Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 910

Search results for: Series Capacitor (SC)

910 High-Resolution 12-Bit Segmented Capacitor DAC in Successive Approximation ADC

Authors: Wee Leong Son, Hasmayadi Abdul Majid, Rohana Musa

Abstract:

This paper study the segmented split capacitor Digital-to-Analog Converter (DAC) implemented in a differentialtype 12-bit Successive Approximation Analog-to-Digital Converter (SA-ADC). The series capacitance split array method employed as it reduced the total area of the capacitors required for high resolution DACs. A 12-bit regular binary array structure requires 2049 unit capacitors (Cs) while the split array needs 127 unit Cs. These results in the reduction of the total capacitance and power consumption of the series split array architectures as to regular binary-weighted structures. The paper will show the 12-bit DAC series split capacitor with 4-bit thermometer coded DAC architectures as well as the simulation and measured results.

Keywords: Successive Approximation Register Analog-to- Digital Converter, SAR ADC, Low voltage ADC.

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909 Fault Zone Detection on Advanced Series Compensated Transmission Line using Discrete Wavelet Transform and SVM

Authors: Renju Gangadharan, G. N. Pillai, Indra Gupta

Abstract:

In this paper a novel method for finding the fault zone on a Thyristor Controlled Series Capacitor (TCSC) incorporated transmission line is presented. The method makes use of the Support Vector Machine (SVM), used in the classification mode to distinguish between the zones, before or after the TCSC. The use of Discrete Wavelet Transform is made to prepare the features which would be given as the input to the SVM. This method was tested on a 400 kV, 50 Hz, 300 Km transmission line and the results were highly accurate.

Keywords: Flexible ac transmission system (FACTS), thyristorcontrolled series-capacitor (TCSC), discrete wavelet transforms(DWT), support vector machine (SVM).

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908 Simulation of Series Compensated Transmission Lines Protected with Mov

Authors: Abdolamir Nekoubin

Abstract:

In this paper the behavior of fixed series compensated extra high voltage transmission lines during faults is simulated. Many over-voltage protection schemes for series capacitors are limited in terms of size and performance, and are easily affected by environmental conditions. While the need for more compact and environmentally robust equipment is required. use of series capacitors for compensating part of the inductive reactance of long transmission lines increases the power transmission capacity. Emphasis is given on the impact of modern capacitor protection techniques (MOV protection). The simulation study is performed using MATLAB/SIMULINK®and results are given for a three phase and a single phase to ground fault.

Keywords: Series compensation, MOV - protected series capacitors, balanced and unbalanced faults

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907 The Influence of Electrode Heating On the Force Generated On a High Voltage Capacitor with Asymmetrical Electrodes

Authors: Jiří Primas, Michal Malík, Darina Jašíková, Václav Kopecký

Abstract:

When a high DC voltage is applied to a capacitor with strongly asymmetrical electrodes, it generates a mechanical force that affects the whole capacitor. This is caused by the motion of ions generated around the smaller of the two electrodes and their subsequent interaction with the surrounding medium. If one of the electrodes is heated, it changes the conditions around the capacitor and influences the process of ionisation, thus changing the value of the generated force. This paper describes these changes and gives reasons behind them. Further the experimental results are given as proof of the ionic mechanism of the phenomenon.

Keywords: Capacitor with asymmetrical electrodes, Generated force, Heated electrode, High voltage.

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906 Optimal Capacitor Placement in Distribution Feeders

Authors: N. Rugthaicharoencheep, S. Auchariyamet

Abstract:

Optimal capacitor allocation in distribution systems has been studied for a long times. It is an optimization problem which has an objective to define the optimal sizes and locations of capacitors to be installed. In this works, an overview of capacitor placement problem in distribution systems is briefly introduced. The objective functions and constraints of the problem are listed and the methodologies for solving the problem are summarized.

