Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 31482
Advertisement Effectiveness for Print Media: A Conceptual Model

Authors: Prateek Maheshwari, Nitin Seth, Anoop Kumar Gupta


The objective of present research paper is to highlight the importance of measuring advertisement effectiveness in print media and to develop a conceptual model for advertisement effectiveness. The developed model is based on dimensions on which advertisement effectiveness depends and on the dimensions which are used to measure the effectiveness. An in-depth and extensive literature review is carried out to understand the concept of advertisement effectiveness and its various determinants in context of print media. Based on the insights gained, a conceptual framework for advertisement effectiveness is presented. The model is an attempt to uncover the relatively less explored area of advertisement effectiveness in Indian advertising scenario. It is believed that present work will encourage scholars and academicians to further explore the area and will offer conceptual assistance and a fresh direction in the domain of advertisement effectiveness.

Keywords: Advertisement Effectiveness, Conceptual Model, Effectiveness Dimensions, Print Media.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 4857


[1] M.T. Bendixen, “Advertising Effects and Effectiveness”, European Journal of Marketing, Vol. 27, No. 10, 1993, pp. 19-32.
[2] S. Alshaali and U. Vars hney, “On the Usability of Mobile Commerce” International Journal of Mobile Communications, Vol. 3(1), 2005, pp. 29-37
[3] R. Jeffrey, “Missing from the Indian Newsroom,” in the Hindu, April 9, 2012.
[4] A. S. Raghunath, “5 Reasons Why Print Media Still Relevant in India” in, September 11, 2012.
[5] D. Starch, “Testing the Effectiveness of Advertisements”, Harvard Business Review, 2009, pp. 464-475.
[6] J.N. Sheth, “Measurement of Advertising Effectiveness: Some Theoretical Considerations”, Journal of Advertising, Vol. 3(1), 1974, pp. 6-11.
[7] G. Robert and H. Wallace, “Advertising Communication: TV vs. Print”, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 14, No. 5, 1974, pp. 19-32.
[8] C. Sherman and P. Quester, “The Influence of Product/Nudity Congruence on Advertising Effectiveness”, Journal of Promotion Management, Vol. 11, Issue 2/3, 2005, pp. 61-89.
[9] K. Fam and R. Grohs, “Cultural Values and Effective Executional Techniques in Advertising”, International Marketing Review, Vol. 24, No. 5, 2007, pp. 519-538.
[10] R. Palanisamy, “Impact of Gender Difference on Online Consumer Characteristics on Web Based Banner Advertising Effectiveness”, Journal of Services Research, Vol. 4, No. 2, 2005, pp. 45-74.
[11] Y. Jeong and K. Cynthia, “Impacts of Website Context Relevance on Banner Advertisement Effectiveness”, Journal of Promotion Management, Vol. 16, No. 3, 2010, pp. 247-264.
[12] A. Cholinski, “The Effectiveness of Product Placement: A Field Quasi Experiment”, International Journal of Marketing Studies, Vol. IV, No. 5, 2012 pp. 14-28.
[13] S. Yoo and J. Pena, “Do Violent Video Games Impair the Effectiveness of In-game Advertisements? The Impact of Gaming Environment on Brand Recall, Brand Attitude and Purchase Intention”, Cyber Psychology, Behavior and Social Networking, Vol. 14, No. 7-8, 2011, pp. 439-446.
[14] C. Norris and A. Colman, “Context Effects on Recall and Recognition of Magazine Advertisements”, Journal of Advertising, Vol. XXI, No. 3, 1992 pp. 38-46.
[15] P. Quester, “Antecedents of Anti-Smoking Advertisements’ Effectiveness: A Bi-Cultural Study”, Journal of International Consumer Marketing, Vol. 10, Issue 4, 1998, pp. 29-48.
[16] A. Wray and N. Hodges, "Response to Active wear Apparel Advertisements by US Baby Boomers: An Examination of Cognitive versus Chronological Age Factors", Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management, Vol. 12, No.1, 2008, pp. 8-23.
[17] Alpert et al., “The Impact of Repetition on Advertisement Miscomprehension and Effectiveness”, Journal of Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. 8, No. 2, 2001, pp. 130-135.
[18] B. Wu and S. Newell, “Evaluating the Impact of Advertising Characteristics on Recall during the Super Bowl: A Two Year Comparison”, The Marketing Management Journal, Vol. 13 (2), 2002, pp. 122-128.
[19] K. Newstead and J. Romaniuk, “The Relative Effectiveness of 15 and 3second Television Advertisements”, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 10, pp.68-77, 2009.
[20] B. Ranjbarian, A. Shaemi and S. Y. Jolodar, “Assessing the Effectiveness of Electric Conservation Advertisements in Isfahan Channel Television”, International Business Research, Vol. 4, No. 3, 2011, pp. 194-200.
[21] Newman et al., “Banner Advertisement and Website Congruity Effects on Consumer Website Perceptions”, Industrial Management and Data Systems, Vol. 104, No. 3, 2004, pp. 273-281.
[22] K. Lees and J. Healey, “A Test of the Effectiveness of a Mouse Pointer Image in Increasing Click Through for a Web Banner Advertisement”, Marketing Bulletin, Vol. 16, 2005 pp. 1-6.
[23] S. Lai-man and S. Wai-yee, “Predicting the Effectiveness of Product Placement: A Study on the Execution Strategy and Impacts on Hierarchy of Effects”, Oxford Business and Economics Proceedings, 2008, pp. 1- 25.
