Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 68

Search results for: Adel Ragab

68 Cosastudio: A Software Architecture Modeling Tool

Authors: Adel Smeda, Adel Alti, Mourad Oussalah, Abdallah Boukerram

Abstract:

A key aspect of the design of any software system is its architecture. An architecture description provides a formal model of the architecture in terms of components and connectors and how they are composed together. COSA (Component-Object based Software Structures), is based on object-oriented modeling and component-based modeling. The model improves the reusability by increasing extensibility, evolvability, and compositionality of the software systems. This paper presents the COSA modelling tool which help architects the possibility to verify the structural coherence of a given system and to validate its semantics with COSA approach.

Keywords: Software Architecture, Architecture Description Languages, UML, Components, Connectors.

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67 Alleviation of Adverse Effects of Salt Stress on Soybean (Glycine max. L.) by Using Osmoprotectants and Organic Nutrients

Authors: Ayman El Sabagh, Sobhy Sorour, Abd Elhamid Omar, Adel Ragab, Mohammad Sohidul Islam, Celaleddin Barutçular, Akihiro Ueda, Hirofumi Saneoka

Abstract:

Salinity is one of the major factors limiting crop production in an arid environment. Despite its global importance soybean production suffer the problems of salinity stress causing damages at plant development. So it is implacable to either search for salinity enhancement of soybean plants. Therefore, in the current study we try to clarify the mechanism that might be involved in the ameliorating effects of osmo-protectants such as proline and glycine betaine as well as, compost application on soybean plants grown under salinity stress. The experiment was conducted under greenhouse conditions at the Graduate School of Biosphere Science Laboratory of Hiroshima University, Japan in 2011. The experiment was designed as a spilt-split plot based on randomized complete block design with four replications. The treatments could be summarized as follows; (i) salinity concentrations (0 and 15 mM), (ii) compost treatments (0 and 24 t ha-1) and (iii) the exogenous, proline and glycine betaine concentrations (0 mM and 25 mM) for each. Results indicated that salinity stress induced reduction in growth and physiological aspects (dry weight per plant, chlorophyll content, N and K+ content) of soybean plant compared with those of the unstressed plants. On the other hand, salinity stress led to increases in the electrolyte leakage ratio, Na and proline contents. Special attention was paid to, the tolerance against salt stress was observed, the improvement of salt tolerance resulted from proline, glycine betaine and compost were accompanied with improved K+, and proline accumulation. While, significantly decreased electrolyte leakage ratio and Na+ content. These results clearly demonstrate that harmful effect of salinity could reduce on growth aspects of soybean. Consequently, exogenous osmoprotectants combine with compost will effectively solve seasonal salinity stress problem and are a good strategy to increase salinity resistance of soybean in the drylands.

Keywords: Compost, glycine betaine, growth, proline, salinity tolerance, soybean.

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66 Utilization and Characterizations of Olive Oil Industry By-Products

Authors: Sawsan Dacrory, Hussein Abou-Yousef, Samir Kamel, Ragab E. Abou-Zeid, Mohamed S. Abdel-Aziz, Mohamed Elbadry

Abstract:

A considerable amount of lignocellulosic by-product could be obtained from olive pulp during olive oil extraction industry. The major constituents of the olive pulp are husks and seeds. The separation of each portion of olive pulp (seeds and husks) was carried out by water flotation where seeds were sediment in the bottom. Both seeds and husks were dignified by 15% NaOH followed by complete lignin removal by using sodium chlorite in acidic medium. The isolated holocellulose, α-cellulose, hydrogel and CMC of both seeds and husk fractions were characterized by FTIR and SEM. The present study focused on the investigation of the chemical components of the lignocellulosic fraction of olive pulp and using them in medical application. Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) is produced and applied in the preparation of antimicrobial hydrogel.

Keywords: Carboxymethyl cellulose, cellulose, hydrogel olive pulp.