Keywords: Capacitor Placement, Distribution Systems, Optimization Techniques

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905 Coordination between SC and SVC for Voltage Stability Improvement

Authors: Ali Reza Rajabi, Shahab Rashnoei, Mojtaba Hakimzadeh, Amir Habibi

Abstract:

At any point of time, a power system operating condition should be stable, meeting various operational criteria and it should also be secure in the event of any credible contingency. Present day power systems are being operated closer to their stability limits due to economic and environmental constraints. Maintaining a stable and secure operation of a power system is therefore a very important and challenging issue. Voltage instability has been given much attention by power system researchers and planners in recent years, and is being regarded as one of the major sources of power system insecurity. Voltage instability phenomena are the ones in which the receiving end voltage decreases well below its normal value and does not come back even after setting restoring mechanisms such as VAR compensators, or continues to oscillate for lack of damping against the disturbances. Reactive power limit of power system is one of the major causes of voltage instability. This paper investigates the effects of coordinated series capacitors (SC) with static VAR compensators (SVC) on steady-state voltage stability of a power system. Also, the influence of the presence of series capacitor on static VAR compensator controller parameters and ratings required to stabilize load voltages at certain values are highlighted.

Keywords: Static VAR Compensator (SVC), Series Capacitor (SC), voltage stability, reactive power.

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904 Force on a High Voltage Capacitor with Asymmetrical Electrodes

Authors: Jiří Primas, Michal Malík, Darina Jašíková, Václav Kopecký

Abstract:

When a high DC voltage is applied to a capacitor with strongly asymmetrical electrodes, it generates a mechanical force that affects the whole capacitor. This phenomenon is most likely to be caused by the motion of ions generated around the smaller of the two electrodes and their subsequent interaction with the surrounding medium. A method to measure this force has been devised and used. A formula describing the force has also been derived. After comparing the data gained through experiments with those acquired using the theoretical formula, a difference was found above a certain value of current. This paper also gives reasons for this difference.

Keywords: Capacitor with asymmetrical electrodes, Electricalfield, Mechanical force, Motion of ions.

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903 Effects of Capacitor Bank Defects on Harmonic Distortion and Park's Pattern Analysis in Induction Motors

Authors: G. Das, S. Das, P. Purkait, A. Dasgupta, M. Kumar

Abstract:

Properly sized capacitor banks are connected across induction motors for several reasons including power factor correction, reducing distortions, increasing capacity, etc. Total harmonic distortion (THD) and power factor (PF) are used in such cases to quantify the improvements obtained through connection of the external capacitor banks. On the other hand, one of the methods for assessing the motor internal condition is by the use of Park-s pattern analysis. In spite of taking adequate precautionary measures, the capacitor banks may sometimes malfunction. Such a minor fault in the capacitor bank is often not apparently discernible. This may however, give rise to substantial degradation of power factor correction performance and may also damage the supply profile. The case is more severe with the fact that the Park-s pattern gets distorted due to such external capacitor faults, and can give anomalous results about motor internal fault analyses. The aim of this paper is to present simulation and hardware laboratory test results to have an understanding of the anomalies in harmonic distortion and Park-s pattern analyses in induction motors due to capacitor bank defects.

Keywords: Capacitor bank, harmonic distortion, induction motor, Park's pattern, PSCAD simulation.

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902 Active Power Flow Control Using A TCSC Based Backstepping Controller in Multimachine Power System

Authors: Naimi Abdelhamid, Othmane Abdelkhalek

Abstract:

With the current rise in the demand of electrical energy, present-day power systems which are large and complex, will continue to grow in both size and complexity. Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS) controllers provide new facilities, both in steady state power flow control and dynamic stability control. Thyristor Controlled Series Capacitor (TCSC) is one of FACTS equipment, which is used for power flow control of active power in electric power system and for increase of capacities of transmission lines. In this paper, a Backstepping Power Flow Controller (BPFC) for TCSC in multimachine power system is developed and tested. The simulation results show that the TCSC proposed controller is capable of controlling the transmitted active power and improving the transient stability when compared with conventional PI Power Flow Controller (PIPFC).

Keywords: FACTS, Thyristor Controlled Series Capacitor (TCSC), Backstepping, BPFC, PIPFC.

