on the topic of leadership effectiveness and employees’ perceptions. A number of leadership effectiveness competencies have been identified. The demographic details and perception of the employees on importance of leadership effectiveness competencies have been obtained through a well designed online questionnaire. For this purpose, a likert scale of seven-point has been used. Descriptive and inferential statistics is used to analyze the gathered data.

Keywords: Employees Perception, Leadership Effectiveness, Leadership Competencies, Manufacturing.

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1332 Context-aware Recommender Systems using Data Mining Techniques

Authors: Kyoung-jae Kim, Hyunchul Ahn, Sangwon Jeong

Abstract:

This study proposes a novel recommender system to provide the advertisements of context-aware services. Our proposed model is designed to apply a modified collaborative filtering (CF) algorithm with regard to the several dimensions for the personalization of mobile devices – location, time and the user-s needs type. In particular, we employ a classification rule to understand user-s needs type using a decision tree algorithm. In addition, we collect primary data from the mobile phone users and apply them to the proposed model to validate its effectiveness. Experimental results show that the proposed system makes more accurate and satisfactory advertisements than comparative systems.

Keywords: Location-based advertisement, Recommender system, Collaborative filtering, User needs type, Mobile user.

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1331 The Use of Appeals in Green Printed Advertisements: A Case of Product Orientation and Organizational Image Orientation Ads

Authors: Chutima Ruanguttamanun

Abstract:

Despite the relatively large number of studies that have examined the use of appeals in advertisements, research on the use of appeals in green advertisements is still underdeveloped and needs to be investigated further, as it is definitely a tool for marketers to create illustrious ads. In this study, content analysis was employed to examine the nature of green advertising appeals and to match the appeals with the green advertisements. Two different types of green print advertisings, product orientation and organizational image orientation were used. Thirty highly educated participants with different backgrounds were asked individually to ascertain three appeals out of thirty-four given appeals found among forty real green advertisements. To analyze participant responses and to group them based on common appeals, two-step K-mean clustering is used. The clustering solution indicates that eye-catching graphics and imaginative appeals are highly notable in both types of green ads. Depressed, meaningful and sad appeals are found to be highly used in organizational image orientation ads, whereas, corporate image, informative and natural appeals are found to be essential for product orientation ads.

Keywords: Advertising appeals, green marketing, green advertisement, printed advertisement.

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1330 Measuring E-Learning Effectiveness Using a Three-Way Comparison

Authors: Matthew Montebello

Abstract:

The way e-learning effectiveness has been notoriously measured within an academic setting is by comparing the e-learning medium to the traditional face-to-face teaching methodology. In this paper, a simple yet innovative comparison methodology is introduced, whereby the effectiveness of next generation e-learning systems are assessed in contrast not only to the face-to-face mode, but also to the classical e-learning modality. Ethical and logistical issues are also discussed, as this three-way approach to compare teaching methodologies was applied and documented in a real empirical study within a higher education institution.

Keywords: E-learning effectiveness, higher education, teaching modality comparison.

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1329 Extensiveness and Effectiveness of Corporate Governance Regulations in South-Eastern Europe

Authors: Ana Bobirca, Paul-Gabriel Miclaus

Abstract:

The purpose of the article is to illustrate the main characteristics of the corporate governance challenge facing the countries of South-Eastern Europe (SEE) and to subsequently determine and assess the extensiveness and effectiveness of corporate governance regulations in these countries. Therefore, we start with an overview on the subject of the key problems of corporate governance in transition. We then address the issue of corporate governance measurement for SEE countries. To this end, we include a review of the methodological framework for determining both the extensiveness and the effectiveness of corporate governance legislation. We then focus on the actual analysis of the quality of corporate governance codes, as well as of legal institutions effectiveness and provide a measure of corporate governance in Romania and other SEE emerging markets. The paper concludes by emphasizing the corporate governance enforcement gap and by identifying research issues that require further study.