[24] C. Russel, “Investigating the Effectiveness of Product Placements in Television Shows: The Role of Modality and Plot Connection Congruence on Brand Memory and Attitude”, Journal of Consumer Research, Vol. 29, Issue 3, 2002, pp. 306-318.
[25] Gronhaug et al., “Factors Moderating Advertising Effectiveness as Reflected in 333 Tested Advertisements”, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 10, Issue 4, 1991, pp. 42-52.
[26] T. Patterson and P. Richards, “Newspaper Advertisement Characteristics and Consumer Preferences for Apples: A MIMIC Model Approach”, John Wiley and Sons, Vol. 16, No.2, 2000, pp. 159-177.
[27] Keshari et al., “Constituents of Advertising Effectiveness: A Study of Select Service Advertising”, Journal of Services Research, Volume 12, No.2, 2013, pp. 111-127.
[28] D. Silvera and B. Austad, “Factors Predicting the Effectiveness of Celebrity Endorsement Advertisements”, European Journal of Marketing, Vol.38, 11/12, 2004, pp. 1509-26.
[29] D. Hanssens and B. Weitz, “The Effectiveness of Industrial Print Advertisements across Product Categories”, Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. XVII, 1980, pp. 294-306.
[30] B. Loken and B. Pitney, “Effectiveness of Cigarettes Advertisements on Women: An Experimental Study”, Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol. 73, No. 3, 1988, pp. 378-382.
[31] J. Santana and A. Palacio, "Magazine Advertising: Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Celebrity Advertising”, Journal of Promotion Management, Vol. 19, No.2, 2013, pp. 139-166.
[32] Clow et al., “The Relationship of the Visual Element of an Advertisement to Service Quality Expectations and Source Credibility”, Journal of Services Marketing, Vol. 20, No. 6, 2006, pp. 404-411.
[33] Hudson et al., “Cross-national Standardization of Advertisements: A Study of the Effectiveness of TV Advertisements Targeted at Chinese Canadians in Canada”, International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 21, 2002, pp. 345-366.
[34] Wang et al., “Effectiveness of the ‘Made in China’ TV Advertisement”, Journal of Chinese Economic and Foreign Trade Studies, Vol. 6, No. 1, 2013, pp. 4-18.
[35] R. Manville, “How Much does an Industrial Logotype add to the Effectiveness of an Advertisement”, Journal of Marketing, Vol. 29, 1965, pp. 57-59.
[36] P. Maheshwari and N. Seth, “Advertisement Effectiveness: A Review and Research Agenda”, International Journal of Social, Management, Economics and Business Engineering, Vol. 9, No. 12, 2014.
[37] R.H. Kolbe and M.S. Burnett, “Content Analysis Research: An Examination of Applications with Directives for Improving Research Reliability and Objectivity”, Journal of Consumer Research, Vol. 23 (2), 1991, pp. 243-250.
[38] A.F. Hays and K. Krippendorff, “Answering the Call for a Standard Reliability Measure for Coding Data”, Communication Methods and Measures, Vol. 1 (1), 2007, pp. 77-89.
[39] P.J. Stone, D.C. Dunphy and A. Bernstein, “The Analysis of Product Image”, The General Inquirer, Cambridge, The MIT Press, 1966.
[40] U.G. Gupta and R.E. Clarke, "Theory and Applications of the Delphi Technique: A Bibliography (1975-1994)", Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Vol. 53 (2), 1996, pp. 185-211.
[41] Lunsford et al., "Marketing Business Services in Central Europe: The Challenge: A Report of Expert Opinion" Journal of Services Marketing, Vol. 7 (1), 1993, pp. 13-21.
[42] D. Olshfski and A. Joseph, “Assessing Training Needs of Executives Using the Delphi Technique”, Public Productivity and Management Review, Vol. 14 (3), 1991, pp. 297–301.
[43] C.W. Holsapple and K.D. Joshi, "An Investigation of Factors that Influence the Management of Knowledge in Organizations", The Journal of Strategic Information Systems, Vol. 9 (2), 2000, pp. 235-261.
[44] Neiderman et al., “Delphi Questionnaires versus Information Systems Management Issues for the 1990s. MIS Individual and Group Interviews: A Comparison Case, Tech Quarterly, Vol. 15 (4), 1990, pp. 474–500.
[45] E. Teijlingen, E. Pitchforth, C. Bishop and E. Russell, “Delphi Method and Nominal Group Techniques in Family Planning and Reproductive Health Research”, Journal of Family Planning and Health Care, Vol. 32 (4), 2006, pp. 249-252.
[46] Attri et al., “Interpretive Structural Modeling (ISM) Approach: An Overview”, Research Journal of Management Sciences, 2013, ISSN 2319, 1171.
[47] Ravi et al., “Productivity Improvement of Computer Hardware Supply Chain”, International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, Vol. 54 (4), 2005, pp. 239-255.
[48] W. Chin, “Issues and Opinion on Structural Equation Modeling”, MIS Quarterly, Vol. 22 (1), 1998, pp.23-37.
[49] D. Kaplan, “Structural Equation Modeling: Foundations and Extensions”, Sage Publications, Vol. 10, 2008.
[50] M.A. Keith, “Principles and Practice of Structural Equation Modeling”, Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, Vol. 19 (3), 2012, pp. 509-512.
[51] T.L. Saaty, “The Analytic Hierarchy Process”, McGraw-Hill, 1980, New York.
[52] F. Zahedi, “The Analytic Hierarchy Process – A Survey of the Method and its Applications”, Interfaces, Vol. 16 (4), 1986, pp. 96-108.
[53] L.G. Vargas, “An Overview of the Analytic Hierarchy Process and its Applications”, European Journal of Operational Research, Vol. 48 (1), 1990, pp. 2-8.