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65 A Linear Relation for Voltage Unbalance Factor Evaluation in Three-Phase Electrical Power System Using Space Vector

Authors: Dana M. Ragab, Jasim A Ghaeb

Abstract:

The Voltage Unbalance Factor (VUF) index is recommended to evaluate system performance under unbalanced operation. However, its calculation requires complex algebra which limits its use in the field. Furthermore, one system cycle is required at least to detect unbalance using the VUF. Ideally unbalance mitigation must be performed within 10 ms for 50 Hz systems. In this work, a linear relation for VUF evaluation in three-phase electrical power system using space vector (SV) is derived. It is proposed to determine the voltage unbalance quickly and accurately and to overcome the constraints associated with the traditional methods of VUF evaluation. Aqaba-Qatrana-South Amman (AQSA) power system is considered to study the system performance under unbalanced conditions. The results show that both the complexity of calculations and the time required to evaluate VUF are reduced significantly.

Keywords: Power quality, space vector, unbalance evaluation.

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64 Utilization and Characterizations of Olive Oil Industry By-Products

Authors: Sawsan Dacrory, Hussein Abou-Yousef, Samir Kamel, Ragab E. Abou-Zeid, Mohamed S. Abdel-Aziz, Mohamed Elbadry

Abstract:

A considerable amount of lignocellulosic by-product could be obtained from olive pulp during olive oil extraction industry. The major constituents of the olive pulp are husks and seeds. The separation of each portion of olive pulp (seeds and husks) was carried out by water flotation where seeds were sediment in the bottom. Both seeds and husks were dignified by 15% NaOH followed by complete lignin removal by using sodium chlorite in acidic medium. The isolated holocellulose, α-cellulose, hydrogel and CMC which prepared from cellulose of both seeds and husk fractions were characterized by FTIR and SEM. The present study focused on the investigation of the chemical components of the lignocellulosic fraction of olive pulp. Biofunctionlization of hydrogel was achieved through loading of silver nanoparticles AgNPs in to the prepared hydrogel. The antimicrobial activity of the loaded silver hydrogel against G-ve, and G+ve, and candida was demonstrated.

Keywords: Antimicrobial hydrogel, carboxymethyl cellulose, cellulose, grafting, olive pulp.

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63 Investigation of a Transition from Steady Convection to Chaos in Porous Media Using Piecewise Variational Iteration Method

Authors: Mohamed M. Mousa, Aidarkhan Kaltayev Shahwar F. Ragab

Abstract:

In this paper, a new dependable algorithm based on an adaptation of the standard variational iteration method (VIM) is used for analyzing the transition from steady convection to chaos for lowto-intermediate Rayleigh numbers convection in porous media. The solution trajectories show the transition from steady convection to chaos that occurs at a slightly subcritical value of Rayleigh number, the critical value being associated with the loss of linear stability of the steady convection solution. The VIM is treated as an algorithm in a sequence of intervals for finding accurate approximate solutions to the considered model and other dynamical systems. We shall call this technique as the piecewise VIM. Numerical comparisons between the piecewise VIM and the classical fourth-order Runge–Kutta (RK4) numerical solutions reveal that the proposed technique is a promising tool for the nonlinear chaotic and nonchaotic systems.

Keywords: Variational iteration method, free convection, Chaos, Lorenz equations.

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62 Some Biochemical Changes Followed Experimental Gastric Ulceration

Authors: A. H. El-Far, R. R. Gindi, H. A. Abd El-Maksoud, Mohamed Ragaa Ragab Hassanien

Abstract:

Gastric ulceration is a discontinuity in gastric mucosa, usually occurs due to imbalance between the gastric mucosal protective factors, that is called gastric mucosal barrier, and the aggressive factors, to which the mucosa is exposed. This study was carried out on sixty male Sprague-Dowely rats (12- 16 weeks old) allocated into two groups. The first control group and the second Gastric lesion group which induced by oral administration of a single daily dose of aspirin at a dose of 300 mg/kg body weight for 7 consecutive-days (6% aspirin solution will be prepared and each rat will be given 5 ml of that solution/kg body weight). Blood is collected 1, 2 and 3 weeks after induction of gastric ulceration. Significant increase in serum copper, nitric oxide, and prostaglandin E2 all over the period of experiment. Significant decrease in erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (t-SOD) activities, serum (calcium, phosphorus, glucose and insulin) levels. Non-significant changes in serum sodium and potassium levels are obtained.

