Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9

Search results for: species diversity

9 A Preliminary Study on Factors Determining the Success of High Conservation Value Area in Oil Palm Plantations

Authors: Yanto Santosa, Rozza Tri Kwatrina

Abstract:

High Conservation Value (HCV) is an area with conservation function within oil palm plantation. Despite the important role of HCV area in biodiversity conservation and various studies on HCV, there was a lack of research studying the factors determining its success. A preliminary study was conducted to identify the determinant factor of HCV that affected the diversity. Line transect method was used to calculate the species diversity of butterfly, birds, mammals, and herpetofauna species as well as their richness. Specifically for mammals, camera traps were also used. The research sites comprised of 12 HCV areas in 3 provinces of Indonesia (Central Kalimantan, Riau, and Palembang). The relationship between the HCV biophysical factor with the species number and species diversity for each wildlife class was identified using Chi-Square analysis with Cross tab (contingency table). Results of the study revealed that species diversity varied by research locations. Four factors determining the success of HCV area in relations to the number and diversity of wildlife species are land cover types for mammals, the width of area and distance to rivers for birds, and distance to settlements for butterflies.

Keywords: Ecological factors, oil palm plantation, wildlife diversity, high conservation value area

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8 Impacts of Tillage on Biodiversity of Microarthropod Communities in Two Different Crop Systems

Authors: Leila Ramezani, Mohammad Saeid Mossadegh

Abstract:

Different uses of land by humans alter the physico chemical characteristics of the soil and affect the soil microhabitat. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of tillage in three different human land uses on microarthropods biodiversity in Khuzestan province, southwest of Iran. Three microhabitats including a permanent grassland with old Date-Palms around and no till system, and two wheat fields, one with conservative agricultural practices and low till system and the other with conventional agricultural practices (deep tillage), were compared for the biodiversity of the two main groups of soil microarthropods (Oribatida and Collembola). Soil samples were collected from the top to a depth of 15 cm bimonthly during a period of two years. Significant differences in the biodiversity index of microarthropods were observed between the different tillage systems (F = 36.748, P =0.000). Indeed, analysis of species diversity showed that the diversity index at the conservative field with low till (2.58 ± 0.01) was higher (p < 0.05) than the conventional tilled field (2.45 ± 0.08) and the diversity of natural grassland was the highest (2.79 ± 0.19, p < 0.05). Indeed, the index of biodiversity and population abundance differed significantly in different seasons (p < 0.00).

Keywords: Biodiversity, Collembola, microarthropods, Oribatida

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7 Biodiversity and Climate Change: Consequences for Norway Spruce Mountain Forests in Slovakia

Authors: Jozef Mindas, Jaroslav Skvarenina, Jana Skvareninova

Abstract:

Study of the effects of climate change on Norway Spruce (Picea abies) forests has mainly focused on the diversity of tree species diversity of tree species as a result of the ability of species to tolerate temperature and moisture changes as well as some effects of disturbance regime changes. The tree species’ diversity changes in spruce forests due to climate change have been analyzed via gap model. Forest gap model is a dynamic model for calculation basic characteristics of individual forest trees. Input ecological data for model calculations have been taken from the permanent research plots located in primeval forests in mountainous regions in Slovakia. The results of regional scenarios of the climatic change for the territory of Slovakia have been used, from which the values are according to the CGCM3.1 (global) model, KNMI and MPI (regional) models. Model results for conditions of the climate change scenarios suggest a shift of the upper forest limit to the region of the present subalpine zone, in supramontane zone. N. spruce representation will decrease at the expense of beech and precious broadleaved species (Acer sp., Sorbus sp., Fraxinus sp.). The most significant tree species diversity changes have been identified for the upper tree line and current belt of dwarf pine (Pinus mugo) occurrence. The results have been also discussed in relation to most important disturbances (wind storms, snow and ice storms) and phenological changes which consequences are little known. Special discussion is focused on biomass production changes in relation to carbon storage diversity in different carbon pools.

Keywords: Climate Change, Biodiversity, Norway spruce forests, gap model

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6 Fish Diversity of Two Lacustrine Wetlands of the Upper Benue Basin, Nigeria

Authors: D. L. David, J. A. Wahedi, Q. T. Zaku

Abstract:

A study was conducted at River Mayo Ranewo and River Lau, Taraba State Nigeria. The two rivers empty into the Upper Benue Basin. A survey of visual encounter was conducted within the two wetlands from June to August, 2014. The fish record was based entirely on landings of fishermen, number of canoes that land fish was counted, types of nets and baits used on each sampling day. Fishes were sorted into taxonomic groups, identified to family/ species level, counted and weighed in groups by species. Other aquatic organisms captured by the fishermen were scallops, turtles and frogs. The relative species abundance was determined by dividing the number of species from a site by the total number of species from all tributaries/sites. The fish were preserved in 2% formaldehyde solution and taken to the laboratory, were identified through keys of identification to African fishes and field guides. Shannon-Wieiner index of species diversity indicated that the diversity was highest at River Mayo Ranewo than River Lau. Results showed that at River Mayo Ranewo, the family Mochokidae recorded the highest (23.15%), followed by Mormyridae (22.64%) and the least was the family Lepidosirenidae (0.04%). While at River Lau, the family Mochokidae recorded the highest occurrence of (24.1%), followed by Bagridae (20.20%), and then Mormyridae, which also was the second highest in River Lau, with 18.46% occurrence. There was no occurrence of Malapteruridae and Osteoglossidae (0%) in River Lau, but the least occurrence was the family Gymnarchidae (0.04%). According to the result from the t-test, the fish composition was not significantly different (p≤0.05).