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901 Impact of Harmonic Resonance and V-THD in Sohar Industrial Port–C Substation

Authors: R. S. Al Abri, M. H. Albadi, M. H. Al Abri, U. K. Al Rasbi, M. H. Al Hasni, S. M. Al Shidi

Abstract:

This paper presents an analysis study on the impacts of the changes of the capacitor banks, the loss of a transformer, and the installation of distributed generation on the voltage total harmonic distortion and harmonic resonance. The study is applied in a real system in Oman, Sohar Industrial Port–C Substation Network. Frequency scan method and Fourier series analysis method are used with the help of EDSA software. Moreover, the results are compared with limits specified by national Oman distribution code.

Keywords: Power quality, capacitor bank, voltage total harmonics distortion, harmonic resonance, frequency scan.

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900 The Optimal Placement of Capacitor in Order to Reduce Losses and the Profile of Distribution Network Voltage with GA, SA

Authors: Limouzade E., Joorabian M.

Abstract:

Most of the losses in a power system relate to the distribution sector which always has been considered. From the important factors which contribute to increase losses in the distribution system is the existence of radioactive flows. The most common way to compensate the radioactive power in the system is the power to use parallel capacitors. In addition to reducing the losses, the advantages of capacitor placement are the reduction of the losses in the release peak of network capacity and improving the voltage profile. The point which should be considered in capacitor placement is the optimal placement and specification of the amount of the capacitor in order to maximize the advantages of capacitor placement. In this paper, a new technique has been offered for the placement and the specification of the amount of the constant capacitors in the radius distribution network on the basis of Genetic Algorithm (GA). The existing optimal methods for capacitor placement are mostly including those which reduce the losses and voltage profile simultaneously. But the retaliation cost and load changes have not been considered as influential UN the target function .In this article, a holistic approach has been considered for the optimal response to this problem which includes all the parameters in the distribution network: The price of the phase voltage and load changes. So, a vast inquiry is required for all the possible responses. So, in this article, we use Genetic Algorithm (GA) as the most powerful method for optimal inquiry.

Keywords: Genetic Algorithm (GA), capacitor placement, voltage profile, network losses, Simulating Annealing (SA), distribution network.

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899 Capacitive Air Bubble Detector Operated at Different Frequencies for Application in Hemodialysis

Authors: Mawahib Gafare Abdalrahman Ahmed, Abdallah Belal Adam, John Ojur Dennis

Abstract:

Air bubbles have been detected in human circulation of end-stage renal disease patients who are treated by hemodialysis. The consequence of air embolism, air bubbles, is under recognized and usually overlooked in daily practice. This paper shows results of a capacitor based detection method that capable of detecting the presence of air bubbles in the blood stream in different frequencies. The method is based on a parallel plates capacitor made of platinum with an area of 1.5 cm2 and a distance between the two plates is 1cm. The dielectric material used in this capacitor is Dextran70 solution which mimics blood rheology. Simulations were carried out using RC circuit at two frequencies 30Hz and 3 kHz and results compared with experiments and theory. It is observed that by injecting air bubbles of different diameters into the device, there were significant changes in the capacitance of the capacitor. Furthermore, it is observed that the output voltage from the circuit increased with increasing air bubble diameter. These results demonstrate the feasibility of this approach in improving air bubble detection in Hemodialysis.

Keywords: Air bubbles, Hemodialysis, Capacitor, Dextran70, Air bubbles diameters.

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898 Active Power Filtering Implementation Using Photovoltaic System with Reduced Energy Storage Capacitor

Authors: Horng-Yuan Wu, Chin-Yuan Hsu, Tsair-Fwu Lee

Abstract:

A novel three-phase active power filter (APF) circuit with photovoltaic (PV) system to improve the quality of service and to reduce the capacity of energy storage capacitor is presented. The energy balance concept and sampling technique were used to simplify the calculation algorithm for the required utility source current and to control the voltage of the energy storage capacitor. The feasibility was verified by using the Pspice simulations and experiments. When the APF mode was used during non-operational period, not only the utilization rate, power factor and power quality could be improved, but also the capacity of energy storage capacitor could sparing. As the results, the advantages of the APF circuit are simplicity of control circuits, low cost, and good transient response.