Keywords: Aspirin, Gastric Ulcer, Prostaglandin E2, Superoxide dismutase

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61 Saudi Twitter Corpus for Sentiment Analysis

Authors: Adel Assiri, Ahmed Emam, Hmood Al-Dossari

Abstract:

Sentiment analysis (SA) has received growing attention in Arabic language research. However, few studies have yet to directly apply SA to Arabic due to lack of a publicly available dataset for this language. This paper partially bridges this gap due to its focus on one of the Arabic dialects which is the Saudi dialect. This paper presents annotated data set of 4700 for Saudi dialect sentiment analysis with (K= 0.807). Our next work is to extend this corpus and creation a large-scale lexicon for Saudi dialect from the corpus.

Keywords: Arabic, Sentiment Analysis, Twitter, annotation.

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60 Peak-to-Average Power Ratio Reduction in OFDM Systems using Huffman Coding

Authors: Ashraf A. Eltholth, Adel R. Mikhail, A. Elshirbini, Moawad I. Moawad, A. I. Abdelfattah

Abstract:

In this paper we proposed the use of Huffman coding to reduce the PAR of an OFDM system as a distortionless scrambling technique, and we utilize the amount saved in the total bit rate by the Huffman coding to send the encoding table for accurate decoding at the receiver without reducing the effective throughput. We found that the use of Huffman coding reduces the PAR by about 6 dB. Also we have investigated the effect of PAR reduction due to Huffman coding through testing the spectral spreading and the inband distortion due to HPA with different IBO values. We found a complete match of our expectation from the proposed solution with the obtained simulation results.

Keywords: HPA, Huffman coding, OFDM, PAR

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59 Centralized Controller for Microgrid

Authors: Adel Hamad Rafa

Abstract:

This paper, proposes a control system for use with microgrid consiste of  multiple small scale embedded generation networks (SSEG networks) connected to the 33kV distribution network. The proposed controller controls power flow in the grid-connected mode of operation, enables voltage and frequency control when the SSEG networks are islanded, and resynchronises the SSEG networks with the utility before reconnecting them. The performance of the proposed controller has been tested in simulations using PSCAD.

Keywords: Microgrid, Small scale embedded generation, island mode, resynchronisation.

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58 Effectiveness of Crystallization Coating Materials on Chloride Ions Ingress in Concrete

Authors: Mona Elsalamawy, Ashraf Ragab Mohamed, Abdellatif Elsayed Abosen

Abstract:

This paper aims to evaluate the effectiveness of different crystalline coating materials concerning of chloride ions penetration. The concrete ages at the coating installation and its moisture conditions were addressed; where, these two factors may play a dominant role for the effectiveness of the used materials. Rapid chloride ions penetration test (RCPT) was conducted at different ages and moisture conditions according to the relevant standard. In addition, the contaminated area and the penetration depth of the chloride ions were investigated immediately after the RCPT test using chemical identifier, 0.1 M silver nitrate AgNO3 solution. Results have shown that, the very low chloride ions penetrability, for the studied crystallization materials, were investigated only with the old age concrete (G1). The significant reduction in chloride ions’ penetrability was illustrated after 7 days of installing the crystalline coating layers. Using imageJ is more reliable to describe the contaminated area of chloride ions, where the distribution of aggregate and heterogeneous of cement mortar was considered in the images analysis.

Keywords: Chloride permeability, contaminated area, crystalline waterproofing materials, RCPT, XRD.

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57 Floating-Point Scaling for BSS Gain Control

Authors: Abdelmalek Fermas, Adel Belouchrani, Otmane Ait Mohamed

Abstract:

In Blind Source Separation (BSS) processing, taking advantage of scaling factor indetermination and based on the floatingpoint representation, we propose a scaling technique applied to the separation matrix, to avoid the saturation or the weakness in the recovered source signals. This technique performs an Automatic Gain Control (AGC) in an on-line BSS environment. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this technique by using the implementation of a division free BSS algorithm with two input, two output. This technique is computationally cheaper and efficient for a hardware implementation.

Keywords: Automatic Gain Control, Blind Source Separation, Floating-Point Representation, FPGA Implementation.

