A Preliminary Study on Factors Determining the Success of High Conservation Value Area in Oil Palm Plantations
High Conservation Value (HCV) is an area with conservation function within oil palm plantation. Despite the important role of HCV area in biodiversity conservation and various studies on HCV, there was a lack of research studying the factors determining its success. A preliminary study was conducted to identify the determinant factor of HCV that affected the diversity. Line transect method was used to calculate the species diversity of butterfly, birds, mammals, and herpetofauna species as well as their richness. Specifically for mammals, camera traps were also used. The research sites comprised of 12 HCV areas in 3 provinces of Indonesia (Central Kalimantan, Riau, and Palembang). The relationship between the HCV biophysical factor with the species number and species diversity for each wildlife class was identified using Chi-Square analysis with Cross tab (contingency table). Results of the study revealed that species diversity varied by research locations. Four factors determining the success of HCV area in relations to the number and diversity of wildlife species are land cover types for mammals, the width of area and distance to rivers for birds, and distance to settlements for butterflies.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2643718Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 520
 Dirjenbun. (2016) Statistik Perkebunan Indonesia 2015-2017: Kelapa Sawit. (Online). Available: http://ditjenbun.pertanian.go.id.
 GAPKI. (2017) Refleksi industri kelapa sawit 2016 prospek 2017. (Online). Available:http://gapki.id/rekfleksi-industri-kelapa-sawit-2016 -prospek-2017/.
 Sawit Watch. (2017) Benar, Sawit Melanggar HAM. Press release Sawit Watch 17 Maret 2017 (Online). Available:http://sawitwatch.or.id /2017/03/press-release- sawit-watch-17-maret- 2017-benar-sawit-melanggar-ham/.
 E. B. Fitzherbert, M. J. Struebig, A. Morel, F. Danielsen, C. A. Brulh, P. A. Donald, and B. Phalan, “How will oil palm expansion affect biodiversity?”, Trends in Ecology and Evolution, vol. 20, pp. 538-545, 2008.
 L. P. Koh, and D. S. Wilcove, “Is palm oil agriculture really destroying tropical biodiversity?”, Conservations Letter, vol. 1, pp. 60-64, 2008.
 N. S. Sodhi, D. Bickford, A. C. Diesmos, T. M Lee, L. P Koh, B. W. Brook, C. H. Sekercioglu, and C. J. A. Bradshaw, “Measuring the meltdown: drivers of global amphibian extinction and decline”, PLoS One. Vol. 3, pp. 16-36, 2008.
 M. Colchester, S. Chao, J. Dallinger, H. E. P. Sokhannaro, V. T. Dan, and J. Villanueva. (2011) Oil Palm Expansion in South East Asia: Trends and implications for local communities and indigenous peoples. First Edition. (Online). Available: https://www.forestpeoples.org/sites /fpp/files/publication/2011/11/oil-palm-expansion-southeast-asia-011-low-res.pdf.
 L. J. Vitt and J. P. Caldwell, The Effects Of Logging On Reptiles And Amphibians Of Tropical Forests In: The Cutting Edge, A. Fimbel, A. Grajal, Robinson J, Eds. New York, US: Columbia University Press US, 2001.
 T. Maddox, D. Priatna, E. Gemita, and Salampessy, “The conservation of tigers and other wildlife in oil palm plantations”, Jambi Province, Sumatra, Indonesia ZSL conservation report No 7 The Zoological Society of London, London. 2007.
 H. S. Nantha and C. Tisdell, “The orangutan–oil palm conflict: economic constraints and opportunities for conservation”, Biodiv. & Conserv., vol.18, no. 2, pp. 487-502, 2009.
 L. P. Koh, “Can oil palm plantations be made more hospitable for forest butterflies and birds?”, Journal of Applied Ecology, vol. 45, pp. 1002-1009, 2008.
 H. Bernard, J. Fjeldsa, and M. Mohamed, “A case study on the effects of disturbance and conversion of tropical lowland rain forest on the non-volant small mammals in north Borneo: management implications”, Mammals Study, vol. 34, pp. 85–96, 2009.