Keywords: active power filter, sampling, energy-storagecapacitor, harmonic current, energy balance.

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897 Capacitor Placement in Distribution Systems Using Simulating Annealing (SA)

Authors: Esmail Limouzade, Mahmood.Joorabian, Najaf Hedayat

Abstract:

This paper undertakes the problem of optimal capacitor placement in a distribution system. The problem is how to optimally determine the locations to install capacitors, the types and sizes of capacitors to he installed and, during each load level,the control settings of these capacitors in order that a desired objective function is minimized while the load constraints,network constraints and operational constraints (e.g. voltage profile) at different load levels are satisfied. The problem is formulated as a combinatorial optimization problem with a nondifferentiable objective function. Four solution mythologies based on algorithms (GA),tabu search (TS), and hybrid GA-SA algorithms are presented.The solution methodologies are preceded by a sensitivity analysis to select the candidate capacitor installation locations.

Keywords: Genetic Algorithm (GA) , capacitor placement, voltage profile, network losses, Simulated Annealing, distribution network.

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896 PSS with Multiple FACTS Controllers Coordinated Design and Real-Time Implementation Using Advanced Adaptive PSO

Authors: Rajendraprasad Narne, P. C. Panda

Abstract:

In this article, coordinated tuning of power system stabilizer (PSS) with static var compensator (SVC) and thyristor controlled series capacitor (TCSC) in multi-machine power system is proposed. The design of proposed coordinated damping controller is formulated as an optimization problem and the controller gains are optimized instantaneously using advanced adaptive particle swarm optimization (AAPSO). The objective function is framed with the inter-area speed deviations of the generators and it is minimized using AAPSO to improve the dynamic stability of power system under severe disturbance. The proposed coordinated controller performance is evaluated under a wide range of system operating conditions with three-phase fault disturbance. Using time domain simulations the damping characteristics of proposed controller is compared with individually tuned PSS, SVC and TCSC controllers. Finally, the real-time simulations are carried out in Opal-RT hardware simulator to synchronize the proposed controller performance in the real world.

Keywords: Advanced adaptive particle swarm optimization, Coordinated design, Power system stabilizer, Real-time implementation, static var compensator, Thyristor controlled series capacitor.

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895 Optimal Capacitor Allocation for loss reduction in Distribution System Using Fuzzy and Plant Growth Simulation Algorithm

Authors: R. Srinivasa Rao

Abstract:

This paper presents a new and efficient approach for capacitor placement in radial distribution systems that determine the optimal locations and size of capacitor with an objective of improving the voltage profile and reduction of power loss. The solution methodology has two parts: in part one the loss sensitivity factors are used to select the candidate locations for the capacitor placement and in part two a new algorithm that employs Plant growth Simulation Algorithm (PGSA) is used to estimate the optimal size of capacitors at the optimal buses determined in part one. The main advantage of the proposed method is that it does not require any external control parameters. The other advantage is that it handles the objective function and the constraints separately, avoiding the trouble to determine the barrier factors. The proposed method is applied to 9 and 34 bus radial distribution systems. The solutions obtained by the proposed method are compared with other methods. The proposed method has outperformed the other methods in terms of the quality of solution.

Keywords: Distribution systems, Capacitor allocation, Loss reduction, Fuzzy, PGSA.

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894 Optimal Capacitor Placement in a Radial Distribution System using Plant Growth Simulation Algorithm

Authors: R. Srinivasa Rao, S. V. L. Narasimham

Abstract:

This paper presents a new and efficient approach for capacitor placement in radial distribution systems that determine the optimal locations and size of capacitor with an objective of improving the voltage profile and reduction of power loss. The solution methodology has two parts: in part one the loss sensitivity factors are used to select the candidate locations for the capacitor placement and in part two a new algorithm that employs Plant growth Simulation Algorithm (PGSA) is used to estimate the optimal size of capacitors at the optimal buses determined in part one. The main advantage of the proposed method is that it does not require any external control parameters. The other advantage is that it handles the objective function and the constraints separately, avoiding the trouble to determine the barrier factors. The proposed method is applied to 9, 34, and 85-bus radial distribution systems. The solutions obtained by the proposed method are compared with other methods. The proposed method has outperformed the other methods in terms of the quality of solution.