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56 Moving Vehicles Detection Using Automatic Background Extraction

Authors: Saad M. Al-Garni, Adel A. Abdennour

Abstract:

Vehicle detection is the critical step for highway monitoring. In this paper we propose background subtraction and edge detection technique for vehicle detection. This technique uses the advantages of both approaches. The practical applications approved the effectiveness of this method. This method consists of two procedures: First, automatic background extraction procedure, in which the background is extracted automatically from the successive frames; Second vehicles detection procedure, which depend on edge detection and background subtraction. Experimental results show the effective application of this algorithm. Vehicles detection rate was higher than 91%.

Keywords: Image processing, Automatic background extraction, Moving vehicle detection.

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55 Approaches and Schemes for Storing DTDIndependent XML Data in Relational Databases

Authors: Mehdi Emadi, Masoud Rahgozar, Adel Ardalan, Alireza Kazerani, Mohammad Mahdi Ariyan

Abstract:

The volume of XML data exchange is explosively increasing, and the need for efficient mechanisms of XML data management is vital. Many XML storage models have been proposed for storing XML DTD-independent documents in relational database systems. Benchmarking is the best way to highlight pros and cons of different approaches. In this study, we use a common benchmarking scheme, known as XMark to compare the most cited and newly proposed DTD-independent methods in terms of logical reads, physical I/O, CPU time and duration. We show the effect of Label Path, extracting values and storing in another table and type of join needed for each method-s query answering.

Keywords: XML Data Management, XPath, DTD-Independent XML Data.

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54 Approaches and Schemes for Storing DTD-Independent XML Data in Relational Databases

Authors: Mehdi Emadi, Masoud Rahgozar, Adel Ardalan, Alireza Kazerani, Mohammad Mahdi Ariyan

Abstract:

The volume of XML data exchange is explosively increasing, and the need for efficient mechanisms of XML data management is vital. Many XML storage models have been proposed for storing XML DTD-independent documents in relational database systems. Benchmarking is the best way to highlight pros and cons of different approaches. In this study, we use a common benchmarking scheme, known as XMark to compare the most cited and newly proposed DTD-independent methods in terms of logical reads, physical I/O, CPU time and duration. We show the effect of Label Path, extracting values and storing in another table and type of join needed for each method's query answering.

Keywords: XML Data Management, XPath, DTD-IndependentXML Data

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53 Analytical Estimation of Rotor Loss Due to Stator Slotting of Synchronous PM Machines

Authors: Adel Bettayeb, Robert Kaczmarek, Jean-Claude Vannier

Abstract:

In this paper, we analyze the rotor eddy currents losses provoqued by the stator slot harmonics developed in the permanent magnets or pole pieces of synchronous machines. An analytical approach is presented to evaluate the effect of slot ripples on rotor field and losses calculation. This analysis is then tested on a model by 2D/3D finite element (FE) calculation. The results show a good agreement on loss calculations when skin effect is negligible and the magnet is considered.

Keywords: Analytical modeling, Eddy-currents, Finite-elementmethods, Power losses, Slot harmonics effect.

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52 Urban Areas Management in Developing Countries: Analysis of the Urban Areas Crossed with Risk of Storm Water Drains, Aswan-Egypt

Authors: Omar Hamdy, Schichen Zhao, Hussein Abd El-Atty, Ayman Ragab, Muhammad Salem

Abstract:

One of the most risky areas in Aswan is Abouelreesh, which is suffering from flood disasters, as heavy deluge inundates urban areas causing considerable damage to buildings and infrastructure. Moreover, the main problem was the urban sprawl towards this risky area. This paper aims to identify the urban areas located in the risk areas prone to flash floods. Analyzing this phenomenon needs a lot of data to ensure satisfactory results; however, in this case the official data and field data were limited, and therefore, free sources of satellite data were used. This paper used ArcGIS tools to obtain the storm water drains network by analyzing DEM files. Additionally, historical imagery in Google Earth was studied to determine the age of each building. The last step was to overlay the urban area layer and the storm water drains layer to identify the vulnerable areas. The results of this study would be helpful to urban planners and government officials to make the disasters risk estimation and develop primary plans to recover the risky area, especially urban areas located in torrents.

Keywords: Risk area, DEM, storm water drains, GIS.