Keywords: corporate governance, effectiveness, extensiveness, South-Eastern Europe

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1328 Factors That Affect the Effectiveness of Enterprise Architecture Implementation Methodology

Authors: Babak Darvish Rouhani, Mohd Naz’ri Mahrin, Fatemeh Nikpay, Pourya Nikfard, Maryam Khanian Najafabadi

Abstract:

Enterprise Architecture (EA) is a strategy that is employed by enterprises in order to align their business and Information Technology (IT). EA is managed, developed, and maintained through Enterprise Architecture Implementation Methodology (EAIM). Effectiveness of EA implementation is the degree in which EA helps to achieve the collective goals of the organization. This paper analyzes the results of a survey that aims to explore the factors that affect the effectiveness of EAIM and specifically the relationship between factors and effectiveness of the output and functionality of EA project. The exploratory factor analysis highlights a specific set of five factors: alignment, adaptiveness, support, binding, and innovation. The regression analysis shows that there is a statistically significant and positive relationship between each of the five factors and the effectiveness of EAIM. Consistent with theory and practice, the most prominent factor for developing an effective EAIM is innovation. The findings contribute to the measuring the effectiveness of EA implementation project by providing an indication of the measurement implementation approaches which is used by the Enterprise Architects, and developing an effective EAIM.

Keywords: Enterprise Architecture, Enterprise Architecture Implementation Methodology, EA, Effectiveness, Factors, Implementation Methodology.

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1327 Mine Production Index (MPI): New Method to Evaluate Effectiveness of Mining Machinery

Authors: Amol Lanke, Hadi Hoseinie, Behzad Ghodrati

Abstract:

OEE has been used in many industries as measure of performance. However due to limitations of original OEE, it has been modified by various researchers. OEE for mining application is special version of classic equation, carries these limitation over. In this paper it has been aimed to modify the OEE for mining application by introducing the weights to the elements of it and termed as Mine Production index (MPi). As a special application of new index MPishovel has been developed by authors. This can be used for evaluating the shovel effectiveness. Based on analysis, utilization followed by performance and availability were ranked in this order. To check the applicability of this index, a case study was done on four electrical and one hydraulic shovel in a Swedish mine. The results shows that MPishovel can evaluate production effectiveness of shovels and can determine effectiveness values in optimistic view compared to OEE. MPi with calculation not only give the effectiveness but also can predict which elements should be focused for improving the productivity.

Keywords: Mining, Overall equipment efficiency (OEE), Mine Production index, Shovels.

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1326 How Learning Efficiency Affects Job Performance Effectiveness

Authors: Prateep Wajeetongratana

Abstract:

The purpose of this research was to study the influence of learning efficiency on local accountants’ job performance effectiveness. This paper drew upon the survey data collected from 335 local accountants survey conducted at Nakhon Ratchasima province, Thailand. The statistics utilized in this paper included percentage, mean, standard deviation, and regression analysis. The findings revealed that the majority of samples were between 31-40 years old, married, held an undergraduate degree, and had an average income between 10,000-15,000 baht. The majority of respondents had less than five years of accounting experience and worked for local administrations. The overall learning efficiency score was in the highest level while the local accountants’ job performance effectiveness score was also in the high level. The hypothesis testing’s result disclosed that learning efficiency factors which were knowledge, Skill, and Attitude had an influence on local accountants’ job the performance effectiveness.

Keywords: Accountants, Leaning Efficiency, Performance Effectiveness.

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1325 Viewers of Advertisements in Television and Cinema in the Shadow of Visuality

Authors: Mete Kazaz

Abstract:

Despite the internet, which is one of the mass media that has become quite common in recent years, the relationship of Advertisement with Television and Cinema, which have always drawn attention of researchers as basic media and where visual use is in the foreground, have also become the subject of various studies. Based on the assumption that the known fundamental effects of advertisements on consumers are closely related to the creative process of advertisements as well as the nature and characteristics of the medium where they are used, these basic mass media (Television and Cinema) and the consumer motivations of the advertisements they broadcast have become a focus of study. Given that the viewers of the mass media in question have shifted from a passive position to a more active one especially in recent years and approach contents of advertisements, as they do all contents, in a more critical and “pitiless" manner, it is possible to say that individuals make more use of advertisements than in the past and combine their individual goals with the goals of the advertisements. This study, which aims at finding out what the goals of these new individual advertisement use are, how they are shaped by the distinct characteristics of Television and Cinema, where visuality takes precedence as basic mass media, and what kind of places they occupy in the minds of consumers, has determined consumers- motivations as: “Entertainment", “Escapism", “Play", “Monitoring/Discovery", “Opposite Sex" and “Aspirations and Role Models". This study intends to reveal the differences or similarities among the needs and hence the gratifications of viewers who consume advertisements on Television or at the Cinema, which are two basic media where visuality is prioritized.