 T. C. Wanger, D. T. Iskandar, I. Motzke, B. W. Brook, N. S. Sodhi, Y. Clough, and T. Tscharntke, “Effects of land-use change on community composition of tropical amphibians and reptiles in Sulawesi, Indonesia”. Conserv Biol vol. 24, pp. 795–802, 2010.
 F. A. Edwards, D. P. Edwards, K. C. Hamer, and R. G. Davies, “Impacts of logging and conversion of rainforest to oil plam on the functional diversity of birds in Sundaland”. The International Journal of Avian Science Ibis. vol. 155, pp. 313-26, 2013.
 B. Azhar, L. P. Chong, M. Zakaria, N. Hassan, and M. Arif, “Effects of monoculture and polyculture practices in oil palm smallholdings on tropical farmland bird”. Basic & Applied Ecology. vol. 15: 336-46. 2014.
 A. P. Kartono, “Diversity and Abundance of Mammals in PT Sukses Tani Nusasubur Palm Oil Estate, East Kalimantan”. Media Konservasi, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 85-92, 2015.
 R. M. C. Posha and N. S. Sodhi, “Effects of anthropogenic land use on forest birds and butterflies in Subic Bay, Phillipines”, Biol Conserv., vol. 129, pp. 256-70, 2006.
 L. P. Koh, Impacts of land use change on South-east Asian forest butterflies: a review, J of Appl Ecol vol. 44, pp. 703–13, 2007.
 HCV-RIWG, HCV RSPO Indonesian Working Group. Panduan Pengelolaan dan Pemantauan Nilai Konservasi Tinggi (NKT) untuk Produksi Minyak kelapa sawit Berkelanjutan di Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia: RSPO, 2009.
 D. P. Edwards, J. A. Hodgson, K. C. Hamer and et al., “Wildlife friendly oil palm plantations fail to protect biodiversity effectively”. Conserv Lett. vol. 3. Pp. 236-242, 2010.
 D. P. Edwards, B. Fisher, and D. S. Wilcove, “High Conservation Value or high confusion value? Sustainable agriculture and biodiversity conservation in the tropics”, Conserv Lett. vol. 5, pp. 20-27, 2012.
 M. J. M. Senior, E. Brown, P. Villalpando, and J. K. Hill, “Increasing the Scientific Evidence Base in the “High Conservation Value” (HCV) Approach for Biodiversity Conservation in Managed Tropical Landscapes”, Conserv Letter. vol. 5, pp. 361–367, 2014.
 A. Magurran, Ecological Diversity and Its Measurement, London: Croom Helmed Limited, 1998.
 J. A. Ahumada, C. E. F. Silva, K. Gajapersad, C. Hallam, J. Hurtado, E. Martin, A. McWilliam, B. Mugerwa, T. O’Brien, F. Rovero, D. Sheil, W. R. Spironello, N. Winarni, and S. J. Andelman SJ. “Community structure and diversity of tropical forest mammals: data from a global camera trap network”, Phylosophycal Transaction of The Royal Society, doi: 10.1098/rstb.2011.0115., 2011.
 S. Yue, J. F. Brodie and H. Bernard, “Oil palm plantations fail to support mammal diversity”, Ecol Appl., vol. 25, pp. 2285-2292, 2015.
 A. Royan, D. M. Hannah, J. Reynolds, D. G. Noble and J. P. Sadler, “River birds’ response to hydrological extremes: New vulnerability index and conservation implications”. Biological Conservation, vol. 177, pp. 64-73, 2014.
 Harmonis and O. R. Saud, “Effects of habitat degradation and fragmentation on butterfly biodiversity in West Kotawaringin, Central Kalimantan, Indonesia”, Biodiversitas, vol.18, no. 2, pp. 500-506, 2017.
 G. Gillespie, S, Howard, D. Lockie, M. Scroggie, and Boeadi, “Herpetofaunal richness and community structure of offshore islands of Sulawesi, Indonesia”. Biotropica, vol. 37, no. 2, pp. 279-290, 2005.
 M. Denoël, “New decline in Western Europe: Highlights from relative distribution changes within guilds”. Biodivers Conserv. vol. 21: 2887- 2898, 2012.
 L. J. Vitt and J. P. Caldwell, Herpetology, 3rd ed., Burlington: Academic Press, 2009.