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51 Experimental Study of Eccentrically Loaded Columns Strengthened Using a Steel Jacketing Technique

Authors: Mohamed K. Elsamny, Adel A. Hussein, Amr M. Nafie, Mohamed K. Abd-Elhamed

Abstract:

An experimental study of Reinforced Concrete, RC, columns strengthened using a steel jacketing technique was conducted. The jacketing technique consisted of four steel vertical angles installed at the corners of the column joined by horizontal steel straps confining the column externally. The effectiveness of the technique was evaluated by testing the RC column specimens under eccentric monotonic loading until failure occurred. Strain gauges were installed to monitor the strains in the internal reinforcement as well as the external jacketing system. The effectiveness of the jacketing technique was demonstrated, and the parameters affecting the technique were studied.

Keywords: Reinforced Concrete Columns, Steel Jacketing, Strengthening, Eccentric Load.

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50 Synthesis of Wavelet Filters using Wavelet Neural Networks

Authors: Wajdi Bellil, Chokri Ben Amar, Adel M. Alimi

Abstract:

An application of Beta wavelet networks to synthesize pass-high and pass-low wavelet filters is investigated in this work. A Beta wavelet network is constructed using a parametric function called Beta function in order to resolve some nonlinear approximation problem. We combine the filter design theory with wavelet network approximation to synthesize perfect filter reconstruction. The order filter is given by the number of neurons in the hidden layer of the neural network. In this paper we use only the first derivative of Beta function to illustrate the proposed design procedures and exhibit its performance.

Keywords: Beta wavelets, Wavenet, multiresolution analysis, perfect filter reconstruction, salient point detect, repeatability.

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49 A Neural Network Control for Voltage Balancing in Three-Phase Electric Power System

Authors: Dana M. Ragab, Jasim A. Ghaeb

Abstract:

The three-phase power system suffers from different challenging problems, e.g. voltage unbalance conditions at the load side. The voltage unbalance usually degrades the power quality of the electric power system. Several techniques can be considered for load balancing including load reconfiguration, static synchronous compensator and static reactive power compensator. In this work an efficient neural network is designed to control the unbalanced condition in the Aqaba-Qatrana-South Amman (AQSA) electric power system. It is designed for highly enhanced response time of the reactive compensator for voltage balancing. The neural network is developed to determine the appropriate set of firing angles required for the thyristor-controlled reactor to balance the three load voltages accurately and quickly. The parameters of AQSA power system are considered in the laboratory model, and several test cases have been conducted to test and validate the proposed technique capabilities. The results have shown a high performance of the proposed Neural Network Control (NNC) technique for correcting the voltage unbalance conditions at three-phase load based on accuracy and response time.

Keywords: Three-phase power system, reactive power control, voltage unbalance factor, neural network, power quality.

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48 Tuning of PV Array Layout Configurations for Maximum Power Delivery

Authors: Hadj Bourdoucen, Adel Gastli

Abstract:

In this paper, an approach for finding optimized layouts for connecting PV units delivering maximum array output power is suggested. The approach is based on considering the different varying parameters of PV units that might be extracted from a general two-diode model. These are mainly, solar irradiation, reverse saturation currents, ideality factors, series and shunt resistances in addition to operating temperature. The approach has been tested on 19 possible 2×3 configurations and allowed to determine the optimized configurations as well as examine the effects of the different units- parameters on the maximum output power. Thus, using this approach, standard arrays with n×m units can be configured for maximum generated power and allows designing PV based systems having reduced surfaces to fit specific required power, as it is the case for solar cars and other mobile systems.

Keywords: Photovoltaic, PV unit, optimum configuration, maximum power, Orcad.

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47 Comparison between Beta Wavelets Neural Networks, RBF Neural Networks and Polynomial Approximation for 1D, 2DFunctions Approximation

Authors: Wajdi Bellil, Chokri Ben Amar, Adel M. Alimi

Abstract:

This paper proposes a comparison between wavelet neural networks (WNN), RBF neural network and polynomial approximation in term of 1-D and 2-D functions approximation. We present a novel wavelet neural network, based on Beta wavelets, for 1-D and 2-D functions approximation. Our purpose is to approximate an unknown function f: Rn - R from scattered samples (xi; y = f(xi)) i=1....n, where first, we have little a priori knowledge on the unknown function f: it lives in some infinite dimensional smooth function space and second the function approximation process is performed iteratively: each new measure on the function (xi; f(xi)) is used to compute a new estimate f as an approximation of the function f. Simulation results are demonstrated to validate the generalization ability and efficiency of the proposed Beta wavelet network.