Keywords: Cinema, Television, Viewers of Advertisements.

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1324 Conversion in Chemical Reactors using Hollow Cylindrical Catalyst Pellet

Authors: Mohammad Asif

Abstract:

Heterogeneous catalysis is vital for a number of chemical, refinery and pollution control processes. The use of catalyst pellets of hollow cylindrical shape provide several distinct advantages over other common shapes, and can therefore help to enhance conversion levels in reactors. A better utilization of the catalytic material is probably most notable of these features due to the absence of the pellet core, which helps to significantly lower the effect of the internal transport resistance. This is reflected in the enhancement of the effectiveness factor. For the case of the first order irreversible kinetics, a substantial increase in the effectiveness factor can be obtained by varying shape parameters. Important shape parameters of a finite hollow cylinder are the ratio of the inside to the outside radii (κ) and the height to the diameter ratio (γ). A high value of κ the generally helps to enhance the effectiveness factor. On the other hand, lower values of the effectiveness factors are obtained when the dimension of the height and the diameter are comparable. Thus, the departure of parameter γ from the unity favors higher effectiveness factor. Since a higher effectiveness factor is a measure of a greater utilization of the catalytic material, higher conversion levels can be achieved using the hollow cylindrical pellets possessing optimized shape parameters.

Keywords: Finite hollow cylinder, Catalyst pellet, Effectiveness factor, Thiele Modulus, Conversion

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1323 Effectiveness of Business Software Systems Development and Enhancement Projects versus Work Effort Estimation Methods

Authors: Beata Czarnacka-Chrobot

Abstract:

Execution of Business Software Systems (BSS) Development and Enhancement Projects (D&EP) is characterized by the exceptionally low effectiveness, leading to considerable financial losses. The general reason for low effectiveness of such projects is that they are inappropriately managed. One of the factors of proper BSS D&EP management is suitable (reliable and objective) method of project work effort estimation since this is what determines correct estimation of its major attributes: project cost and duration. BSS D&EP is usually considered to be accomplished effectively if product of a planned functionality is delivered without cost and time overrun. The goal of this paper is to prove that choosing approach to the BSS D&EP work effort estimation has a considerable influence on the effectiveness of such projects execution.

Keywords: Business software systems, development and enhancement projects, effectiveness, work effort estimation methods, software product size, software product functionality, project duration, project cost.

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1322 Working Motivation Factors Affecting Job Performance Effectiveness

Authors: Supattra Kanchanopast

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper was to study motivation factors affecting job performance effectiveness. This paper drew upon data collected from an Internal Audit Staffs of Internal Audit Line of Head Office of Krung Thai Public Company Limited. Statistics used included frequency, percentage, mean and standard deviation, t-test, and one-way ANOVA test. The finding revealed that the majority of the respondents were female of 46 years of age and over, married and live together, hold a bachelor degree, with an average monthly income over 70,001 Baht. The majority of respondents had over 15 years of work experience. They generally had high working motivation as well as high job performance effectiveness. The hypotheses testing disclosed that employees with different working status had different level of job performance effectiveness at a 0.01 level of significance. Working motivation factors had an effect on job performance in the same direction with high level. Individual working motivation included working completion, reorganization, working progression, working characteristic, opportunity, responsibility, management policy, supervision, relationship with their superior, relationship with co-worker, working position, working stability, safety, privacy, working conditions, and payment. All of these factors related to job performance effectiveness in the same direction with medium level.

Keywords: Internal Audit Staffs, Job Performance Effectiveness, Working Motivation.