Keywords: Distribution systems, Capacitor placement, loss reduction, Loss sensitivity factors, PGSA.

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893 An Hybrid Approach for Loss Reduction in Distribution Systems using Harmony Search Algorithm

Authors: R. Srinivasa Rao

Abstract:

Individually Network reconfiguration or Capacitor control perform well in minimizing power loss and improving voltage profile of the distribution system. But for heavy reactive power loads network reconfiguration and for heavy active power loads capacitor placement can not effectively reduce power loss and enhance voltage profiles in the system. In this paper, an hybrid approach that combine network reconfiguration and capacitor placement using Harmony Search Algorithm (HSA) is proposed to minimize power loss reduction and improve voltage profile. The proposed approach is tested on standard IEEE 33 and 16 bus systems. Computational results show that the proposed hybrid approach can minimize losses more efficiently than Network reconfiguration or Capacitor control. The results of proposed method are also compared with results obtained by Simulated Annealing (SA). The proposed method has outperformed in terms of the quality of solution compared to SA.

Keywords: Capacitor Control, Network Reconfiguration, HarmonySearch Algorithm, Loss Reduction, Voltage Profile.

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892 Investigation of SSR Characteristics of SSSC With GA Based Voltage Controller

Authors: R. Thirumalaivasan, M.Janaki, Nagesh Prabhu

Abstract:

In this paper, investigation of subsynchronous resonance (SSR) characteristics of a hybrid series compensated system and the design of voltage controller for three level 24-pulse Voltage Source Converter based Static Synchronous Series Compensator (SSSC) is presented. Hybrid compensation consists of series fixed capacitor and SSSC which is a active series FACTS controller. The design of voltage controller for SSSC is based on damping torque analysis, and Genetic Algorithm (GA) is adopted for tuning the controller parameters. The SSR Characteristics of SSSC with constant reactive voltage control modes has been investigated. The results show that the constant reactive voltage control of SSSC has the effect of reducing the electrical resonance frequency, which detunes the SSR.The analysis of SSR with SSSC is carried out based on frequency domain method, eigenvalue analysis and transient simulation. While the eigenvalue and damping torque analysis are based on D-Q model of SSSC, the transient simulation considers both D-Q and detailed three phase nonlinear system model using switching functions.

Keywords: FACTS, SSR, SSSC, damping torque, GA.

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891 Effects of Tap Changing Transformer and Shunt Capacitor on Voltage Stability Enhancement of Transmission Networks

Authors: Pyone Lai Swe, Wanna Swe, Kyaw Myo Lin

Abstract:

Voltage stability has become an important issue to many power systems around the world due to the weak systems and long line on power system networks. In this paper, MATLAB load flow program is applied to obtain the weak points in the system combined with finding the voltage stability limit. The maximum permissible loading of a system, within the voltage stability limit, is usually determined. The methods for varying tap ratio (using tap changing transformer) and applying different values of shunt capacitor injection to improve the voltage stability within the limit are also provided.

Keywords: Load flow, Voltage stability, Tap changingtransformer, Shunt capacitor injection, Voltage stability limit

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890 A Comparative Analysis of Multicarrier SPWM Strategies for Five-Level Flying Capacitor Inverter

Authors: Bachir Belmadani, Rachid Taleb, Zinelaabidine Boudjema, Adil Yahdou

Abstract:

Carrier-based methods have been used widely for switching of multilevel inverters due to their simplicity, flexibility and reduced computational requirements compared to space vector modulation (SVM). This paper focuses on Multicarrier Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation (MCSPWM) strategy for the three phase Five-Level Flying Capacitor Inverter (5LFCI). The inverter is simulated for Induction Motor (IM) load and Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) for output waveforms is observed for different controlling schemes.

Keywords: Flying capacitor inverter, multicarrier sinusoidal pulse width modulation, space vector modulation, total harmonic distortion, induction motor.