Keywords: Wetlands, diversity index, Lau, Mayo Ranewo

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5 Species Diversity of Migratory Birds along Boat Touring Routes in Klong Kone Sub-District, Muang District, Samut Songkram Province, Thailand

Authors: P. Chitman, N. Charoenpokaraj

Abstract:

This research aims to study the species, feeding behavior and activity characteristics of birds which reap benefits from the research area in boat touring routes in Klong Kone Sub-district, Muang District, Samut Songkram Province, Thailand from October 2013 – May 2014. The results from the survey of birds on all three routes found that there are 11 families and 22 species. Route 1 (Klong Kone canal) had the most species, 20 species. According to feeding behavior, there were insectivorous, piscivorous and aquatic invertebrate feeder birds. Activity characteristics of birds which reap benefits from the research were finding food, nesting and raise nestlings along boat touring routes.

Keywords: Samut Songkram, boat touring routes, bird species diversity

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4 Spatial Analysis of Trees Composition, Diversity and Richnesss in the Built up Areas of University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria

Authors: O. S. Eludoyin, A. A. Aiyeloja, O. C. Ndife

Abstract:

The study investigated the spatial analysis of trees composition, diversity and richness in the built up area of University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Four quadrats of 25m x 25m size were laid randomly in each of the three parks and inventories of trees ≥10cm girth at breast height were taken and used to calculate the species composition, diversity and richness. Results showed that species composition and diversity in Abuja Park was the highest with 134 species and 0.866 respectively while the species richness was highest in Choba Park with a value of 2.496. The correlation between the size of park (spatial coverage) and species composition was 0.99 while the correlation between the size of the park and species diversity was 0.78. There was direct relationship between species composition and diversity while the relationship between species composition and species richness was inversely proportional. Rational use of these resources is encouraged.

Keywords: Composition, Diversity, Spatial analysis, richness, Built up area, urban tree

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3 Biodiversity of Micromycetes Isolated from Soils of Different Agricultures in Kazakhstan and Their Plant Growth Promoting Potential

Authors: L. V. Ignatova, Y. V. Brazhnikova, T. D. Mukasheva, A. A. Omirbekova, R. Zh. Berzhanova, R. K. Sydykbekova, T. A. Karpenyuk, A. V. Goncharova

Abstract:

The comparative analysis of different taxonomic groups of microorganisms isolated from dark chernozem soils under different agricultures (alfalfa, melilot, sainfoin, soybean, rapeseed) at Almaty region of Kazakhstan was conducted. It was shown that the greatest number of micromycetes was typical to the soil planted with alfalfa and canola. Species diversity of micromycetes markedly decreases as it approaches the surface of the root, so that the species composition in the rhizosphere is much more uniform than in the virgin soil. Promising strains of microscopic fungi and yeast with plant growth-promoting activity to agricultures were selected. Among the selected fungi there are representatives of Penicillium bilaiae, Trichoderma koningii, Fusarium equiseti, Aspergillus ustus. The highest rates of growth and development of seedlings of plants observed under the influence of yeasts Aureobasidium pullulans, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, Metschnikovia pulcherrima. Using molecular - genetic techniques confirmation of the identification results of selected micromycetes was conducted.

Keywords: Biodiversity, micromycetes, Agricultures, plant growth-promoting microorganisms

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2 Comparative Studies on Vertical Stratification,Floristic Composition, and Woody Species Diversity of Subtropical Evergreen Broadleaf Forests Between the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan, and South China

Authors: M. Wu, S. M. Feroz, A. Hagihara, L. Xue, Z. L. Huang

Abstract:

In order to compare vertical stratification, floristic composition, and woody species diversity of subtropical evergreen broadleaf forests between the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan, and South China, tree censuses in a 400 m2 plot in Ishigaki Island and a 1225 m2 plot in Dinghushan Nature Reserve were performed. Both of the subtropical forests consisted of five vertical strata. The floristic composition of the Ishigaki forest was quite different from that of the Dinghushan forest in terms of similarity on a species level (Kuno-s similarity index r0 = 0.05). The values of Shannon-s index H' and Pielou-s index J ' tended to increase from the bottom stratum upward in both forests, except H' for the top stratum in the Ishigaki forest and the upper two strata in the Dinghushan forest. The woody species diversity in the Dinghushan forest (H'= 3.01 bit) was much lower than that in the Ishigaki forest (H'= 4.36 bit).

Keywords: Floristic similarity, subtropical evergreen broadleaf forest, vertical stratification, woody species diversity

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1 Architectural Stratification and Woody Species Diversity of a Subtropical Forest Grown in a Limestone Habitat in Okinawa Island, Japan

Authors: S. M. Feroz, K. Yoshimura, A. Hagihara

Abstract:

The forest stand consisted of four layers. The species composition between the third and the bottom layers was almost similar, whereas it was almost exclusive between the top and the lower three layers. The values of Shannon-s index H' and Pielou-s index J ' tended to increase from the bottom layer upward, except for H' -value of the top layer. The values of H' and J ' were 4.21 bit and 0.73, respectively, for the total stand. High woody species diversity of the forest depended on large trees in the upper layers, which trend was different from a subtropical evergreen broadleaf forest grown in silicate habitat in the northern part of Okinawa Island. The spatial distribution of trees was overlapped between the third and the bottom layers, whereas it was independent or slightly exclusive between the top and the lower three layers. Mean tree weight of each layer decreased from the top toward the bottom layer, whereas the corresponding tree density increased from the top downward. This relationship was analogous to the process of self-thinning plant populations.

Keywords: Species Diversity, Canopy multi-layering, limestone habitat, mean tree weight-density relationship, subtropical forest

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