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1321 Job Satisfaction and Motivation as Predictors of Lecturers’ Effectiveness in Nigeria Police Academy

Authors: Abdulkareem Hussein Bibire

Abstract:

Job satisfaction and motivation have been given an important attention in psychology because they are seen as main instruments in maintaining organizational growth and development; they are also used to accomplish organizational aims and objectives. However, it has been observed that some institutions failed in motivating and stimulating their workers; in contrast, workers may be motivated but not satisfied with the job and failed to perform efficiently and effectively. It is hoped that the study of this nature would be of significance value to all stakeholders in education specifically, lecturers in higher institutions in Nigeria. Also, it is hoped that the findings of this study will enhance lecturers’ effectiveness and performance in discharging their duties. In the light of the above statements, this study investigated whether job satisfaction and motivation predict lecturers’ effectiveness in Nigeria Police Academy, Wudil, Kano State. Correlational research method was adopted for the study, while purposive sampling technique was used to choose the institution and the sampled lectures (70). Simple random sampling technique was used to select one hundred cadets across the academy. Two instruments were used to elicit information from both lecturers and cadets. These were job satisfaction and motivation; and lecturers’ effectiveness Questionnaires. The instruments were subjected to pilot testing and found to have reliability coefficient of 0.69 and 0.71 respectively. The results of the study revealed that there was a significance relationship among job satisfaction, motivation and lecturers effectiveness in Nigeria Police Academy. There was a significance relationship between job satisfaction and lecturers’ effectiveness in Nigeria Police Academy the cal r is 0.21 while the crt r is 0.19. at p<0.05 and; there was a significance relationship between job motivation and lecturers effectiveness in Nigeria Police Academy the cal r is 0.20 while the crt r is 0.19 at p<0.05This study therefore concluded that there was a significance relationship among job satisfaction, motivation and lecturers effectiveness in Nigeria Police Academy. Based on the data collected, collated and analyzed Recommendations were made for both the lecturers and the Academy management. It is also suggested that lecturers should be industrious in their primary assignment in other to make values to cadets lives and career. And management should also try to enhance lecturers performance by more motivational needs for the lecturers.

Keywords: Satisfaction, motivation, lecturer effectiveness, academy.

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1320 The Role and Effectiveness of Audit Committee in Corporate Governance of Credit Institutions

Authors: Tina Vuko, Marija Maretić, Marko Čular

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to analyze the role and effectiveness of internal mechanism (audit committee) of corporate governance on credit institutions performance in Croatia. Based on research objective, sample of 78 credit institutions listed on Zagreb Stock Exchange, from 2007 to 2012, has been collected and efficiency index of audit committee (EIAC) has been created. Based on the sample and created EIAC, conclusions are as follows: audit committees of credit institutions have medium efficiency, based on EIAC measurement; there is a significant difference in audit committee effectiveness, in observed period; there is no positive relationship between audit committee effectiveness and credit institution performance; there is a significant difference between level of audit committee effectiveness and audit firm type. Future research should contain increased number of elements in EIAC creation and increased sample, for all obligators who need to establish audit committee.

Keywords: Corporate Governance, Audit Committee, Financial Institutions, Efficiency Index of Audit Committee.

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1319 Effectiveness of Software Quality Assurance in Offshore Development Enterprises in Sri Lanka

Authors: Malinda G. Sirisena

Abstract:

The aim of this research is to evaluate the effectiveness of software quality assurance approaches of Sri Lankan offshore software development organizations, and to propose a framework which could be used across all offshore software development organizations.

An empirical study was conducted using derived framework from popular software quality evaluation models. The research instrument employed was a questionnaire survey among thirty seven Sri Lankan registered offshore software development organizations.

The findings demonstrate a positive view of Effectiveness of Software Quality Assurance – the stronger predictors of Stability, Installability, Correctness, Testability and Changeability. The present study’s recommendations indicate a need for much emphasis on software quality assurance for the Sri Lankan offshore software development organizations.

Keywords: Software Quality Assurance (SQA), Offshore Software Development, Quality Assurance Evaluation Models, Effectiveness of Quality Assurance.

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