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889 A New Hybrid Optimization Method for Optimum Distribution Capacitor Planning

Authors: A. R. Seifi

Abstract:

This work presents a new algorithm based on a combination of fuzzy (FUZ), Dynamic Programming (DP), and Genetic Algorithm (GA) approach for capacitor allocation in distribution feeders. The problem formulation considers two distinct objectives related to total cost of power loss and total cost of capacitors including the purchase and installation costs. The novel formulation is a multi-objective and non-differentiable optimization problem. The proposed method of this article uses fuzzy reasoning for sitting of capacitors in radial distribution feeders, DP for sizing and finally GA for finding the optimum shape of membership functions which are used in fuzzy reasoning stage. The proposed method has been implemented in a software package and its effectiveness has been verified through a 9-bus radial distribution feeder for the sake of conclusions supports. A comparison has been done among the proposed method of this paper and similar methods in other research works that shows the effectiveness of the proposed method of this paper for solving optimum capacitor planning problem.

Keywords: Capacitor planning, Fuzzy logic method, Genetic Algorithm, Dynamic programming, Radial Distribution feeder

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888 Sensitivity of Input Blocking Capacitor on Output Voltage and Current of a PV Inverter Employing IGBTs

Authors: Z.A. Jaffery, Vinay Kumar Chandna, Sunil Kumar Chaudhary

Abstract:

This paper present a MATLAB-SIMULINK model of a single phase 2.5 KVA, 240V RMS controlled PV VSI (Photovoltaic Voltage Source Inverter) inverter using IGBTs (Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor). The behavior of output voltage, output current, and the total harmonic distortion (THD), with the variation in input dc blocking capacitor (Cdc), for linear and non-linear load has been analyzed. The values of Cdc as suggested by the other authors in their papers are not clearly defined and it poses difficulty in selecting the proper value. As the dc power stored in Cdc, (generally placed parallel with battery) is used as input to the VSI inverter. The simulation results shows the variation in the output voltage and current with different values of Cdc for linear and non-linear load connected at the output side of PV VSI inverter and suggest the selection of suitable value of Cdc.

Keywords: DC Blocking capacitor, IGBTs, PV VSI, THD.

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887 Content Analysis and Attitude of Thai Students towards Thai Series “Hormones: Season 2”

Authors: Siriporn Meenanan

Abstract:

The objective of this study is to investigate the attitude of Thai students towards the Thai series "Hormones the Series Season 2". This study was conducted in the quantitative research, and the questionnaires were used to collect data from 400 people of the sample group. Descriptive statistics were used in data analysis. The findings reveal that most participants have positive comments regarding the series. They strongly agreed that the series reflects on the way of life and problems of teenagers in Thailand. Hence, the participants believe that if adults have a chance to watch the series, they will have the better understanding of the teenagers. In addition, the participants also agreed that the contents of the play are appropriate and satisfiable as the contents of “Hormones the Series Season 2” will raise awareness among the teens and use it as a guide to prevent problems that might happen during their teenage life.

Keywords: Content analysis, attitude, Thai series, Hormones the series.

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886 Transient Analysis and Mitigation of Capacitor Bank Switching on a Standalone Wind Farm

Authors: Ajibola O. Akinrinde, Andrew Swanson, Remy Tiako

Abstract:

There exist significant losses on transmission lines due to distance, as power generating stations could be located far from some isolated settlements. Standalone wind farms could be a good choice of alternative power generation for such settlements that are far from the grid due to factors of long distance or socio-economic problems. However, uncompensated wind farms consume reactive power since wind turbines are induction generators. Therefore, capacitor banks are used to compensate reactive power, which in turn improves the voltage profile of the network. Although capacitor banks help improving voltage profile, they also undergo switching actions due to its compensating response to the variation of various types of load at the consumer’s end. These switching activities could cause transient overvoltage on the network, jeopardizing the end-life of other equipment on the system. In this paper, the overvoltage caused by these switching activities is investigated using the IEEE bus 14-network to represent a standalone wind farm, and the simulation is done using ATP/EMTP software. Scenarios involving the use of pre-insertion resistor and pre-insertion inductor, as well as controlled switching was also carried out in order to decide the best mitigation option to reduce the overvoltage.