Keywords: Beta wavelets networks, RBF neural network, training algorithms, MSE, 1-D, 2D function approximation.

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46 A Hybrid Heuristic for the Team Orienteering Problem

Authors: Adel Bouchakhchoukha, Hakim Akeb

Abstract:

In this work, we propose a hybrid heuristic in order to solve the Team Orienteering Problem (TOP). Given a set of points (or customers), each with associated score (profit or benefit), and a team that has a fixed number of members, the problem to solve is to visit a subset of points in order to maximize the total collected score. Each member performs a tour starting at the start point, visiting distinct customers and the tour terminates at the arrival point. In addition, each point is visited at most once, and the total time in each tour cannot be greater than a given value. The proposed heuristic combines beam search and a local optimization strategy. The algorithm was tested on several sets of instances and encouraging results were obtained.

Keywords: Team Orienteering Problem, Vehicle Routing, Beam Search, Local Search.

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45 Study Punching Shear of Steel Fiber Reinforced Self Compacting Concrete Slabs by Nonlinear Analysis

Authors: Khaled S. Ragab

Abstract:

This paper deals with behavior and capacity of punching shear force for flat slabs produced from steel fiber reinforced self compacting concrete (SFRSCC) by application nonlinear finite element method. Nonlinear finite element analysis on nine slab specimens was achieved by using ANSYS software. A general description of the finite element method, theoretical modeling of concrete and reinforcement are presented. The nonlinear finite element analysis program ANSYS is utilized owing to its capabilities to predict either the response of reinforced concrete slabs in the post elastic range or the ultimate strength of a flat slabs produced from steel fiber reinforced self compacting concrete (SFRSCC). In order to verify the analytical model used in this research using test results of the experimental data, the finite element analysis were performed then a parametric study of the effect ratio of flexural reinforcement, ratio of the upper reinforcement, and volume fraction of steel fibers were investigated. A comparison between the experimental results and those predicted by the existing models are presented. Results and conclusions may be useful for designers, have been raised, and represented.

Keywords: Nonlinear FEM, Punching shear behavior, Flat slabs and Steel fiber reinforced self compacting concrete (SFRSCC).

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44 Seismic Behavior and Capacity/Demand Analyses of a Simply-Supported Multi-Span Precast Bridge

Authors: Nasim Shatarat, Adel Assaf

Abstract:

This paper presents the results of an analytical study on the seismic response of a Multi-Span-Simply-Supported precast bridge in Washington State. The bridge was built in the early 1960's along Interstate 5 and was widened the first time in 1979 and the second time in 2001. The primary objective of this research project is to determine the seismic vulnerability of the bridge in order to develop the required retrofit measure. The seismic vulnerability of the bridge is evaluated using two seismic evaluation methods presented in the FHWA Seismic Retrofitting Manual for Highway Bridges, Method C and Method D2. The results of the seismic analyses demonstrate that Method C and Method D2 vary markedly in terms of the information they provide to the bridge designer regarding the vulnerability of the bridge columns.

Keywords: Bridges, Capacity, Demand, Seismic, Static pushover, Retrofit.

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43 MMSE Based Beamforming for Chip Interleaved CDMA in Aeronautical Mobile Radio Channel

Authors: Sherif K. El Dyasti, Esam A. Hagras, Adel E. El-Hennawy

Abstract:

This paper addresses the performance of antenna array beamforming on Chip-Interleaved Code Division Multiple Access (CI_CDMA) system based on Minimum Mean Square Error (MMSE) detector in aeronautical mobile radio channel. Multipath fading, Doppler shifts caused by the speed of the aircraft, and Multiple Access Interference (MAI) are the most important reasons that affect and reduce the performance of aeronautical system. In this paper we suggested the CI-CDMA with antenna array to combat this fading and improve the bit error rate (BER) performance. We further evaluate the performance of the proposed system in the four standard scenarios in aeronautical mobile radio channel.

Keywords: Aeronautical Channel, CI-CDMA, Beamforming.

