Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 30121
Inter-Specific Differences in Leaf Phenology, Growth of Seedlings of Cork OAK (Quercus suber L.), Zeen Oak (Quercus canariensis Willd.) and Their Hybrid Afares Oak (Quercus afares Pomel) in the Nursery

Authors: S. Mhamdi, O. Brendel, P. Montpied, K. Ben Yahia, N. Saouyah, B. Hasnaoui, E. Dreyer

Abstract:

Leaf Life Span (LLS) is used to classify trees into two main groups: evergreen and deciduous species. It varies according to the forms of life between taxonomic groups. Co-occurrence of deciduous and evergreen oaks is common in some Mediterranean type climate areas. Nevertheless, in the Tunisian forests, there is no enough information about the functional inter-specific diversity among oak species, especially in the mixed stand marked by the simultaneous presence of Q. suber L., Q. canariensis Willd. and their hybrid (Q. afares), the latter being an endemic oak species threatened with extinction. This study has been conducted to estimate the LLS, the relative growth rate, and the count of different growth flushes of samplings in semi-controlled conditions. Our study took 17 months, with an observation's interval of 4 weeks. The aim is to characterize and compare the hybrid species to the parental ones. Differences were observed among species, both for phenology and growth. Indeed, Q. suber saplings reached higher total height and number of growth flushes then Q. canariensis, while Q. afares showed much less growth flushes than the parental species. The LLS of parental species has exceeded the duration of the experiment, but their hybrid lost all leaves on all cohorts. The short LLSs of hybrid species are in accordance with this phenology in the field, but for Q. canariensis there was a contrast with observations in the field where phenology is strictly annual. This study allowed us to differentiate the hybrid from both parental species.

Keywords: Leaf life span, growth, hybrid, evergreen, deciduous, seedlings, Q. afares Pomel, Q. suber L., Q. canariensis Willd.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1314634

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 478

References:


[1] M. D. Schwartz, Phenology: An Integrative Environmental Science”, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Netherlands, 2003.
[2] P. B. Reich, I. J Wright, J. Cavender-Bares, J. M Craine, J. Oleksyn, M. Westoby, M. B. Walters. The evolution of plant fuctional variation: traits, spectra, and strategies. International Journal of Plant Sciences164:S143-S164, 2003.
[3] J. H. C. Cornelissen, S. Lavorel, E. Garnier, S. Diaz, N. Buchmann, D. E. Gurvich, P.B. Reich, H. ter Steege, H. D. Morgan, M. G. G. van der Heijden, J. G Pausas, H. Poorter”, A handbook of protocols for standardised and easy measurement of plant functional traits worldwide. Australian Journal of Botany 51, 335-380, 2003.
[4] P. B. Reich, M. B. Walters, D. S. Ellsworth. Leaf life-span in relation to leaf, plant and stand characteristics among divers ecosystems. Ecological Monographs 62:365-392.1992.
[5] M. L Navas, B. Ducout, C. Roumet, J. Richarte, E. Garnier. Leaf life span, dynamics and construction cost of species from Mediterranean old-fields differing in successional status. New Phytologist 159:213-228. 2003.
[6] R. L. Eckstein, P. S. Karlsson, M. Weih. Leaf life span and nutrient resorption as determinants of plant nutrient conservation in temperate arctic regions. New Phytologist 143: 177-189. 1999.
[7] K. Kikuzawa, “Leaf survival strategy of forest trees”, Japanese Journal of Ecology 36: 131–136, 1986.
[8] F. S. Chapin, “The mineral nutrition of wild plants”, Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 11, 233-260, 1980.
[9] P. B. Reich, M. B. Walters, D. S. Ellsworth. From tropics to tundra: global convergence in plant functioning. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science of the United States of America. 94:13730-13734. 1997.
[10] K. Kikuzawa, “A cost-benefit analysis of leaf habit and leaf longevity of trees and their geographical pattern”, American Naturalist 138: 1250–1263, 1991.
[11] K. Kikuzawa, “Leaf phenology as an optimal strategy for carbon gain in plants”, Canadian Journal of Botany 73: 158–163, 1995.
[12] B. F. Chabot, D. J. Hicks, “The Ecology of Leaf Life Spans”, Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 13:229-259, 1982.
[13] L. D. Prior, D. Eamus and D. M. J. S. Bowman, “Leaf attributes in the seasonally dry tropics: a comparison of four habitats in northern Australia”, Functional Ecology. 17:504–515, 2003.
[14] A. Ishida, S. Diloksumpun, P. H. Ladpala, D. Staporn, S. Panuthal, M. Gamo, K. Yazaki, M. Ishizuka and L. Puangchit, “Contrasting seasonal leaf habits of canopy trees between tropical dry-deciduous and evergreen forests in Thailand”, Tree Physiology 26, 643–656, 2006.
[15] A. Sakai, D. M. Paton, P. Wardle, “Freezing resistance of trees of the south temperate zone, especially subalpine species of Australasia”, Ecology 62: 563-570, 1981.
[16] W. W. Adams, B. Demmig-Adams, A. S. Verhoeven, D. H. Barker, “Photoinhibition during winter stress-involvement of sustained xanthophyll cycle-dependent energy dissipation, Australian Journal of Plant Physiology. 22: 261-276, 1995.
[17] J. Cavender-Bares, S. Apostol, I. Moya, J. M. Brianta, F. A. Bazzaz, “Chilling-induced photoinhibition in two oak species: are evergreen leaves inherently better protected than deciduous leaves?”, Photosynthetica 36: 587-596, 1999.
[18] F. S. Chapin, P. A. Matsonet, H. A. Mooney, “Principles of Terrestrial Ecosystem. Ecology”, Springer-Verlag, New York, 2002.
[19] Y. Vitasse, S. Delzon, E. Dufrene, et al, “Leaf phenology sensitivity to temperature in European trees: Do within-species populations exhibit similar responses?”, Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 149, 735-744, 2009.
[20] C. H. Floret, M. J. Galan, E. Le Floc’h, F. Leprince, F. Romane, “France. In: Orshan G, ed. Plant pheno-morphological studies in Mediterranean type ecosystems”, Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Press, 9–97, 1986, 1989.
[21] P. Collin, P.M. Badot, B. Millet. “Croissance rythmique et developpement du chˆene rouge d’Amerique, Quercus rubra L, cultiv´e en conditions control´ees”, Annales des sciences foresti`eres, INRA/EDP Sciences, 53 (6), pp.1059-1069, 1996
[22] S. Herrmann, S. Recht, O. Angay, M. Bönn, L. Feldhahn, L. Tarkka, M.T.F. Fleischmann, T.E.E. Grams, F. Buscot, “Endogenous rhythmic growthin oak trees is regulated by internal clocks rather than resource availability”, Journal of Experimental Botany 66:113–7127, 2015.
[23] C. H. Daas, “Exigences comparees en lumiere chez le Cheneliege (Quercus suber) et le Chenezeen (Quercus canariensis) en Tunisie et effet de la temperature sur la photosynthese de chenes mediterraneens et europeens”, These Faculte des Sciences de Tunis-Universite El Manar Tunisie, 158p, 2007.
[24] Quero, R. Villar, T. Maranon, R. Zamora, L. Poorter, “Seed-mass effects in four Mediterranean Quercus species (Fagaceae) growing in contrasting light environments”, American Journal of Botany 94: 1795–1803, 2007.
[25] L. A. Turnbull, C. Paul-Victor, B. Schmid, D. W. Purves, “Growth rates, seed size, and physiology: Do small-seeded species really grow faster?”, Ecology 89: 1352–1363, 2008.
[26] M. I. Pe´rez-Ramos, G. Lorena Go´mez-Aparicio, R. Villar, L. V. Garcı´a and T. Maran˜on, “Seedling growth and morphology of three oak species along field resource gradients and seed mass variation: a seedling age-dependent response”, Journal of Vegetation Science 21: 419–437, DOI: 10.1111/j.1654-1103.2009.01165.x, 2010.