Keywords: Capacitor banks, IEEE bus 14-network, Pre-insertion resistor, Standalone wind farm.

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885 Capacitor Placement in Radial Distribution System for Loss Reduction Using Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm

Authors: R. Srinivasa Rao

Abstract:

This paper presents a new method which applies an artificial bee colony algorithm (ABC) for capacitor placement in distribution systems with an objective of improving the voltage profile and reduction of power loss. The ABC algorithm is a new population based meta heuristic approach inspired by intelligent foraging behavior of honeybee swarm. The advantage of ABC algorithm is that it does not require external parameters such as cross over rate and mutation rate as in case of genetic algorithm and differential evolution and it is hard to determine these parameters in prior. The other advantage is that the global search ability in the algorithm is implemented by introducing neighborhood source production mechanism which is a similar to mutation process. To demonstrate the validity of the proposed algorithm, computer simulations are carried out on 69-bus system and compared the results with the other approach available in the literature. The proposed method has outperformed the other methods in terms of the quality of solution and computational efficiency.

Keywords: Distribution system, Capacitor Placement, Loss reduction, Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm.

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884 Optimal Compensation of Reactive Power in the Restructured Distribution Network

Authors: Atefeh Pourshafie, Mohsen. Saniei, S. S. Mortazavi, A. Saeedian

Abstract:

In this paper optimal capacitor placement problem has been formulated in a restructured distribution network. In this scenario the distribution network operator can consider reactive energy also as a service that can be sold to transmission system. Thus search for optimal location, size and number of capacitor banks with the objective of loss reduction, maximum income from selling reactive energy to transmission system and return on investment for capacitors, has been performed. Results is influenced with economic value of reactive energy, therefore problem has been solved for various amounts of it. The implemented optimization technique is genetic algorithm. For any value of reactive power economic value, when reverse of investment index increase and change from zero or negative values to positive values, the threshold value of selling reactive power has been obtained. This increasing price of economic parameter is reasonable until the network losses is less than loss before compensation.

Keywords: capacitor placement, deregulated electric market, distribution network optimization.

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883 New Recursive Representations for the Favard Constants with Application to the Summation of Series

Authors: Snezhana G. Gocheva-Ilieva, Ivan H. Feschiev

Abstract:

In this study integral form and new recursive formulas for Favard constants and some connected with them numeric and Fourier series are obtained. The method is based on preliminary integration of Fourier series which allows for establishing finite recursive representations for the summation. It is shown that the derived recursive representations are numerically more effective than known representations of the considered objects.

Keywords: Effective summation of series, Favard constants, finite recursive representations, Fourier series

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882 Implemented 5-bit 125-MS/s Successive Approximation Register ADC on FPGA

Authors: S. Heydarzadeh, A. Kadivarian, P. Torkzadeh

Abstract:

Implemented 5-bit 125-MS/s successive approximation register (SAR) analog to digital converter (ADC) on FPGA is presented in this paper.The design and modeling of a high performance SAR analog to digital converter are based on monotonic capacitor switching procedure algorithm .Spartan 3 FPGA is chosen for implementing SAR analog to digital converter algorithm. SAR VHDL program writes in Xilinx and modelsim uses for showing results.

Keywords: Analog to digital converter, Successive approximation, Capacitor switching algorithm, FPGA

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881 Nonstationarity Modeling of Economic and Financial Time Series

Authors: C. Slim

Abstract:

Traditional techniques for analyzing time series are based on the notion of stationarity of phenomena under study, but in reality most economic and financial series do not verify this hypothesis, which implies the implementation of specific tools for the detection of such behavior. In this paper, we study nonstationary non-seasonal time series tests in a non-exhaustive manner. We formalize the problem of nonstationary processes with numerical simulations and take stock of their statistical characteristics. The theoretical aspects of some of the most common unit root tests will be discussed. We detail the specification of the tests, showing the advantages and disadvantages of each. The empirical study focuses on the application of these tests to the exchange rate (USD/TND) and the Consumer Price Index (CPI) in Tunisia, in order to compare the Power of these tests with the characteristics of the series.

Keywords: Stationarity, unit root tests, economic time series.

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