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42 Comparing Spontaneous Hydrolysis Rates of Activated Models of DNA and RNA

Authors: Mohamed S. Sasi, Adel M. Mlitan, Abdulfattah M. Alkherraz

Abstract:

This research project aims to investigate difference in relative rates concerning phosphoryl transfer relevant to biological catalysis of DNA and RNA in the pH-independent reactions. Activated Models of DNA and RNA for alkyl-aryl phosphate diesters (with 4-nitrophenyl as a good leaving group) have successfully been prepared to gather kinetic parameters. Eyring plots for the pH– independent hydrolysis of 1 and 2 were established at different temperatures in the range 100–160 °C. These measurements have been used to provide a better estimate for the difference in relative rates between the reactivity of DNA and RNA cleavage. Eyring plot gave an extrapolated rate of kH2O = 1 × 10-10 s -1 for 1 (RNA model) and 2 (DNA model) at 25°C. Comparing the reactivity of RNA model and DNA model shows that the difference in relative rates in the pH-independent reactions is surprisingly very similar at 25°. This allows us to obtain chemical insights into how biological catalysts such as enzymes may have evolved to perform their current functions.

Keywords: DNA & RNA Models, Relative Rates, Reactivity.

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41 A New Tool for Global Optimization Problems- Cuttlefish Algorithm

Authors: Adel Sabry Eesa, Adnan Mohsin Abdulazeez Brifcani, Zeynep Orman

Abstract:

This paper presents a new meta-heuristic bio-inspired optimization algorithm which is called Cuttlefish Algorithm (CFA). The algorithm mimics the mechanism of color changing behavior of the cuttlefish to solve numerical global optimization problems. The colors and patterns of the cuttlefish are produced by reflected light from three different layers of cells. The proposed algorithm considers mainly two processes: reflection and visibility. Reflection process simulates light reflection mechanism used by these layers, while visibility process simulates visibility of matching patterns of the cuttlefish. To show the effectiveness of the algorithm, it is tested with some other popular bio-inspired optimization algorithms such as Genetic Algorithms (GA), Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) and Bees Algorithm (BA) that have been previously proposed in the literature. Simulations and obtained results indicate that the proposed CFA is superior when compared with these algorithms.

Keywords: Cuttlefish Algorithm, bio-inspired algorithms, optimization.

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40 A Model for Application of Knowledge Management in Public Organizations in Iran

Authors: Salavati, Adel, Ebadi Shaghayegh

Abstract:

This study examines knowledge management in the public organizations in Iran. The purpose of this article is to provide a conceptual framework for application of knowledge management in public organizations. The study indicates that an increasing tendency for implementation of knowledge management in organizations is emerging. Nonetheless knowledge management in public organizations is toddler and little has been done to bring the subject to use in the public sector. The globalization of change and popularization of some values like participation, citizen-orientation and knowledge-orientation in the new theories of public administration requires that the knowledge management is considered and attend to in the public sector. This study holds that a knowledge management framework for public organizations is different from this in the public sector, because public sector is stakeholder-dependent while the private is shareholder-dependent. Based on the research, we provide a conceptual model. The model proposed involves three factors: Organizational, knowledge citizens and contextual factors. The study results indicate these factors affect on knowledge management in public organizations in Iran.

Keywords: Knowledge management, public organizations in Iran, model of knowledge management.

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39 Compact Ultra-Wideband Printed Monopole Antenna with Inverted L-Shaped Slots for Data Communication and RF Energy Harvesting

Authors: Mohamed Adel Sennouni, Jamal Zbitou, Benaissa Abboud, Abdelwahed Tribak, Hamid Bennis, Mohamed Latrach

Abstract:

A compact UWB planar antenna fed with a microstrip-line is proposed. The new design consist of a rectangular patch with symmetric l-shaped slots and fed by 50 Ω microstrip transmission line and a reduced ground-plane which have a periodic slots with an overall size of 47 mm x 20 mm. It is intended to be used in wireless applications that cover the ultra-wideband (UWB) frequency band. A wider impedance bandwidth of around 116.5% (1.875 – 7.115 GHz) with stable radiation pattern is achieved. The proposed antenna has excellent characteristics, low profile and costeffective compared to existing UWB antennas. The UWB antenna is designed and analyzed using CST Microwave Studio in transient mode to verify antenna parameters improvements.

Keywords: UWB Planar Antenna, L-shaped Slots, Wireless Applications, impedance band-width, radiation pattern, CST Microwave Studio.

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